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April 2023 Report 1103

Women in the labor force: a databook

Women in the labor force: a databook image

In 2021, 56.1 percent of all women participated in the labor force. This changed little from 2020 (56.2 percent) and is 1.3 percentage points lower than the rate in 2019, prior to the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Similarly, the labor force participation rate for men at 67.6 percent in 2021 changed little from the previous year (67.7 percent) and is 1.6 percentage points lower than the rate in 2019. Data for both groups continue to reflect the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the labor market in 2021.

The rapid rise in women’s labor force participation was a major development in the labor market during the second half of the 20th century. Overall, women’s labor force participation increased dramatically from the 1960s through the 1980s and slowed in the 1990s before peaking in 1999. Labor force participation among women then began to decline, which accelerated in the wake of the December 2007–June 2009 recession. Consequently, the 2021 participation rate for women is the lowest rate since 1987 and nearly 4 percentage points below its 1999 peak of 60.0 percent. The 2021 participation rate for men is the lowest in the history of the series and 19 percentage points below its 1948 peak of 86.6 percent. (Both series began in 1948.)

Women’s involvement in the labor market has changed in notable ways over the past several decades. For example, women became much more likely to pursue higher levels of education: from 1970 to 2021, the proportion of women in the labor force ages 25 to 64 who held a college degree more than quadrupled. Over that time, the proportion of men in the labor force with a college degree more than doubled. Women have become more likely to work full time and year-round, and women’s earnings as a proportion of men’s earnings have grown over time. Women working full time earned 62.3 percent of what men earned in 1979, which rose to 83.1 percent by 2021.

This report presents historical and recent labor force and earnings data for women and men from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a national monthly survey of approximately 60,000 households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Unless otherwise noted, data are annual averages from the CPS. (For a detailed description of the source of the data and an explanation of concepts and definitions used, see the technical notes.)

Selected demographic characteristics

Women’s labor force participation rate was 56.1 percent in 2021, little different from the rate in 2020 (56.2 percent). Men’s labor force participation rate, which has always been much higher than that for women, was 67.6 percent in 2021, also little different than the previous year (67.7 percent). Rates for both men and women remain below their 2019 levels, prior to the pandemic. (See table 2.)

The unemployment rate for women decreased by 3.1 percentage points from the prior year to 5.2 percent in 2021. The rate for men was 5.5 percent in 2021, down by 2.3 percentage points over the year. In 2021, the unemployment rates for women and men were 1.6 percentage points and 1.8 percentage points higher than their respective rates in 2019.

Unemployment rates vary considerably by race and ethnicity. Black women and Hispanic women had higher jobless rates (8.0 percent and 7.2 percent, respectively) than Asian women and White women (5.1 percent and 4.6 percent, respectively). Men’s unemployment rates exhibited a similar pattern. The rate for Black men (9.2 percent) was higher than those for Hispanic men (6.5 percent), Asian men (4.9 percent), and White men (4.8 percent). (See tables 3.)

Labor force participation varies by marital status and differs between women and men. Never-married women had the highest participation rate of all women, at 64.3 percent in 2021. Separated and divorced women were more likely to participate in the labor force (62.4 percent and 59.0 percent, respectively) than married women (56.9 percent). Across all marital statuses, men are more likely to participate in the labor force than their female counterparts. Married men (70.9 percent) and separated men (71.3 percent) were more likely to participate in the labor force in 2021 than never-married men (67.6 percent) and divorced men (61.6 percent). Labor force participation rates are lowest for widowed women and men—who tend to be older—at 17.4 percent and 22.6 percent, respectively. (See table 4.)

The labor force participation rate for women with children under 18 years old was 71.7 percent in March 2021, much lower than the rate of 92.5 percent for men with children under 18 years. Among mothers, the labor force participation rate for those with children 6 to 17 years old, at 75.6 percent, was considerably higher than for those with younger children. The rate for women with children under 6 years old was 66.5 percent, and the rate for women with children under 3 years old was 64.2 percent. By contrast, the labor force participation rates for fathers were more similar; the participation rate for fathers of children under 6 years old (93.7 percent), and fathers of children under 3 years old (93.3 percent), were higher than that for fathers with children 6 to 17 years old (91.6 percent). (See tables 5 and 7; data were collected in the 2021 Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the CPS.)

Unmarried mothers are much more likely to participate in the labor force than married mothers. In March 2021, 76.5 percent of unmarried mothers were in the labor force, compared with 69.8 percent of married mothers. (See table 6; data were collected in the 2021 Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the CPS.)

Educational attainment

The educational attainment of women ages 25 to 64 in the labor force has risen substantially over the past half century. In 2021, 47.6 percent of women ages 25 to 64 held a bachelor’s degree and higher, compared with 11.2 percent in 1970. In 2021, 4.8 percent of women in the labor force had less than a high school diploma—that is, they did not graduate from high school or earn a GED—down from 33.5 percent in 1970. (See tables 9A and 9B.)

Occupation and industry

Women accounted for 52.0 percent of all workers employed in management, professional, and related occupations in 2021, somewhat more than their share of total employment (47.0 percent). The share of women in specific occupations within this large category varied. For example, 19.7 percent of software developers, 29.1 percent of chief executives, and 36.4 percent of general and operations managers were women. In contrast, women accounted for 86.7 percent of registered nurses, 81.0 percent of teaching assistants, and 79.2 percent of elementary and middle school teachers. (See table 11.)

In 2021, Asian and White women were more likely to work in higher paying management, professional, and related occupations (56.7 percent and 47.7 percent, respectively) than were Black and Hispanic women (39.6 percent and 29.9 percent, respectively). Hispanic and Black women (29.7 percent and 25.0 percent, respectively) were more likely to work in lower paying service occupations than White and Asian women (18.6 percent and 18.5 percent, respectively). (See table 12.)

By industry, women accounted for more than half of all workers within several sectors in 2021: education and health services (74.3 percent), financial activities (52.1 percent), other services (51.9 percent), and leisure and hospitality (50.9 percent). (Other services include repair and maintenance services, personal and laundry services, membership associations and organizations, and private households.) Comparably, women were substantially underrepresented (relative to their share of total employment) in manufacturing (29.2 percent), agriculture (28.0 percent), transportation and utilities (24.8 percent), mining (15.4 percent), and construction (11.0 percent). (See table 14.)

Earnings

In 2021, women who worked full time in wage and salary jobs had median usual weekly earnings of $912, which represented 83.1 percent of men’s median weekly earnings ($1,097). Among women, earnings were higher for Asians ($1,141) than for Whites ($925), Blacks ($776), and Hispanics ($718). Women-to-men’s earnings ratios were higher for Blacks (94.1 percent) than for Hispanics (87.6 percent), Whites (82.2 percent), and Asians (78.5 percent). (See table 16; note that the comparisons of earnings in this report are on a broad level and do not control for many factors, like occupation, that may be important in explaining earnings differences.)

Women’s median usual weekly earnings vary by educational attainment. In 2021, among female full-time wage and salary workers age 25 and older, those with less than a high school diploma had median weekly earnings of $550. Women whose highest degree was a high school diploma had earnings of $698, those with an associate’s degree had earnings of $836, and those with a bachelor’s degree and higher had earnings of $1,272. (See table 17.)

By occupation, median usual weekly earnings of female full-time wage and salary workers in 2021 were the highest for other physicians ($2,283), pharmacists ($2,087), lawyers ($1,912), computer and information systems managers ($1,908), chief executives ($1,904), and nurse practitioners ($1,903). Earnings for men were highest for chief executives ($2,721), other physicians ($2,647), and lawyers ($2,495). (See table 18.)

In 2021, 1.8 percent of women who were paid hourly rates had earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage ($7.25 per hour). Among women ages 16 to 24 who were paid an hourly rate, 4.3 percent had earnings at or below the minimum wage, compared with 1.2 percent of women age 25 and over. (See table 20.)

Hours of work

Historically, women are more likely than men to work part time—that is, less than 35 hours per week. In 2021, 22.4 percent of employed women usually worked part time. By comparison, 11.5 percent of employed men usually worked part time.  (See table 21.)

Of all women who worked at some point during the calendar year of 2020, 57.8 percent worked full time and year round (50 to 52 weeks), compared with 40.7 percent in 1970. The proportion of men who worked full time and year round was also larger in 2020 (67.9 percent) than in 1970 (66.1 percent). (See table 23; data were collected in the 1971 through 2021 Annual Social and Economic Supplements to the CPS and reflect earnings and work experience in the previous calendar year.)

Married-couple families

Among opposite-sex married-couple families, 52.5 percent had earnings from both the wife and the husband in 2020. This percentage, which has changed little over the past 10 years, is below the peak of 60.4 percent in 1996 but above the 43.6 percent seen in 1967 when the series began. Couples in which only the husband worked for pay represented 17.0 percent of married-couple families in 2020 versus 35.6 percent in 1967. (See table 24B; data were collected in the 1968 through 2021 Annual Social and Economic Supplements to the CPS and reflect earnings and work experience in the previous calendar year.)

The working poor

Among people who were in the labor force for at least 27 weeks in 2020, more women (3.4 million) than men (3.0 million) lived below the official poverty level. The working-poor rate (the ratio of the working poor to all individuals who were in the labor force for at least 27 weeks) was 4.6 percent for women and 3.6 percent for men. Black and Hispanic women (8.1 percent and 7.8 percent, respectively) were much more likely to be among the working poor than White women (4.0 percent) or Asian women (2.8 percent). (See table 26; data are from the 2021 Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the CPS and reflect earnings and work experience in the previous calendar year.)

Worker displacement

From January 2019 through December 2021, 3.6 million workers age 20 and older were displaced from jobs they had held for at least 3 years; women accounted for 47 percent of those displaced. Among long-tenured displaced workers, men had a slightly higher reemployment rate than women in January 2022 (68.0 percent and 62.2 percent, respectively). The proportions of long-tenured displaced men and women who were unemployed were little different (13.6 percent and 11.2 percent, respectively). In January 2022, 26.7 percent of displaced women and 18.4 percent of displaced men had left the labor force. (See table 27; data are from the January 2022 Displaced Worker, Employee Tenure, and Occupational Mobility Supplement to the CPS.)

Employee tenure

In January 2022, the median number of years that employed women had been with their employers was 3.8 years, little different from the median of 3.9 years in January 2020. Median employee tenure (the point at which half of all workers had more tenure and half had less tenure) for men continued to stay at 4.3 years. (See table 28; data are from the January 2022 Displaced Worker, Employee Tenure, and Occupational Mobility Supplement to the CPS.)

School enrollment

Of the 2.7 million young people ages 16 to 24 who graduated from high school between January and October 2021, 61.8 percent (1.7 million) were enrolled in college in October of that year. For the 2021 high school graduates, the college enrollment rate continued to be higher for young women (69.5 percent) than for young men (54.9 percent). (See table 29; data are from the October 2021 School Enrollment Supplement to the CPS.)

Among those enrolled in high school, young women were more likely to be in the labor force (25.0 percent) in October 2021 than were young men (21.5 percent). Among college students, women were also more likely to participate in the labor force than men, at 50.2 percent and 44.5 percent, respectively. Among young people ages 16 to 24 who were not enrolled in school in October 2021, the unemployment rate for those without a high school diploma was 19.1 percent for women and 14.0 percent for men. In contrast, the unemployment rates for young women and men with at least a bachelor’s degree were 3.7 percent and 9.4 percent, respectively. (See table 30; data are from the October 2021 School Enrollment Supplement to the CPS.)

Multiple jobholders and the self-employed

In 2021, 7.0 million workers had more than one job. Just over half (3.6 million) of these workers were women. The multiple jobholding rate for women at 5.0 percent in 2021 was higher than that for men, at 4.3 percent. (See table 31.)

In 2021, 5.4 percent of working women in nonagricultural industries were self-employed, compared with 6.8 percent of men. In 2021, 41.4 percent of the self-employed were women, compared with 26.8 percent in 1976. (See table 32.)

Foreign born

Foreign-born women were less likely than native-born women to be in the labor force in 2021 (53.4 percent compared with 56.6 percent). By contrast, foreign-born men were more likely to be in the labor force (76.8 percent) than were native-born men (65.8 percent). The unemployment rate for foreign-born women, at 6.1 percent, was higher than for native-born women, at 5.0 percent. At 5.1 percent, the unemployment rate for foreign-born men was lower than that for native-born men (5.5 percent). Differences in labor force indicators reflect a variety of factors, including variations in the distributions of foreign-born and native-born workers by age, educational attainment, occupation, industry, and geographic region. (See table 33.)

Union membership

In 2021, 9.9 percent of female wage and salary workers were members of unions, compared with 10.6 percent of their male counterparts. For both women and men, the union membership rate was much lower in 2021 than in 1983 (the first year that union membership data were regularly collected in the CPS). In 1983, union membership rates were 14.6 percent for women and 24.7 percent for men. (See table 34.)

Veterans

There were 1.1 million female veterans of the U.S. Armed Forces in the labor force in 2021, accounting for 13.0 percent of the 8.8 million veterans in the labor force. Nearly half of all female veterans in the labor force in 2021 served during the Gulf War-era II period (September 2001 to present). The labor force participation rate among female Gulf War-era II veterans was 69.0 percent, significantly lower than the participation rate of 80.7 percent for their male counterparts. Among Gulf War-era II veterans, the unemployment rate for women was 4.9 percent in 2021, little different from the rate of 4.6 percent for men. (See table 35.)

People with disabilities

Of the 16.6 million women with disabilities in 2021, 3.1 million, or 18.9 percent, participated in the labor force. A little over half of women with disabilities (8.7 million) were age 65 and older. Labor force participation among women in this age group was 5.3 percent, compared with 33.9 percent for those with a disability ages 16 to 64. Among the 14.5 million men with disabilities, 24.0 percent participated in the labor force in 2021. Forty-seven percent of men with disabilities were age 65 and older (6.8 million). Among men in this age group, 10.0 percent were labor force participants, compared with 36.4 percent of men with a disability ages 16 to 64. Among people with a disability, the unemployment rate for women, at 10.1 percent, was equal to that for men. These rates were considerably higher than the rates of women and men without a disability (5.0 percent and 5.3 percent, respectively). (See table 36.)

Statistical Tables

Table 1. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, by age and gender, 2021 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Age Civilian
noninstitutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in labor
force
Total Percentage
of population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percentage
of population
Total Percentage
of labor
force

Total

16 years and older

261,445 161,204 61.7 152,581 58.4 8,623 5.3 100,241

16 to 19 years

16,453 5,962 36.2 5,266 32.0 696 11.7 10,491

16 to 17 years

8,763 2,243 25.6 1,987 22.7 256 11.4 6,521

18 to 19 years

7,690 3,719 48.4 3,279 42.6 440 11.8 3,970

20 to 24 years

20,809 14,726 70.8 13,409 64.4 1,317 8.9 6,083

25 to 54 years

126,108 102,867 81.6 97,867 77.6 5,000 4.9 23,241

25 to 34 years

44,751 36,670 81.9 34,578 77.3 2,092 5.7 8,081

25 to 29 years

22,103 18,025 81.5 16,915 76.5 1,110 6.2 4,078

30 to 34 years

22,648 18,645 82.3 17,664 78.0 982 5.3 4,003

35 to 44 years

41,842 34,320 82.0 32,734 78.2 1,586 4.6 7,522

35 to 39 years

21,479 17,625 82.1 16,804 78.2 821 4.7 3,854

40 to 44 years

20,363 16,695 82.0 15,930 78.2 765 4.6 3,668

45 to 54 years

39,515 31,877 80.7 30,554 77.3 1,323 4.2 7,637

45 to 49 years

19,212 15,801 82.2 15,142 78.8 659 4.2 3,411

50 to 54 years

20,302 16,076 79.2 15,413 75.9 664 4.1 4,226

55 to 64 years

41,885 27,049 64.6 25,912 61.9 1,138 4.2 14,835

55 to 59 years

20,905 15,090 72.2 14,442 69.1 647 4.3 5,815

60 to 64 years

20,980 11,960 57.0 11,470 54.7 490 4.1 9,020

65 years and older

56,190 10,600 18.9 10,127 18.0 472 4.5 45,591

65 to 69 years

18,266 5,932 32.5 5,660 31.0 273 4.6 12,334

70 to 74 years

15,199 2,711 17.8 2,583 17.0 128 4.7 12,488

75 years and older

22,726 1,957 8.6 1,885 8.3 72 3.7 20,769

Women

16 years and older

134,958 75,699 56.1 71,752 53.2 3,948 5.2 59,259

16 to 19 years

8,139 2,975 36.6 2,652 32.6 323 10.8 5,164

16 to 17 years

4,325 1,160 26.8 1,030 23.8 131 11.2 3,164

18 to 19 years

3,815 1,815 47.6 1,623 42.5 192 10.6 2,000

20 to 24 years

10,425 7,147 68.6 6,569 63.0 578 8.1 3,277

25 to 54 years

63,805 48,050 75.3 45,754 71.7 2,296 4.8 15,754

25 to 34 years

22,392 17,060 76.2 16,136 72.1 925 5.4 5,332

25 to 29 years

11,027 8,473 76.8 7,986 72.4 487 5.7 2,554

30 to 34 years

11,366 8,587 75.6 8,150 71.7 438 5.1 2,778

35 to 44 years

21,210 15,829 74.6 15,095 71.2 733 4.6 5,381

35 to 39 years

10,857 8,031 74.0 7,663 70.6 368 4.6 2,826

40 to 44 years

10,354 7,798 75.3 7,432 71.8 366 4.7 2,556

45 to 54 years

20,202 15,161 75.0 14,523 71.9 638 4.2 5,041

45 to 49 years

9,827 7,490 76.2 7,171 73.0 319 4.3 2,336

50 to 54 years

10,375 7,671 73.9 7,352 70.9 319 4.2 2,705

55 to 64 years

21,692 12,833 59.2 12,298 56.7 535 4.2 8,859

55 to 59 years

10,763 7,186 66.8 6,879 63.9 307 4.3 3,577

60 to 64 years

10,929 5,647 51.7 5,419 49.6 228 4.0 5,282

65 years and older

30,898 4,694 15.2 4,478 14.5 216 4.6 26,204

65 to 69 years

9,695 2,686 27.7 2,561 26.4 125 4.6 7,009

70 to 74 years

8,184 1,170 14.3 1,112 13.6 58 5.0 7,014

75 years and older

13,019 838 6.4 806 6.2 33 3.9 12,181

Men

16 years and older

126,487 85,505 67.6 80,829 63.9 4,676 5.5 40,983

16 to 19 years

8,313 2,987 35.9 2,613 31.4 373 12.5 5,327

16 to 17 years

4,438 1,082 24.4 957 21.6 125 11.6 3,356

18 to 19 years

3,875 1,904 49.1 1,656 42.7 248 13.0 1,971

20 to 24 years

10,385 7,579 73.0 6,840 65.9 739 9.7 2,806

25 to 54 years

62,303 54,817 88.0 52,112 83.6 2,705 4.9 7,486

25 to 34 years

22,359 19,609 87.7 18,443 82.5 1,167 5.9 2,749

25 to 29 years

11,076 9,552 86.2 8,929 80.6 623 6.5 1,525

30 to 34 years

11,282 10,058 89.1 9,514 84.3 544 5.4 1,225

35 to 44 years

20,632 18,491 89.6 17,639 85.5 852 4.6 2,141

35 to 39 years

10,623 9,594 90.3 9,141 86.0 453 4.7 1,029

40 to 44 years

10,009 8,897 88.9 8,498 84.9 399 4.5 1,112

45 to 54 years

19,312 16,716 86.6 16,031 83.0 685 4.1 2,596

45 to 49 years

9,386 8,311 88.5 7,970 84.9 340 4.1 1,075

50 to 54 years

9,927 8,406 84.7 8,060 81.2 345 4.1 1,521

55 to 64 years

20,193 14,217 70.4 13,614 67.4 603 4.2 5,977

55 to 59 years

10,142 7,903 77.9 7,563 74.6 340 4.3 2,239

60 to 64 years

10,051 6,313 62.8 6,051 60.2 262 4.2 3,738

65 years and older

25,293 5,906 23.3 5,649 22.3 257 4.3 19,387

65 to 69 years

8,571 3,246 37.9 3,099 36.2 148 4.5 5,325

70 to 74 years

7,015 1,541 22.0 1,471 21.0 70 4.5 5,474

75 years and older

9,706 1,118 11.5 1,079 11.1 39 3.5 8,588

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 2. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, 16 years and older, by gender, 1948–2021 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Year Civilian
noninstitutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in labor
force
Total Percentage
of population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percentage
of population
Total Percentage
of labor
force

Total

1948

103,068 60,621 58.8 58,343 56.6 2,276 3.8 42,447

1949

103,994 61,286 58.9 57,651 55.4 3,637 5.9 42,708

1950

104,995 62,208 59.2 58,918 56.1 3,288 5.3 42,787

1951

104,621 62,017 59.2 59,961 57.3 2,055 3.3 42,604

1952

105,231 62,138 59.0 60,250 57.3 1,883 3.0 43,093

1953

107,056 63,015 58.9 61,179 57.1 1,834 2.9 44,041

1954

108,321 63,643 58.8 60,109 55.5 3,532 5.5 44,678

1955

109,683 65,023 59.3 62,170 56.7 2,852 4.4 44,660

1956

110,954 66,552 60.0 63,799 57.5 2,750 4.1 44,402

1957

112,265 66,929 59.6 64,071 57.1 2,859 4.3 45,336

1958

113,727 67,639 59.5 63,036 55.4 4,602 6.8 46,088

1959

115,329 68,369 59.3 64,630 56.0 3,740 5.5 46,960

1960

117,245 69,628 59.4 65,778 56.1 3,852 5.5 47,617

1961

118,771 70,459 59.3 65,746 55.4 4,714 6.7 48,312

1962

120,153 70,614 58.8 66,702 55.5 3,911 5.5 49,539

1963

122,416 71,833 58.7 67,762 55.4 4,070 5.7 50,583

1964

124,485 73,091 58.7 69,305 55.7 3,786 5.2 51,394

1965

126,513 74,455 58.9 71,088 56.2 3,366 4.5 52,058

1966

128,058 75,770 59.2 72,895 56.9 2,875 3.8 52,288

1967

129,874 77,347 59.6 74,372 57.3 2,975 3.8 52,527

1968

132,028 78,737 59.6 75,920 57.5 2,817 3.6 53,291

1969

134,335 80,734 60.1 77,902 58.0 2,832 3.5 53,602

1970

137,085 82,771 60.4 78,678 57.4 4,093 4.9 54,315

1971

140,216 84,382 60.2 79,367 56.6 5,016 5.9 55,834

1972

144,126 87,034 60.4 82,153 57.0 4,882 5.6 57,091

1973

147,096 89,429 60.8 85,064 57.8 4,365 4.9 57,667

1974

150,120 91,949 61.3 86,794 57.8 5,156 5.6 58,171

1975

153,153 93,775 61.2 85,846 56.1 7,929 8.5 59,378

1976

156,150 96,158 61.6 88,752 56.8 7,406 7.7 59,991

1977

159,033 99,009 62.3 92,017 57.9 6,991 7.1 60,025

1978

161,910 102,251 63.2 96,048 59.3 6,202 6.1 59,659

1979

164,863 104,962 63.7 98,824 59.9 6,137 5.8 59,900

1980

167,745 106,940 63.8 99,303 59.2 7,637 7.1 60,806

1981

170,130 108,670 63.9 100,397 59.0 8,273 7.6 61,460

1982

172,271 110,204 64.0 99,526 57.8 10,678 9.7 62,067

1983

174,215 111,550 64.0 100,834 57.9 10,717 9.6 62,665

1984

176,383 113,544 64.4 105,005 59.5 8,539 7.5 62,839

1985

178,206 115,461 64.8 107,150 60.1 8,312 7.2 62,744

1986

180,587 117,834 65.3 109,597 60.7 8,237 7.0 62,752

1987

182,753 119,865 65.6 112,440 61.5 7,425 6.2 62,888

1988

184,613 121,669 65.9 114,968 62.3 6,701 5.5 62,944

1989

186,393 123,869 66.5 117,342 63.0 6,528 5.3 62,523

1990

189,164 125,840 66.5 118,793 62.8 7,047 5.6 63,324

1991

190,925 126,346 66.2 117,718 61.7 8,628 6.8 64,578

1992

192,805 128,105 66.4 118,492 61.5 9,613 7.5 64,700

1993

194,838 129,200 66.3 120,259 61.7 8,940 6.9 65,638

1994

196,814 131,056 66.6 123,060 62.5 7,996 6.1 65,758

1995

198,584 132,304 66.6 124,900 62.9 7,404 5.6 66,280

1996

200,591 133,943 66.8 126,708 63.2 7,236 5.4 66,647

1997

203,133 136,297 67.1 129,558 63.8 6,739 4.9 66,837

1998

205,220 137,673 67.1 131,463 64.1 6,210 4.5 67,547

1999

207,753 139,368 67.1 133,488 64.3 5,880 4.2 68,385

2000

212,577 142,583 67.1 136,891 64.4 5,692 4.0 69,994

2001

215,092 143,734 66.8 136,933 63.7 6,801 4.7 71,359

2002

217,570 144,863 66.6 136,485 62.7 8,378 5.8 72,707

2003

221,168 146,510 66.2 137,736 62.3 8,774 6.0 74,658

2004

223,357 147,401 66.0 139,252 62.3 8,149 5.5 75,956

2005

226,082 149,320 66.0 141,730 62.7 7,591 5.1 76,762

2006

228,815 151,428 66.2 144,427 63.1 7,001 4.6 77,387

2007

231,867 153,124 66.0 146,047 63.0 7,078 4.6 78,743

2008

233,788 154,287 66.0 145,362 62.2 8,924 5.8 79,501

2009

235,801 154,142 65.4 139,877 59.3 14,265 9.3 81,659

2010

237,830 153,889 64.7 139,064 58.5 14,825 9.6 83,941

2011

239,618 153,617 64.1 139,869 58.4 13,747 8.9 86,001

2012

243,284 154,975 63.7 142,469 58.6 12,506 8.1 88,310

2013

245,679 155,389 63.2 143,929 58.6 11,460 7.4 90,290

2014

247,947 155,922 62.9 146,305 59.0 9,617 6.2 92,025

2015

250,801 157,130 62.7 148,834 59.3 8,296 5.3 93,671

2016

253,538 159,187 62.8 151,436 59.7 7,751 4.9 94,351

2017

255,079 160,320 62.9 153,337 60.1 6,982 4.4 94,759

2018

257,791 162,075 62.9 155,761 60.4 6,314 3.9 95,716

2019

259,175 163,539 63.1 157,538 60.8 6,001 3.7 95,636

2020

260,329 160,742 61.7 147,795 56.8 12,947 8.1 99,587

2021

261,445 161,204 61.7 152,581 58.4 8,623 5.3 100,241

Women

1948

53,071 17,335 32.7 16,617 31.3 717 4.1 35,737

1949

53,670 17,788 33.1 16,723 31.2 1,065 6.0 35,883

1950

54,270 18,389 33.9 17,340 32.0 1,049 5.7 35,881

1951

54,895 19,016 34.6 18,181 33.1 834 4.4 35,879

1952

55,529 19,269 34.7 18,568 33.4 698 3.6 36,261

1953

56,305 19,382 34.4 18,749 33.3 632 3.3 36,924

1954

56,925 19,678 34.6 18,490 32.5 1,188 6.0 37,247

1955

57,574 20,548 35.7 19,551 34.0 998 4.9 37,026

1956

58,228 21,461 36.9 20,419 35.1 1,039 4.8 36,769

1957

58,951 21,732 36.9 20,714 35.1 1,018 4.7 37,218

1958

59,690 22,118 37.1 20,613 34.5 1,504 6.8 37,574

1959

60,534 22,483 37.1 21,164 35.0 1,320 5.9 38,053

1960

61,582 23,240 37.7 21,874 35.5 1,366 5.9 38,343

1961

62,484 23,806 38.1 22,090 35.4 1,717 7.2 38,679

1962

63,321 24,014 37.9 22,525 35.6 1,488 6.2 39,308

1963

64,494 24,704 38.3 23,105 35.8 1,598 6.5 39,791

1964

65,637 25,412 38.7 23,831 36.3 1,581 6.2 40,225

1965

66,731 26,200 39.3 24,748 37.1 1,452 5.5 40,531

1966

67,795 27,299 40.3 25,976 38.3 1,324 4.8 40,496

1967

68,968 28,360 41.1 26,893 39.0 1,468 5.2 40,608

1968

70,179 29,204 41.6 27,807 39.6 1,397 4.8 40,976

1969

71,436 30,513 42.7 29,084 40.7 1,429 4.7 40,924

1970

72,782 31,543 43.3 29,688 40.8 1,855 5.9 41,239

1971

74,274 32,202 43.4 29,976 40.4 2,227 6.9 42,072

1972

76,290 33,479 43.9 31,257 41.0 2,222 6.6 42,811

1973

77,804 34,804 44.7 32,715 42.0 2,089 6.0 43,000

1974

79,312 36,211 45.7 33,769 42.6 2,441 6.7 43,101

1975

80,860 37,475 46.3 33,989 42.0 3,486 9.3 43,385

1976

82,390 38,983 47.3 35,615 43.2 3,369 8.6 43,406

1977

83,840 40,613 48.4 37,289 44.5 3,324 8.2 43,227

1978

85,334 42,631 50.0 39,569 46.4 3,061 7.2 42,703

1979

86,843 44,235 50.9 41,217 47.5 3,018 6.8 42,608

1980

88,348 45,487 51.5 42,117 47.7 3,370 7.4 42,861

1981

89,618 46,696 52.1 43,000 48.0 3,696 7.9 42,922

1982

90,748 47,755 52.6 43,256 47.7 4,499 9.4 42,993

1983

91,684 48,503 52.9 44,047 48.0 4,457 9.2 43,181

1984

92,778 49,709 53.6 45,915 49.5 3,794 7.6 43,068

1985

93,736 51,050 54.5 47,259 50.4 3,791 7.4 42,686

1986

94,789 52,413 55.3 48,706 51.4 3,707 7.1 42,376

1987

95,853 53,658 56.0 50,334 52.5 3,324 6.2 42,195

1988

96,756 54,742 56.6 51,696 53.4 3,046 5.6 42,014

1989

97,630 56,030 57.4 53,027 54.3 3,003 5.4 41,601

1990

98,787 56,829 57.5 53,689 54.3 3,140 5.5 41,957

1991

99,646 57,178 57.4 53,496 53.7 3,683 6.4 42,468

1992

100,535 58,141 57.8 54,052 53.8 4,090 7.0 42,394

1993

101,506 58,795 57.9 54,910 54.1 3,885 6.6 42,711

1994

102,460 60,239 58.8 56,610 55.3 3,629 6.0 42,221

1995

103,406 60,944 58.9 57,523 55.6 3,421 5.6 42,462

1996

104,385 61,857 59.3 58,501 56.0 3,356 5.4 42,528

1997

105,418 63,036 59.8 59,873 56.8 3,162 5.0 42,382

1998

106,462 63,714 59.8 60,771 57.1 2,944 4.6 42,748

1999

108,031 64,855 60.0 62,042 57.4 2,814 4.3 43,175

2000

110,613 66,303 59.9 63,586 57.5 2,717 4.1 44,310

2001

111,811 66,848 59.8 63,737 57.0 3,111 4.7 44,962

2002

112,985 67,363 59.6 63,582 56.3 3,781 5.6 45,621

2003

114,733 68,272 59.5 64,404 56.1 3,868 5.7 46,461

2004

115,647 68,421 59.2 64,728 56.0 3,694 5.4 47,225

2005

116,931 69,288 59.3 65,757 56.2 3,531 5.1 47,643

2006

118,210 70,173 59.4 66,925 56.6 3,247 4.6 48,037

2007

119,694 70,988 59.3 67,792 56.6 3,196 4.5 48,707

2008

120,675 71,767 59.5 67,876 56.2 3,891 5.4 48,908

2009

121,665 72,019 59.2 66,208 54.4 5,811 8.1 49,646

2010

122,656 71,904 58.6 65,705 53.6 6,199 8.6 50,752

2011

123,300 71,642 58.1 65,579 53.2 6,063 8.5 51,658

2012

125,941 72,648 57.7 66,914 53.1 5,734 7.9 53,293

2013

127,124 72,722 57.2 67,577 53.2 5,146 7.1 54,401

2014

128,199 73,039 57.0 68,613 53.5 4,426 6.1 55,159

2015

129,700 73,510 56.7 69,703 53.7 3,807 5.2 56,190

2016

131,040 74,432 56.8 70,868 54.1 3,564 4.8 56,608

2017

131,804 75,175 57.0 71,936 54.6 3,239 4.3 56,629

2018

133,112 75,978 57.1 73,063 54.9 2,916 3.8 57,134

2019

133,822 76,852 57.4 74,078 55.4 2,774 3.6 56,970

2020

134,407 75,538 56.2 69,234 51.5 6,304 8.3 58,869

2021

134,958 75,699 56.1 71,752 53.2 3,948 5.2 59,259

Men

1948

49,996 43,286 86.6 41,725 83.5 1,559 3.6 6,710

1949

50,321 43,498 86.4 40,925 81.3 2,572 5.9 6,825

1950

50,725 43,819 86.4 41,578 82.0 2,239 5.1 6,906

1951

49,727 43,001 86.5 41,780 84.0 1,221 2.8 6,725

1952

49,700 42,869 86.3 41,682 83.9 1,185 2.8 6,832

1953

50,750 43,633 86.0 42,430 83.6 1,202 2.8 7,117

1954

51,395 43,965 85.5 41,619 81.0 2,344 5.3 7,431

1955

52,109 44,475 85.4 42,621 81.8 1,854 4.2 7,634

1956

52,723 45,091 85.5 43,379 82.3 1,711 3.8 7,633

1957

53,315 45,197 84.8 43,357 81.3 1,841 4.1 8,118

1958

54,033 45,521 84.2 42,423 78.5 3,098 6.8 8,514

1959

54,793 45,886 83.7 43,466 79.3 2,420 5.2 8,907

1960

55,662 46,388 83.3 43,904 78.9 2,486 5.4 9,274

1961

56,286 46,653 82.9 43,656 77.6 2,997 6.4 9,633

1962

56,831 46,600 82.0 44,177 77.7 2,423 5.2 10,231

1963

57,921 47,129 81.4 44,657 77.1 2,472 5.2 10,792

1964

58,847 47,679 81.0 45,474 77.3 2,205 4.6 11,169

1965

59,782 48,255 80.7 46,340 77.5 1,914 4.0 11,527

1966

60,262 48,471 80.4 46,919 77.9 1,551 3.2 11,792

1967

60,905 48,987 80.4 47,479 78.0 1,508 3.1 11,919

1968

61,847 49,533 80.1 48,114 77.8 1,419 2.9 12,315

1969

62,898 50,221 79.8 48,818 77.6 1,403 2.8 12,677

1970

64,304 51,228 79.7 48,990 76.2 2,238 4.4 13,076

1971

65,942 52,180 79.1 49,390 74.9 2,789 5.3 13,762

1972

67,835 53,555 78.9 50,896 75.0 2,659 5.0 14,280

1973

69,292 54,624 78.8 52,349 75.5 2,275 4.2 14,667

1974

70,808 55,739 78.7 53,024 74.9 2,714 4.9 15,069

1975

72,291 56,299 77.9 51,857 71.7 4,442 7.9 15,992

1976

73,759 57,174 77.5 53,138 72.0 4,036 7.1 16,585

1977

75,193 58,396 77.7 54,728 72.8 3,667 6.3 16,797

1978

76,576 59,620 77.9 56,479 73.8 3,142 5.3 16,956

1979

78,020 60,726 77.8 57,607 73.8 3,120 5.1 17,293

1980

79,398 61,453 77.4 57,186 72.0 4,267 6.9 17,945

1981

80,511 61,974 77.0 57,397 71.3 4,577 7.4 18,537

1982

81,523 62,450 76.6 56,271 69.0 6,179 9.9 19,073

1983

82,531 63,047 76.4 56,787 68.8 6,260 9.9 19,484

1984

83,605 63,835 76.4 59,091 70.7 4,744 7.4 19,771

1985

84,469 64,411 76.3 59,891 70.9 4,521 7.0 20,058

1986

85,798 65,422 76.3 60,892 71.0 4,530 6.9 20,376

1987

86,899 66,207 76.2 62,107 71.5 4,101 6.2 20,692

1988

87,857 66,927 76.2 63,273 72.0 3,655 5.5 20,930

1989

88,762 67,840 76.4 64,315 72.5 3,525 5.2 20,923

1990

90,377 69,011 76.4 65,104 72.0 3,906 5.7 21,367

1991

91,278 69,168 75.8 64,223 70.4 4,946 7.2 22,110

1992

92,270 69,964 75.8 64,440 69.8 5,523 7.9 22,306

1993

93,332 70,404 75.4 65,349 70.0 5,055 7.2 22,927

1994

94,355 70,817 75.1 66,450 70.4 4,367 6.2 23,538

1995

95,178 71,360 75.0 67,377 70.8 3,983 5.6 23,818

1996

96,206 72,087 74.9 68,207 70.9 3,880 5.4 24,119

1997

97,715 73,261 75.0 69,685 71.3 3,577 4.9 24,454

1998

98,758 73,959 74.9 70,693 71.6 3,266 4.4 24,799

1999

99,722 74,512 74.7 71,446 71.6 3,066 4.1 25,210

2000

101,964 76,280 74.8 73,305 71.9 2,975 3.9 25,684

2001

103,282 76,886 74.4 73,196 70.9 3,690 4.8 26,396

2002

104,585 77,500 74.1 72,903 69.7 4,597 5.9 27,085

2003

106,435 78,238 73.5 73,332 68.9 4,906 6.3 28,197

2004

107,710 78,980 73.3 74,524 69.2 4,456 5.6 28,730

2005

109,151 80,033 73.3 75,973 69.6 4,059 5.1 29,119

2006

110,605 81,255 73.5 77,502 70.1 3,753 4.6 29,350

2007

112,173 82,136 73.2 78,254 69.8 3,882 4.7 30,036

2008

113,113 82,520 73.0 77,486 68.5 5,033 6.1 30,593

2009

114,136 82,123 72.0 73,670 64.5 8,453 10.3 32,013

2010

115,174 81,985 71.2 73,359 63.7 8,626 10.5 33,189

2011

116,317 81,975 70.5 74,290 63.9 7,684 9.4 34,343

2012

117,343 82,327 70.2 75,555 64.4 6,771 8.2 35,017

2013

118,555 82,667 69.7 76,353 64.4 6,314 7.6 35,889

2014

119,748 82,882 69.2 77,692 64.9 5,190 6.3 36,865

2015

121,101 83,620 69.1 79,131 65.3 4,490 5.4 37,481

2016

122,497 84,755 69.2 80,568 65.8 4,187 4.9 37,743

2017

123,275 85,145 69.1 81,402 66.0 3,743 4.4 38,130

2018

124,678 86,096 69.1 82,698 66.3 3,398 3.9 38,582

2019

125,353 86,687 69.2 83,460 66.6 3,227 3.7 38,667

2020

125,922 85,204 67.7 78,560 62.4 6,644 7.8 40,718

2021

126,487 85,505 67.6 80,829 63.9 4,676 5.5 40,983

NOTE: Revisions to population controls and other changes can affect the comparability of labor force levels over time. In recent years, for example, updated population controls have been introduced annually with the release of January data. Information about historical comparability is available online at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 3. Employment status, by race, age, gender, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2021 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Race, age, gender, and Hispanic
or Latino ethnicity
Civilian
noninstitutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in labor
force
Total Percentage
of population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percentage
of population
Total Percentage
of labor
force

White

Total, 16 years and older

201,881 124,145 61.5 118,291 58.6 5,854 4.7 77,737

16 to 19 years

12,067 4,651 38.5 4,164 34.5 486 10.5 7,417

20 to 24 years

15,275 11,142 72.9 10,284 67.3 858 7.7 4,133

25 to 54 years

94,298 77,578 82.3 74,276 78.8 3,302 4.3 16,721

55 to 64 years

33,428 21,954 65.7 21,110 63.2 844 3.8 11,474

65 years and older

46,812 8,820 18.8 8,456 18.1 364 4.1 37,992

Women, 16 years and older

103,140 57,109 55.4 54,476 52.8 2,632 4.6 46,032

16 to 19 years

5,938 2,309 38.9 2,088 35.2 221 9.6 3,629

20 to 24 years

7,602 5,329 70.1 4,967 65.3 362 6.8 2,272

25 to 54 years

47,023 35,448 75.4 33,959 72.2 1,489 4.2 11,575

55 to 64 years

17,104 10,219 59.7 9,824 57.4 395 3.9 6,885

65 years and older

25,474 3,803 14.9 3,638 14.3 165 4.3 21,671

Men, 16 years and older

98,741 67,036 67.9 63,814 64.6 3,222 4.8 31,705

16 to 19 years

6,129 2,341 38.2 2,077 33.9 265 11.3 3,788

20 to 24 years

7,674 5,813 75.7 5,316 69.3 496 8.5 1,861

25 to 54 years

47,276 42,130 89.1 40,317 85.3 1,813 4.3 5,146

55 to 64 years

16,324 11,735 71.9 11,286 69.1 449 3.8 4,589

65 years and older

21,338 5,017 23.5 4,818 22.6 199 4.0 16,321

Black or African American

Total, 16 years and older

33,613 20,482 60.9 18,726 55.7 1,756 8.6 13,131

16 to 19 years

2,389 724 30.3 604 25.3 120 16.6 1,665

20 to 24 years

3,064 2,035 66.4 1,748 57.0 287 14.1 1,029

25 to 54 years

17,508 13,800 78.8 12,678 72.4 1,122 8.1 3,708

55 to 64 years

5,153 2,896 56.2 2,735 53.1 161 5.6 2,256

65 years and older

5,499 1,026 18.7 961 17.5 66 6.4 4,473

Women, 16 years and older

18,224 10,707 58.8 9,851 54.1 857 8.0 7,517

16 to 19 years

1,207 391 32.4 325 27.0 65 16.7 816

20 to 24 years

1,587 1,034 65.1 889 56.0 145 14.0 553

25 to 54 years

9,366 7,198 76.8 6,666 71.2 531 7.4 2,168

55 to 64 years

2,814 1,543 54.8 1,461 51.9 82 5.3 1,271

65 years and older

3,251 542 16.7 509 15.7 33 6.1 2,709

Men, 16 years and older

15,389 9,775 63.5 8,875 57.7 900 9.2 5,614

16 to 19 years

1,182 333 28.2 278 23.5 55 16.5 849

20 to 24 years

1,477 1,001 67.8 859 58.2 142 14.2 476

25 to 54 years

8,142 6,603 81.1 6,012 73.8 591 8.9 1,540

55 to 64 years

2,338 1,353 57.9 1,274 54.5 79 5.8 985

65 years and older

2,249 485 21.5 452 20.1 33 6.7 1,764

Asian

Total, 16 years and older

16,521 10,545 63.8 10,016 60.6 529 5.0 5,976

16 to 19 years

904 191 21.2 166 18.4 25 13.1 713

20 to 24 years

1,276 712 55.8 649 50.9 63 8.8 564

25 to 54 years

9,313 7,547 81.0 7,225 77.6 322 4.3 1,766

55 to 64 years

2,252 1,554 69.0 1,461 64.9 93 6.0 698

65 years and older

2,777 540 19.5 514 18.5 26 4.9 2,236

Women, 16 years and older

8,770 4,978 56.8 4,725 53.9 254 5.1 3,792

16 to 19 years

469 94 20.0 83 17.6 11 11.6 376

20 to 24 years

641 369 57.5 338 52.7 31 8.3 273

25 to 54 years

4,866 3,515 72.3 3,356 69.0 159 4.5 1,350

55 to 64 years

1,223 753 61.6 712 58.2 41 5.4 470

65 years and older

1,571 247 15.7 236 15.0 12 4.7 1,324

Men, 16 years and older

7,751 5,566 71.8 5,292 68.3 275 4.9 2,184

16 to 19 years

435 98 22.5 83 19.2 14 14.6 337

20 to 24 years

635 344 54.1 312 49.1 32 9.3 291

25 to 54 years

4,447 4,031 90.6 3,869 87.0 162 4.0 416

55 to 64 years

1,028 801 77.9 749 72.9 52 6.4 228

65 years and older

1,206 293 24.3 278 23.1 15 5.0 913

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older

44,902 29,424 65.5 27,429 61.1 1,995 6.8 15,479

16 to 19 years

4,049 1,322 32.7 1,126 27.8 197 14.9 2,727

20 to 24 years

4,829 3,542 73.3 3,201 66.3 340 9.6 1,287

25 to 54 years

25,493 20,083 78.8 18,889 74.1 1,194 5.9 5,411

55 to 64 years

5,406 3,518 65.1 3,313 61.3 205 5.8 1,888

65 years and older

5,126 959 18.7 900 17.6 59 6.2 4,167

Women, 16 years and older

22,564 12,585 55.8 11,680 51.8 904 7.2 9,979

16 to 19 years

2,001 608 30.4 515 25.8 93 15.3 1,393

20 to 24 years

2,403 1,640 68.2 1,491 62.0 149 9.1 763

25 to 54 years

12,522 8,435 67.4 7,890 63.0 546 6.5 4,086

55 to 64 years

2,755 1,523 55.3 1,429 51.9 93 6.1 1,232

65 years and older

2,883 379 13.1 355 12.3 24 6.2 2,504

Men, 16 years and older

22,339 16,839 75.4 15,748 70.5 1,090 6.5 5,500

16 to 19 years

2,047 714 34.9 610 29.8 104 14.6 1,334

20 to 24 years

2,426 1,902 78.4 1,711 70.5 191 10.0 524

25 to 54 years

12,972 11,648 89.8 10,999 84.8 648 5.6 1,324

55 to 64 years

2,651 1,995 75.3 1,884 71.1 112 5.6 655

65 years and older

2,243 580 25.9 545 24.3 35 6.1 1,663

NOTE: Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 4. Employment status, by marital status and gender, 2021 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Marital status and gender Civilian
noninstitutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in labor
force
Total Percentage
of population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percentage
of population
Total Percentage
of labor force

Total

16 years and older

261,445 161,204 61.7 152,581 58.4 8,623 5.3 100,241

Married, spouse present(1)

127,657 81,534 63.9 78,867 61.8 2,667 3.3 46,123

Other marital status(2)

133,788 79,670 59.5 73,713 55.1 5,956 7.5 54,119

Never married

84,542 55,840 66.0 51,271 60.6 4,569 8.2 28,703

Widowed, divorced, or separated(3)

49,246 23,830 48.4 22,442 45.6 1,387 5.8 25,416

Widowed

15,164 2,827 18.6 2,671 17.6 156 5.5 12,336

Divorced

25,933 15,589 60.1 14,733 56.8 855 5.5 10,344

Separated(3)

8,149 5,414 66.4 5,038 61.8 376 6.9 2,735

Women

16 years and older

134,958 75,699 56.1 71,752 53.2 3,948 5.2 59,259

Married, spouse present(1)

63,767 36,260 56.9 35,026 54.9 1,234 3.4 27,507

Other marital status(2)

71,191 39,439 55.4 36,725 51.6 2,714 6.9 31,752

Never married

40,071 25,766 64.3 23,833 59.5 1,934 7.5 14,305

Widowed, divorced, or separated(3)

31,120 13,673 43.9 12,893 41.4 780 5.7 17,447

Widowed

11,650 2,031 17.4 1,922 16.5 109 5.4 9,618

Divorced

15,004 8,855 59.0 8,379 55.8 475 5.4 6,149

Separated(3)

4,466 2,786 62.4 2,591 58.0 195 7.0 1,680

Men

16 years and older

126,487 85,505 67.6 80,829 63.9 4,676 5.5 40,983

Married, spouse present(1)

63,890 45,274 70.9 43,841 68.6 1,433 3.2 18,616

Other marital status(2)

62,597 40,230 64.3 36,988 59.1 3,242 8.1 22,367

Never married

44,471 30,073 67.6 27,439 61.7 2,635 8.8 14,398

Widowed, divorced, or separated(3)

18,126 10,157 56.0 9,550 52.7 607 6.0 7,969

Widowed

3,514 796 22.6 749 21.3 47 5.9 2,718

Divorced

10,929 6,734 61.6 6,354 58.1 380 5.6 4,195

Separated(3)

3,683 2,627 71.3 2,447 66.4 180 6.9 1,056

NOTES: (1) Beginning with data for 2020, includes people in both opposite-sex and same-sex marriages. Prior to 2020, included only people in opposite-sex marriages.
(2) Includes people who are never married; widowed; divorced; separated; and married, spouse absent.
(3) Separated includes people who are married, spouse absent.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 5. Employment status, by gender, presence and age of children, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, March 2021 (Numbers in thousands)
Characteristic Civilian
noninstitutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in labor
force
Total Percentage
of population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percentage
of population
Total Percentage
of labor
force

Total

Women, 16 years and older

134,737 75,715 56.2 71,331 52.9 4,384 5.8 59,022

With children under 18 years old

33,687 24,157 71.7 22,833 67.8 1,324 5.5 9,529

With children 6 to 17, none younger

19,302 14,588 75.6 13,844 71.7 744 5.1 4,714

With children under 6 years old

14,384 9,569 66.5 8,989 62.5 580 6.1 4,815

With children under 3 years old

7,950 5,102 64.2 4,773 60.0 329 6.4 2,848

With no children under 18 years old

101,050 51,558 51.0 48,498 48.0 3,061 5.9 49,492

Men, 16 years and older

126,259 84,229 66.7 78,635 62.3 5,594 6.6 42,029

With children under 18 years old

26,445 24,456 92.5 23,386 88.4 1,071 4.4 1,988

With children 6 to 17, none younger

15,047 13,776 91.6 13,198 87.7 578 4.2 1,271

With children under 6 years old

11,397 10,680 93.7 10,188 89.4 492 4.6 718

With children under 3 years old

6,312 5,886 93.3 5,606 88.8 280 4.8 426

With no children under 18 years old

99,814 59,773 59.9 55,250 55.4 4,524 7.6 40,041

White

Women, 16 years and older

103,027 57,334 55.6 54,389 52.8 2,945 5.1 45,694

With children under 18 years old

25,010 17,892 71.5 17,035 68.1 857 4.8 7,118

With children 6 to 17, none younger

14,337 10,804 75.4 10,325 72.0 478 4.4 3,534

With children under 6 years old

10,672 7,088 66.4 6,710 62.9 378 5.3 3,584

With children under 3 years old

5,962 3,843 64.4 3,629 60.9 213 5.6 2,120

With no children under 18 years old

78,018 39,442 50.6 37,353 47.9 2,089 5.3 38,576

Men, 16 years and older

98,877 66,290 67.0 62,442 63.2 3,847 5.8 32,587

With children under 18 years old

20,822 19,415 93.2 18,645 89.5 770 4.0 1,407

With children 6 to 17, none younger

11,849 10,933 92.3 10,513 88.7 420 3.8 916

With children under 6 years old

8,973 8,482 94.5 8,132 90.6 351 4.1 491

With children under 3 years old

5,036 4,736 94.0 4,544 90.2 192 4.1 300

With no children under 18 years old

78,055 46,875 60.1 43,798 56.1 3,077 6.6 31,180

Black or African American

Women, 16 years and older

18,178 10,659 58.6 9,722 53.5 937 8.8 7,519

With children under 18 years old

4,717 3,630 76.9 3,302 70.0 328 9.0 1,087

With children 6 to 17, none younger

2,681 2,150 80.2 1,962 73.2 187 8.7 531

With children under 6 years old

2,036 1,480 72.7 1,339 65.8 140 9.5 557

With children under 3 years old

1,107 764 69.0 679 61.4 84 11.1 343

With no children under 18 years old

13,462 7,030 52.2 6,420 47.7 609 8.7 6,432

Men, 16 years and older

15,348 9,617 62.7 8,497 55.4 1,120 11.6 5,731

With children under 18 years old

2,590 2,240 86.5 2,089 80.6 152 6.8 350

With children 6 to 17, none younger

1,469 1,247 84.9 1,167 79.4 80 6.4 222

With children under 6 years old

1,122 994 88.6 922 82.2 72 7.2 128

With children under 3 years old

615 547 89.0 492 80.1 55 10.0 68

With no children under 18 years old

12,757 7,376 57.8 6,408 50.2 968 13.1 5,381

Asian

Women, 16 years and older

8,746 4,844 55.4 4,560 52.1 284 5.9 3,901

With children under 18 years old

2,583 1,668 64.6 1,588 61.5 80 4.8 915

With children 6 to 17, none younger

1,561 1,093 70.1 1,047 67.1 46 4.2 467

With children under 6 years old

1,023 575 56.2 541 52.9 34 5.9 448

With children under 3 years old

495 266 53.7 250 50.5 16 6.1 229

With no children under 18 years old

6,162 3,176 51.5 2,972 48.2 204 6.4 2,986

Men, 16 years and older

7,652 5,371 70.2 5,059 66.1 312 5.8 2,281

With children under 18 years old

2,169 2,036 93.9 1,935 89.2 101 5.0 133

With children 6 to 17, none younger

1,282 1,200 93.6 1,142 89.1 58 4.9 82

With children under 6 years old

887 835 94.2 793 89.4 42 5.1 51

With children under 3 years old

424 391 92.1 373 87.8 18 4.6 34

With no children under 18 years old

5,483 3,335 60.8 3,124 57.0 211 6.3 2,148

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Women, 16 years and older

22,437 12,497 55.7 11,511 51.3 986 7.9 9,940

With children under 18 years old

7,562 4,729 62.5 4,344 57.4 385 8.1 2,833

With children 6 to 17, none younger

4,284 2,884 67.3 2,666 62.2 218 7.6 1,400

With children under 6 years old

3,278 1,845 56.3 1,678 51.2 167 9.0 1,433

With children under 3 years old

1,688 872 51.7 780 46.2 92 10.6 815

With no children under 18 years old

14,874 7,768 52.2 7,167 48.2 601 7.7 7,106

Men, 16 years and older

22,205 16,481 74.2 15,107 68.0 1,374 8.3 5,724

With children under 18 years old

5,484 5,089 92.8 4,790 87.3 299 5.9 395

With children 6 to 17, none younger

3,159 2,913 92.2 2,750 87.1 162 5.6 246

With children under 6 years old

2,325 2,176 93.6 2,040 87.7 136 6.3 149

With children under 3 years old

1,162 1,081 93.0 1,008 86.7 72 6.7 82

With no children under 18 years old

16,721 11,392 68.1 10,317 61.7 1,075 9.4 5,329

NOTE: Children are "own" children and include sons, daughters, stepchildren, or adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 2021 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Table 6. Employment status of women, by presence and age of children, marital status, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, March 2021 (Numbers in thousands)
Presence and age of youngest child Civilian
noninstitutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in labor
force
Total Percentage
of population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percentage
of population
Total Percentage
of labor
force

Total, all marital statuses

Total women, 16 years and older

134,737 75,715 56.2 71,331 52.9 4,384 5.8 59,022

With children under 18 years old

33,687 24,157 71.7 22,833 67.8 1,324 5.5 9,529

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

19,302 14,588 75.6 13,844 71.7 744 5.1 4,714

With children under 6 years old

14,384 9,569 66.5 8,989 62.5 580 6.1 4,815

With children under 3 years old

7,950 5,102 64.2 4,773 60.0 329 6.4 2,848

With no children under 18 years old

101,050 51,558 51.0 48,498 48.0 3,061 5.9 49,492

Total, married, spouse present(1)

Total women, 16 years and older

63,830 36,757 57.6 35,389 55.4 1,368 3.7 27,073

With children under 18 years old

23,885 16,661 69.8 16,066 67.3 595 3.6 7,224

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

13,408 9,833 73.3 9,506 70.9 328 3.3 3,575

With children under 6 years old

10,476 6,827 65.2 6,560 62.6 267 3.9 3,649

With children under 3 years old

5,844 3,719 63.6 3,579 61.2 140 3.8 2,125

With no children under 18 years old

39,946 20,097 50.3 19,323 48.4 774 3.8 19,849

Total, other marital statuses(2)

Total women, 16 years and older

70,907 38,958 54.9 35,942 50.7 3,016 7.7 31,948

With children under 18 years old

9,802 7,497 76.5 6,768 69.0 729 9.7 2,305

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

5,894 4,755 80.7 4,339 73.6 416 8.7 1,139

With children under 6 years old

3,908 2,742 70.2 2,429 62.2 313 11.4 1,166

With children under 3 years old

2,106 1,383 65.7 1,194 56.7 189 13.7 723

With no children under 18 years old

61,105 31,462 51.5 29,175 47.7 2,287 7.3 29,643

White, all marital statuses

Total women, 16 years and older

103,027 57,334 55.6 54,389 52.8 2,945 5.1 45,694

With children under 18 years old

25,010 17,892 71.5 17,035 68.1 857 4.8 7,118

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

14,337 10,804 75.4 10,325 72.0 478 4.4 3,534

With children under 6 years old

10,672 7,088 66.4 6,710 62.9 378 5.3 3,584

With children under 3 years old

5,962 3,843 64.4 3,629 60.9 213 5.6 2,120

With no children under 18 years old

78,018 39,442 50.6 37,353 47.9 2,089 5.3 38,576

White, married, spouse present(1)

Total women, 16 years and older

52,032 29,718 57.1 28,683 55.1 1,034 3.5 22,314

With children under 18 years old

18,865 13,213 70.0 12,765 67.7 448 3.4 5,652

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

10,543 7,727 73.3 7,475 70.9 252 3.3 2,816

With children under 6 years old

8,322 5,486 65.9 5,290 63.6 196 3.6 2,836

With children under 3 years old

4,717 3,047 64.6 2,937 62.3 110 3.6 1,670

With no children under 18 years old

33,167 16,505 49.8 15,919 48.0 586 3.6 16,662

White, other marital statuses(2)

Total women, 16 years and older

50,995 27,616 54.2 25,705 50.4 1,911 6.9 23,379

With children under 18 years old

6,145 4,679 76.1 4,271 69.5 409 8.7 1,466

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

3,794 3,077 81.1 2,851 75.1 226 7.3 718

With children under 6 years old

2,350 1,603 68.2 1,420 60.4 183 11.4 748

With children under 3 years old

1,245 796 63.9 693 55.6 103 12.9 450

With no children under 18 years old

44,851 22,937 51.1 21,435 47.8 1,503 6.6 21,914

Black or African American, all marital statuses

Total women, 16 years and older

18,178 10,659 58.6 9,722 53.5 937 8.8 7,519

With children under 18 years old

4,717 3,630 76.9 3,302 70.0 328 9.0 1,087

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

2,681 2,150 80.2 1,962 73.2 187 8.7 531

With children under 6 years old

2,036 1,480 72.7 1,339 65.8 140 9.5 557

With children under 3 years old

1,107 764 69.0 679 61.4 84 11.1 343

With no children under 18 years old

13,462 7,030 52.2 6,420 47.7 609 8.7 6,432

Black or African American, married, spouse present(1)

Total women, 16 years and older

4,870 3,050 62.6 2,919 59.9 132 4.3 1,820

With children under 18 years old

1,898 1,447 76.2 1,386 73.0 62 4.3 451

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

1,081 871 80.6 838 77.5 33 3.8 210

With children under 6 years old

818 577 70.5 548 67.0 28 4.9 241

With children under 3 years old

450 298 66.2 286 63.5 12 4.0 152

With no children under 18 years old

2,972 1,603 53.9 1,533 51.6 70 4.4 1,369

Black or African American, other marital statuses(2)

Total women, 16 years and older

13,308 7,609 57.2 6,803 51.1 806 10.6 5,699

With children under 18 years old

2,818 2,182 77.4 1,916 68.0 266 12.2 636

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

1,600 1,279 80.0 1,125 70.3 154 12.1 321

With children under 6 years old

1,219 903 74.1 791 64.9 112 12.4 316

With children under 3 years old

656 466 71.0 393 59.9 73 15.6 190

With no children under 18 years old

10,490 5,427 51.7 4,887 46.6 540 9.9 5,063

Asian, all marital statuses

Total women, 16 years and older

8,746 4,844 55.4 4,560 52.1 284 5.9 3,901

With children under 18 years old

2,583 1,668 64.6 1,588 61.5 80 4.8 915

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

1,561 1,093 70.1 1,047 67.1 46 4.2 467

With children under 6 years old

1,023 575 56.2 541 52.9 34 5.9 448

With children under 3 years old

495 266 53.7 250 50.5 16 6.1 229

With no children under 18 years old

6,162 3,176 51.5 2,972 48.2 204 6.4 2,986

Asian, married, spouse present(1)

Total women, 16 years and older

5,171 2,906 56.2 2,753 53.2 152 5.2 2,266

With children under 18 years old

2,320 1,454 62.7 1,391 59.9 63 4.4 866

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

1,369 928 67.8 893 65.2 36 3.9 441

With children under 6 years old

951 526 55.3 498 52.4 28 5.2 426

With children under 3 years old

458 244 53.2 232 50.6 12 5.0 214

With no children under 18 years old

2,851 1,452 50.9 1,363 47.8 89 6.1 1,400

Asian, other marital statuses(2)

Total women, 16 years and older

3,574 1,938 54.2 1,806 50.5 132 6.8 1,636

With children under 18 years old

263 214 81.3 197 75.0 16 7.7 49

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

192 165 86.0 155 80.8 10 6.1 27

With children under 6 years old

71 49 68.6 42 59.6 6 13.1 22

With children under 3 years old

37 22 60.1 18 49.4 4 17.8 15

With no children under 18 years old

3,311 1,725 52.1 1,609 48.6 116 6.7 1,587

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, all marital statuses

Total women, 16 years and older

22,437 12,497 55.7 11,511 51.3 986 7.9 9,940

With children under 18 years old

7,562 4,729 62.5 4,344 57.4 385 8.1 2,833

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

4,284 2,884 67.3 2,666 62.2 218 7.6 1,400

With children under 6 years old

3,278 1,845 56.3 1,678 51.2 167 9.0 1,433

With children under 3 years old

1,688 872 51.7 780 46.2 92 10.6 815

With no children under 18 years old

14,874 7,768 52.2 7,167 48.2 601 7.7 7,106

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, married, spouse present(1)

Total women, 16 years and older

9,782 5,275 53.9 4,935 50.5 340 6.5 4,506

With children under 18 years old

4,960 2,797 56.4 2,630 53.0 166 6.0 2,164

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

2,797 1,680 60.1 1,594 57.0 86 5.1 1,117

With children under 6 years old

2,163 1,117 51.6 1,037 47.9 80 7.2 1,046

With children under 3 years old

1,092 525 48.1 479 43.9 46 8.7 567

With no children under 18 years old

4,821 2,479 51.4 2,305 47.8 174 7.0 2,343

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, other marital statuses(2)

Total women, 16 years and older

12,655 7,221 57.1 6,576 52.0 645 8.9 5,434

With children under 18 years old

2,602 1,932 74.3 1,714 65.9 219 11.3 670

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

1,487 1,204 81.0 1,072 72.1 132 11.0 283

With children under 6 years old

1,115 728 65.3 642 57.5 87 11.9 387

With children under 3 years old

595 347 58.3 301 50.5 46 13.4 248

With no children under 18 years old

10,053 5,289 52.6 4,862 48.4 427 8.1 4,764

(1) Beginning with ASEC data for 2019, includes women in both opposite-sex and same-sex marriages. Prior to 2019, included only women in opposite-sex marriages.
(2) Includes women who are never married; widowed; divorced; separated; and married, spouse absent.

NOTE: Children are "own" children and include sons, daughters, stepchildren, or adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 2021 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Table 7. Employment status of women, by presence and age of children, March 1975–March 2021 (Numbers in thousands)
Year Civilian labor force
Total Percentage
of population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percentage
of labor
force

With children under age 18

1975

14,616 47.4 13,069 1,548 11.0

1976

15,073 48.8 13,725 1,346 8.9

1977

15,669 50.8 14,276 1,393 8.9

1978

16,385 53.0 15,142 1,242 7.6

1979

16,883 54.5 15,624 1,259 7.7

1980

17,790 56.6 16,526 1,264 7.1

1981

18,422 58.1 16,952 1,471 8.0

1982

18,744 58.5 16,854 1,890 10.1

1983

18,924 58.9 16,792 2,131 11.3

1984

19,555 60.5 17,782 1,773 9.1

1985

20,041 62.1 18,306 1,735 8.7

1986

20,620 62.8 18,922 1,698 8.2

1987

21,422 64.7 19,798 1,624 7.6

1988

21,545 65.1 20,141 1,404 6.5

1989

21,936 65.7 20,647 1,289 5.9

1990

22,196 66.7 20,865 1,331 6.0

1991

22,327 66.6 20,774 1,552 7.0

1992

22,756 67.2 21,052 1,704 7.5

1993

23,063 66.9 21,521 1,541 6.7

1994

24,191 68.4 22,467 1,724 7.1

1995

24,695 69.7 23,195 1,500 6.1

1996

24,720 70.2 23,386 1,334 5.4

1997

25,604 72.1 24,082 1,522 5.9

1998

25,647 72.3 24,209 1,438 5.6

1999

25,472 72.1 24,307 1,165 4.6

2000

25,795 72.9 24,693 1,102 4.3

2001

26,269 72.7 25,030 1,239 4.7

2002

26,140 72.2 24,612 1,529 5.8

2003

26,202 71.7 24,598 1,603 6.1

2004

25,913 70.7 24,413 1,501 5.8

2005

25,941 70.5 24,564 1,377 5.3

2006

26,009 70.6 24,728 1,281 4.9

2007

26,834 71.3 25,646 1,188 4.4

2008

25,930 71.2 24,637 1,294 5.0

2009

26,122 71.6 24,079 2,043 7.8

2010

25,783 71.3 23,510 2,273 8.8

2011

25,376 70.9 23,109 2,266 8.9

2012

25,384 70.9 23,366 2,018 7.9

2013

25,112 70.3 23,121 1,991 7.9

2014

25,209 70.8 23,542 1,667 6.6

2015

25,107 69.9 23,841 1,265 5.0

2016

25,070 70.8 23,877 1,193 4.8

2017

24,863 71.3 23,748 1,114 4.5

2018

24,802 71.4 23,849 953 3.8

2019

24,892 72.4 24,038 854 3.4

2020

24,623 72.5 23,391 1,232 5.0

2021

24,157 71.7 22,833 1,324 5.5

With children ages 6 to 17, none younger

1975

8,917 54.9 8,218 700 7.9

1976

9,388 56.2 8,769 621 6.6

1977

10,040 58.3 9,389 650 6.5

1978

10,401 60.0 9,845 556 5.3

1979

10,646 61.6 10,030 615 5.8

1980

11,252 64.3 10,640 612 5.4

1981

11,490 65.5 10,725 765 6.7

1982

11,377 65.8 10,440 936 8.2

1983

11,340 66.3 10,303 1,037 9.1

1984

11,538 68.1 10,739 799 6.9

1985

11,826 69.9 10,984 842 7.1

1986

12,075 70.4 11,320 756 6.3

1987

12,438 72.0 11,661 778 6.3

1988

12,683 73.3 12,042 641 5.1

1989

12,800 74.2 12,168 632 4.9

1990

12,799 74.7 12,133 666 5.2

1991

12,691 74.4 12,017 674 5.3

1992

13,183 75.9 12,391 793 6.0

1993

13,441 75.4 12,757 684 5.1

1994

13,863 76.0 13,074 789 5.7

1995

14,300 76.4 13,608 691 4.8

1996

14,427 77.2 13,794 633 4.4

1997

14,993 78.1 14,282 711 4.7

1998

15,028 78.4 14,370 658 4.4

1999

15,150 78.5 14,633 516 3.4

2000

15,479 79.0 14,931 549 3.5

2001

15,839 79.4 15,220 619 3.9

2002

15,948 78.6 15,171 777 4.9

2003

15,993 78.7 15,166 828 5.2

2004

15,782 77.5 15,006 776 4.9

2005

15,594 76.9 14,930 663 4.3

2006

15,579 76.9 14,949 630 4.0

2007

15,940 77.7 15,341 599 3.8

2008

15,479 77.5 14,842 636 4.1

2009

15,625 78.2 14,562 1,063 6.8

2010

15,247 77.2 14,058 1,189 7.8

2011

14,973 76.5 13,842 1,131 7.6

2012

14,922 76.0 13,908 1,014 6.8

2013

14,941 74.8 13,909 1,032 6.9

2014

15,227 75.8 14,389 838 5.5

2015

15,059 74.6 14,437 622 4.1

2016

15,135 75.0 14,519 616 4.1

2017

15,080 76.0 14,481 599 4.0

2018

15,053 76.5 14,544 508 3.4

2019

14,972 77.0 14,526 446 3.0

2020

14,575 76.4 13,899 676 4.6

2021

14,588 75.6 13,844 744 5.1

With children under age 6

1975

5,699 39.0 4,851 848 14.9

1976

5,684 40.1 4,957 727 12.8

1977

5,629 41.2 4,887 742 13.2

1978

5,983 44.0 5,297 687 11.5

1979

6,238 45.7 5,594 644 10.3

1980

6,538 46.8 5,886 652 10.0

1981

6,933 48.9 6,227 706 10.2

1982

7,367 49.9 6,414 953 12.9

1983

7,583 50.5 6,489 1,094 14.4

1984

8,017 52.1 7,043 974 12.1

1985

8,215 53.5 7,322 893 10.9

1986

8,545 54.4 7,602 943 11.0

1987

8,983 56.7 8,137 846 9.4

1988

8,862 56.1 8,099 763 8.6

1989

9,136 56.7 8,478 657 7.2

1990

9,397 58.2 8,732 664 7.1

1991

9,636 58.4 8,758 878 9.1

1992

9,573 58.0 8,662 911 9.5

1993

9,621 57.9 8,764 857 8.9

1994

10,328 60.3 9,394 935 9.0

1995

10,395 62.3 9,587 809 7.8

1996

10,293 62.3 9,592 701 6.8

1997

10,610 65.0 9,800 810 7.6

1998

10,619 65.2 9,839 780 7.3

1999

10,322 64.4 9,674 648 6.3

2000

10,316 65.3 9,763 553 5.4

2001

10,430 64.4 9,810 620 5.9

2002

10,193 64.1 9,441 752 7.4

2003

10,209 62.9 9,433 776 7.6

2004

10,131 62.2 9,407 724 7.1

2005

10,347 62.6 9,634 714 6.9

2006

10,430 63.0 9,779 651 6.2

2007

10,894 63.5 10,305 589 5.4

2008

10,452 63.6 9,794 657 6.3

2009

10,497 63.6 9,517 980 9.3

2010

10,536 64.2 9,452 1,085 10.3

2011

10,403 64.2 9,268 1,135 10.9

2012

10,462 64.7 9,458 1,004 9.6

2013

10,171 64.7 9,212 958 9.4

2014

9,982 64.3 9,153 829 8.3

2015

10,048 63.9 9,405 643 6.4

2016

9,934 65.3 9,358 576 5.8

2017

9,783 65.1 9,268 515 5.3

2018

9,749 64.7 9,304 445 4.6

2019

9,920 66.4 9,513 407 4.1

2020

10,048 67.4 9,492 556 5.5

2021

9,569 66.5 8,989 580 6.1

With children under age 3

1975

2,824 34.3 2,326 500 17.7

1976

2,702 34.1 2,285 418 15.5

1977

2,795 35.4 2,371 424 15.2

1978

3,179 39.4 2,768 411 12.9

1979

3,380 41.1 2,979 401 11.9

1980

3,565 41.9 3,167 398 11.2

1981

3,826 44.3 3,380 446 11.7

1982

4,133 45.6 3,542 591 14.3

1983

4,233 46.0 3,551 682 16.1

1984

4,401 47.6 3,839 562 12.8

1985

4,601 49.5 4,089 513 11.1

1986

4,786 50.8 4,227 559 11.7

1987

5,064 52.9 4,570 494 9.8

1988

4,947 52.4 4,477 470 9.5

1989

5,053 52.4 4,671 381 7.5

1990

5,216 53.6 4,823 393 7.5

1991

5,417 54.5 4,868 550 10.1

1992

5,329 54.5 4,776 553 10.4

1993

5,349 53.9 4,857 492 9.2

1994

5,724 57.1 5,165 559 9.8

1995

5,650 58.7 5,172 478 8.5

1996

5,619 59.0 5,222 397 7.1

1997

5,839 61.8 5,366 473 8.1

1998

5,882 62.2 5,454 428 7.3

1999

5,645 60.7 5,285 359 6.4

2000

5,670 61.0 5,350 320 5.6

2001

5,743 60.7 5,350 393 6.8

2002

5,600 60.5 5,160 440 7.9

2003

5,568 58.7 5,112 456 8.2

2004

5,401 57.3 4,983 417 7.7

2005

5,704 58.9 5,299 405 7.1

2006

5,842 59.9 5,458 384 6.6

2007

6,006 60.1 5,679 327 5.5

2008

5,754 59.6 5,380 374 6.5

2009

5,960 61.1 5,401 559 9.4

2010

5,878 61.1 5,240 638 10.9

2011

5,639 60.9 5,006 633 11.2

2012

5,529 60.7 4,960 569 10.3

2013

5,448 62.1 4,937 511 9.4

2014

5,358 61.8 4,870 487 9.1

2015

5,494 61.4 5,119 375 6.8

2016

5,486 63.1 5,165 322 5.9

2017

5,449 63.1 5,153 296 5.4

2018

5,236 62.0 4,998 239 4.6

2019

5,439 63.8 5,220 218 4.0

2020

5,526 65.6 5,248 277 5.0

2021

5,102 64.2 4,773 329 6.4

With no children under age 18

1975

22,365 45.1 20,381 1,984 8.9

1976

23,327 45.7 21,389 1,938 8.3

1977

24,385 46.4 22,348 2,037 8.4

1978

25,362 47.0 23,631 1,731 6.8

1979

26,962 48.6 25,285 1,677 6.2

1980

27,144 48.1 25,375 1,769 6.5

1981

27,992 48.7 25,934 2,059 7.4

1982

28,351 48.6 26,041 2,311 8.2

1983

28,856 48.7 26,373 2,483 8.6

1984

29,684 49.3 27,652 2,032 6.8

1985

30,850 50.4 28,814 2,036 6.6

1986

31,112 50.5 29,107 2,005 6.4

1987

31,538 50.5 29,688 1,850 5.9

1988

32,490 51.2 30,911 1,580 4.9

1989

33,255 51.9 31,761 1,495 4.5

1990

33,942 52.3 32,391 1,551 4.6

1991

34,047 52.0 32,167 1,880 5.5

1992

34,487 52.3 32,481 2,006 5.8

1993

34,495 52.1 32,476 2,020 5.9

1994

35,455 53.1 33,345 2,110 6.0

1995

35,843 52.9 34,054 1,789 5.0

1996

36,509 53.0 34,698 1,811 5.0

1997

37,295 53.6 35,572 1,723 4.6

1998

38,253 54.1 36,680 1,573 4.1

1999

39,314 54.3 37,587 1,727 4.4

2000

40,142 54.8 38,408 1,733 4.3

2001

40,996 54.4 39,363 1,633 4.0

2002

41,278 54.0 39,038 2,241 5.4

2003

42,039 54.1 39,667 2,372 5.6

2004

42,289 53.8 40,000 2,289 5.4

2005

42,677 53.5 40,570 2,107 4.9

2006

43,392 53.6 41,440 1,952 4.5

2007

44,039 53.9 42,279 1,760 4.0

2008

45,585 54.3 43,417 2,168 4.8

2009

45,649 53.8 42,343 3,306 7.2

2010

46,098 53.5 42,256 3,842 8.3

2011

46,198 53.0 42,569 3,629 7.9

2012

47,222 52.6 43,494 3,728 7.9

2013

47,607 52.3 44,294 3,313 7.0

2014

48,076 52.1 44,980 3,096 6.4

2015

48,273 51.7 45,794 2,479 5.1

2016

49,663 52.1 47,180 2,484 5.0

2017

50,675 52.5 48,541 2,134 4.2

2018

51,227 52.3 49,247 1,980 3.9

2019

52,068 52.5 50,244 1,824 3.5

2020

51,915 51.8 49,336 2,579 5.0

2021

51,558 51.0 48,498 3,061 5.9

NOTE: Children are "own" children and include sons, daughters, stepchildren, or adopted children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 1975–2021 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Table 8. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population, 25 to 64 years of age, by educational attainment and gender, 2021 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Educational attainment and gender Civilian
noninstitutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in labor
force
Total Percentage
of population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percentage
of population
Total Percentage
of labor
force

Total

Total, 25 to 64 years

167,993 129,917 77.3 123,779 73.7 6,138 4.7 38,076

Less than a high school diploma

13,927 8,345 59.9 7,641 54.9 704 8.4 5,582

High school graduates, no college

45,535 32,386 71.1 30,320 66.6 2,066 6.4 13,148

Some college or associate's degree

42,633 32,908 77.2 31,210 73.2 1,697 5.2 9,725

Bachelor's degree and higher

65,898 56,277 85.4 54,607 82.9 1,670 3.0 9,621

Bachelor's degree

41,811 35,128 84.0 33,942 81.2 1,186 3.4 6,683

Advanced degree

24,087 21,149 87.8 20,665 85.8 484 2.3 2,938

Master's degree

18,131 15,754 86.9 15,357 84.7 397 2.5 2,377

Professional degree

2,468 2,216 89.8 2,174 88.1 41 1.9 252

Doctoral degree

3,488 3,180 91.2 3,134 89.8 46 1.4 308

Women

Total, 25 to 64 years

85,497 60,883 71.2 58,052 67.9 2,831 4.6 24,613

Less than a high school diploma

6,339 2,897 45.7 2,610 41.2 287 9.9 3,442

High school graduates, no college

20,789 12,873 61.9 12,033 57.9 839 6.5 7,916

Some college or associate's degree

22,496 16,105 71.6 15,277 67.9 828 5.1 6,391

Bachelor's degree and higher

35,873 29,009 80.9 28,132 78.4 877 3.0 6,864

Bachelor's degree

22,387 17,599 78.6 16,997 75.9 602 3.4 4,789

Advanced degree

13,486 11,410 84.6 11,135 82.6 275 2.4 2,075

Master's degree

10,637 8,903 83.7 8,671 81.5 232 2.6 1,734

Professional degree

1,156 995 86.1 976 84.4 19 2.0 161

Doctoral degree

1,692 1,511 89.3 1,488 87.9 23 1.5 181

Men

Total, 25 to 64 years

82,496 69,033 83.7 65,726 79.7 3,307 4.8 13,463

Less than a high school diploma

7,588 5,449 71.8 5,031 66.3 418 7.7 2,139

High school graduates, no college

24,746 19,513 78.9 18,287 73.9 1,227 6.3 5,233

Some college or associate's degree

20,137 16,803 83.4 15,934 79.1 869 5.2 3,334

Bachelor's degree and higher

30,025 27,268 90.8 26,475 88.2 793 2.9 2,757

Bachelor's degree

19,424 17,529 90.2 16,945 87.2 584 3.3 1,894

Advanced degree

10,602 9,739 91.9 9,530 89.9 209 2.2 862

Master's degree

7,494 6,850 91.4 6,685 89.2 165 2.4 643

Professional degree

1,312 1,220 93.0 1,199 91.4 22 1.8 91

Doctoral degree

1,796 1,669 92.9 1,646 91.6 23 1.4 128

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 9A. Percent distribution of the civilian labor force, 25 to 64 years of age, by educational attainment and gender, 1970–1991
Year Civilian labor
force
(thousands)
Percent distribution
Total High school College
Less than 4
years
4 years, no
college
1 to 3 years 4 years or more

Total

1970

61,765 100.0 36.1 38.1 11.8 14.1

1971

62,344 100.0 34.5 38.4 12.3 14.8

1972

63,704 100.0 33.3 38.8 12.4 15.5

1973

64,775 100.0 30.9 39.7 13.0 16.4

1974

66,527 100.0 29.3 39.5 13.7 17.5

1975

67,774 100.0 27.5 39.7 14.4 18.3

1976

69,243 100.0 25.8 39.6 15.2 19.4

1977

71,324 100.0 24.9 39.2 15.7 20.2

1978

73,504 100.0 23.7 39.2 16.5 20.6

1979

75,781 100.0 21.8 39.5 17.3 21.3

1980

78,010 100.0 20.6 39.8 17.6 22.0

1981

80,273 100.0 19.7 40.6 17.7 22.0

1982

81,516 100.0 18.8 40.8 17.3 23.1

1983

83,615 100.0 17.8 39.9 18.1 24.2

1984

86,001 100.0 16.7 40.2 18.4 24.7

1985

88,424 100.0 15.9 40.2 19.0 24.9

1986

90,500 100.0 15.5 40.2 19.5 24.8

1987

92,966 100.0 14.9 40.2 19.7 25.3

1988

94,870 100.0 14.7 39.9 19.7 25.7

1989

97,318 100.0 14.0 39.6 20.0 26.4

1990

99,175 100.0 13.4 39.5 20.7 26.4

1991

100,480 100.0 13.0 39.4 21.1 26.5

Women

1970

22,462 100.0 33.5 44.3 10.9 11.2

1971

22,804 100.0 32.2 44.2 11.9 11.8

1972

23,606 100.0 30.7 45.1 11.8 12.4

1973

24,158 100.0 28.4 45.9 12.4 13.3

1974

25,203 100.0 26.7 45.3 13.4 14.6

1975

26,146 100.0 26.5 45.5 13.9 14.1

1976

27,166 100.0 24.0 45.1 14.7 16.2

1977

28,369 100.0 22.8 45.1 15.2 16.9

1978

29,738 100.0 22.0 44.9 16.1 17.0

1979

31,151 100.0 20.1 45.0 17.1 17.8

1980

32,593 100.0 18.4 45.4 17.4 18.7

1981

33,910 100.0 17.4 46.1 17.9 18.6

1982

34,870 100.0 16.6 45.6 18.3 19.5

1983

35,712 100.0 15.6 44.8 18.8 20.9

1984

37,234 100.0 14.5 44.9 18.9 21.7

1985

38,779 100.0 13.7 44.4 19.9 22.0

1986

39,767 100.0 13.2 44.3 20.3 22.2

1987

41,105 100.0 12.5 44.0 20.7 22.8

1988

42,254 100.0 12.4 43.3 21.2 23.1

1989

43,650 100.0 11.9 42.9 20.9 24.3

1990

44,699 100.0 11.3 42.4 21.9 24.5

1991

45,315 100.0 10.9 41.6 22.2 25.2

Men

1970

39,303 100.0 37.5 34.5 12.2 15.7

1971

39,539 100.0 35.9 35.1 12.5 16.5

1972

40,098 100.0 34.8 35.1 12.8 17.3

1973

40,617 100.0 32.4 36.0 13.4 18.2

1974

41,344 100.0 30.8 36.0 13.9 19.3

1975

41,628 100.0 28.9 36.1 14.8 20.2

1976

42,077 100.0 27.0 36.0 15.5 21.5

1977

42,954 100.0 26.3 35.3 16.1 22.3

1978

43,766 100.0 24.8 35.3 16.9 23.0

1979

44,630 100.0 23.0 35.7 17.5 23.8

1980

45,417 100.0 22.2 35.7 17.7 24.3

1981

46,363 100.0 21.5 36.5 17.4 24.6

1982

47,144 100.0 20.3 36.8 17.5 25.5

1983

47,903 100.0 19.4 36.3 17.7 26.6

1984

48,767 100.0 18.4 36.7 18.0 26.9

1985

49,647 100.0 17.7 36.9 18.3 27.1

1986

50,733 100.0 17.2 37.0 18.9 26.9

1987

51,860 100.0 16.8 37.1 18.9 27.2

1988

52,616 100.0 16.5 37.3 18.5 27.8

1989

53,668 100.0 15.7 36.9 19.2 28.2

1990

54,476 100.0 15.1 37.2 19.7 28.0

1991

55,165 100.0 14.7 37.5 20.2 27.6

NOTE: Data from 1970–1991 are from the March Current Population Survey. The educational attainment categories for these years were based on the number of years of school completed. Data beginning in 1992 are annual averages (shown in Table 9B), and the educational attainment categories are based on the highest diploma or degree received.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 9B. Percent distribution of the civilian labor force, 25 to 64 years of age, by educational attainment and gender, 1992–2021
Year Civilian labor
force
(thousands)
Percent distribution
Total Less than a high
school diploma
High school
graduates, no
college(1)
Some college or
associate's
degree
Bachelor's
degree and
higher(2)

Total

1992

103,018 100.0 12.1 35.7 25.6 26.6

1993

104,237 100.0 11.3 35.1 26.6 27.0

1994

105,610 100.0 10.8 33.9 27.7 27.6

1995

107,032 100.0 10.4 33.2 28.1 28.3

1996

108,932 100.0 10.6 32.9 27.8 28.7

1997

110,945 100.0 10.6 32.9 27.5 29.0

1998

111,932 100.0 10.5 32.4 27.4 29.8

1999

113,095 100.0 10.0 31.8 27.6 30.5

2000

115,750 100.0 10.1 31.4 27.8 30.7

2001

116,893 100.0 10.1 30.9 28.0 31.0

2002

118,028 100.0 10.0 30.7 27.7 31.6

2003

119,621 100.0 9.9 30.3 27.6 32.1

2004

120,135 100.0 9.7 30.1 27.7 32.4

2005

121,752 100.0 9.8 29.9 27.8 32.5

2006

123,550 100.0 9.7 29.6 27.7 33.0

2007

125,104 100.0 9.3 29.2 27.7 33.8

2008

126,011 100.0 9.0 28.8 28.0 34.2

2009

126,247 100.0 9.0 28.6 28.0 34.4

2010

126,237 100.0 8.9 28.6 27.9 34.6

2011

125,508 100.0 8.7 28.0 28.0 35.3

2012

125,963 100.0 8.4 27.4 28.2 36.0

2013

125,892 100.0 8.2 27.1 28.0 36.7

2014

126,269 100.0 8.0 26.7 27.9 37.3

2015

127,106 100.0 8.1 25.9 27.7 38.2

2016

128,713 100.0 7.8 25.9 27.6 38.7

2017

129,582 100.0 7.4 25.8 27.2 39.5

2018

131,058 100.0 7.3 25.6 26.7 40.4

2019

131,783 100.0 7.0 25.4 26.3 41.2

2020

129,923 100.0 6.4 24.7 25.9 43.0

2021

129,917 100.0 6.4 24.9 25.3 43.3

Women

1992

46,589 100.0 10.3 37.4 27.3 25.0

1993

47,245 100.0 9.3 36.6 28.4 25.7

1994

48,405 100.0 9.0 35.0 29.8 26.2

1995

49,247 100.0 8.8 34.1 30.2 26.9

1996

50,240 100.0 8.8 33.6 29.9 27.8

1997

51,261 100.0 8.7 33.5 29.4 28.4

1998

51,678 100.0 8.8 32.7 29.4 29.2

1999

52,525 100.0 8.5 32.1 29.5 29.9

2000

53,749 100.0 8.5 31.6 29.8 30.1

2001

54,229 100.0 8.4 31.0 30.2 30.4

2002

54,710 100.0 8.1 30.6 29.9 31.3

2003

55,596 100.0 7.9 30.0 29.9 32.2

2004

55,616 100.0 7.7 29.4 30.2 32.6

2005

56,322 100.0 7.7 28.7 30.2 33.3

2006

57,201 100.0 7.6 28.3 30.2 33.9

2007

57,791 100.0 7.1 27.9 30.1 34.9

2008

58,465 100.0 6.9 27.2 30.4 35.6

2009

58,787 100.0 7.0 26.7 30.3 36.0

2010

58,808 100.0 6.8 26.4 30.3 36.4

2011

58,520 100.0 6.7 25.8 30.4 37.1

2012

59,031 100.0 6.5 25.0 30.4 38.1

2013

58,812 100.0 6.3 24.6 30.1 39.0

2014

58,983 100.0 6.1 24.1 29.8 40.0

2015

59,252 100.0 6.1 23.2 29.6 41.1

2016

60,049 100.0 6.0 22.9 29.6 41.6

2017

60,614 100.0 5.8 22.7 28.9 42.7

2018

61,182 100.0 5.7 22.3 28.3 43.8

2019

61,704 100.0 5.4 22.0 27.5 45.0

2020

60,865 100.0 4.8 21.1 27.0 47.2

2021

60,883 100.0 4.8 21.1 26.5 47.6

Men

1992

56,428 100.0 13.7 34.2 24.3 27.8

1993

56,992 100.0 12.9 33.9 25.1 28.1

1994

57,205 100.0 12.4 33.0 25.9 28.8

1995

57,784 100.0 11.8 32.4 26.3 29.4

1996

58,692 100.0 12.2 32.3 26.1 29.4

1997

59,684 100.0 12.2 32.4 25.9 29.6

1998

60,255 100.0 12.0 32.1 25.6 30.3

1999

60,570 100.0 11.4 31.6 26.0 31.0

2000

62,001 100.0 11.5 31.2 26.1 31.2

2001

62,664 100.0 11.5 30.9 26.2 31.4

2002

63,318 100.0 11.6 30.8 25.8 31.8

2003

64,025 100.0 11.7 30.6 25.6 32.1

2004

64,519 100.0 11.5 30.7 25.6 32.3

2005

65,430 100.0 11.5 30.9 25.7 31.9

2006

66,350 100.0 11.5 30.6 25.5 32.3

2007

67,313 100.0 11.2 30.4 25.6 32.9

2008

67,546 100.0 10.9 30.2 25.9 33.0

2009

67,460 100.0 10.8 30.3 25.9 33.0

2010

67,429 100.0 10.6 30.6 25.8 33.0

2011

66,989 100.0 10.4 30.0 26.0 33.7

2012

66,932 100.0 10.0 29.6 26.2 34.1

2013

67,081 100.0 9.8 29.2 26.2 34.7

2014

67,287 100.0 9.8 29.1 26.2 35.0

2015

67,853 100.0 9.9 28.4 26.0 35.7

2016

68,664 100.0 9.3 28.6 25.9 36.2

2017

68,968 100.0 8.9 28.6 25.7 36.8

2018

69,876 100.0 8.8 28.4 25.3 37.5

2019

70,079 100.0 8.5 28.4 25.2 37.9

2020

69,057 100.0 7.7 28.0 24.9 39.4

2021

69,033 100.0 7.9 28.3 24.3 39.5

(1) Includes people with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(2) Includes people with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

NOTE: Data from 1970–1991 (table 9A) are from the March Current Population Survey. The educational attainment categories for these years were based on the number of years of school completed. Data beginning in 1992 are annual averages, and the educational attainment categories are based on the highest diploma or degree received.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 10. Employed people, by occupation and gender, 2020 and 2021 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Occupation and gender Year
2020 2021
Number Percent Number Percent

Total

Total, 16 years and older

147,795 100.0 152,581 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

63,644 43.1 64,744 42.4

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

27,143 18.4 27,864 18.3

Professional and related occupations

36,502 24.7 36,880 24.2

Service occupations

22,853 15.5 24,403 16.0

Sales and office occupations

29,726 20.1 30,166 19.8

Sales and related occupations

14,168 9.6 14,369 9.4

Office and administrative support occupations

15,558 10.5 15,797 10.4

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,357 9.0 13,959 9.1

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,045 0.7 1,061 0.7

Construction and extraction occupations

7,710 5.2 8,057 5.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,602 3.1 4,840 3.2

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

18,215 12.3 19,309 12.7

Production occupations

7,590 5.1 7,950 5.2

Transportation and material moving occupations

10,625 7.2 11,359 7.4

Women

Total, 16 years and older

69,234 100.0 71,752 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

32,910 47.5 33,636 46.9

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

12,114 17.5 12,633 17.6

Professional and related occupations

20,796 30.0 21,003 29.3

Service occupations

13,033 18.8 14,075 19.6

Sales and office occupations

18,221 26.3 18,563 25.9

Sales and related occupations

6,907 10.0 7,150 10.0

Office and administrative support occupations

11,314 16.3 11,413 15.9

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

750 1.1 778 1.1

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

252 0.4 257 0.4

Construction and extraction occupations

308 0.4 311 0.4

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

190 0.3 210 0.3

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

4,321 6.2 4,700 6.6

Production occupations

2,147 3.1 2,247 3.1

Transportation and material moving occupations

2,174 3.1 2,453 3.4

Men

Total, 16 years and older

78,560 100.0 80,829 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

30,734 39.1 31,109 38.5

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

15,028 19.1 15,231 18.8

Professional and related occupations

15,706 20.0 15,878 19.6

Service occupations

9,820 12.5 10,328 12.8

Sales and office occupations

11,506 14.6 11,604 14.4

Sales and related occupations

7,261 9.2 7,219 8.9

Office and administrative support occupations

4,244 5.4 4,384 5.4

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

12,607 16.0 13,181 16.3

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

793 1.0 804 1.0

Construction and extraction occupations

7,402 9.4 7,746 9.6

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,411 5.6 4,630 5.7

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

13,894 17.7 14,608 18.1

Production occupations

5,443 6.9 5,703 7.1

Transportation and material moving occupations

8,451 10.8 8,906 11.0

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 11. Employed people, by detailed occupation and gender, 2021 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Occupation Total employed Percent women

Total, 16 years and older

152,581 47.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

64,744 52.0

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

27,864 45.3

Management occupations

18,986 40.9

Chief executives

1,664 29.1

General and operations managers

1,085 36.4

Legislators

21 -

Advertising and promotions managers

72 42.4

Marketing managers

576 61.4

Sales managers

537 30.6

Public relations and fundraising managers

100 68.0

Administrative services managers

60 79.0

Facilities managers

146 21.3

Computer and information systems managers

715 26.7

Financial managers

1,307 54.6

Compensation and benefits managers

16 -

Human resources managers

273 80.8

Training and development managers

55 59.9

Industrial production managers

256 24.1

Purchasing managers

232 45.9

Transportation, storage, and distribution managers

314 22.4

Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers

875 26.3

Construction managers

999 8.6

Education and childcare administrators

956 65.5

Architectural and engineering managers

178 11.5

Food service managers

1,133 48.5

Funeral home managers

9 -

Entertainment and recreation managers

43 -

Lodging managers

116 47.6

Medical and health services managers

791 75.0

Natural sciences managers

21 -

Postmasters and mail superintendents

16 -

Property, real estate, and community association managers

780 50.7

Social and community service managers

391 68.6

Emergency management directors

13 -

Personal service managers, all other

1 -

Managers, all other

5,235 36.4

Business and financial operations occupations

8,878 54.8

Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes

40 -

Buyers and purchasing agents, farm products

11 -

Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products

159 55.1

Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products

223 62.2

Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators

330 58.2

Compliance officers

291 53.2

Cost estimators

127 15.5

Human resources workers

871 75.2

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

67 71.2

Training and development specialists

166 52.9

Logisticians

132 39.3

Project management specialists

769 42.9

Management analysts

1,001 45.5

Meeting, convention, and event planners

116 82.1

Fundraisers

93 73.3

Market research analysts and marketing specialists

400 63.6

Business operations specialists, all other

584 59.2

Accountants and auditors

1,630 62.0

Property appraisers and assessors

80 30.4

Budget analysts

61 55.6

Credit analysts

38 -

Financial and investment analysts

343 40.2

Personal financial advisors

535 33.8

Insurance underwriters

128 61.4

Financial examiners

16 -

Credit counselors and loan officers

440 52.2

Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents

63 54.8

Tax preparers

101 54.2

Other financial specialists

61 65.2

Professional and related occupations

36,880 56.9

Computer and mathematical occupations

5,688 26.2

Computer and information research scientists

41 -

Computer systems analysts

464 37.5

Information security analysts

152 18.2

Computer programmers

444 19.5

Software developers

1,932 19.7

Software quality assurance analysts and testers

74 46.5

Web developers

81 38.7

Web and digital interface designers

64 51.1

Computer support specialists

660 23.8

Database administrators and architects

111 35.0

Network and computer systems administrators

212 17.2

Computer network architects

102 11.8

Computer occupations, all other

889 27.2

Actuaries

29 -

Mathematicians

0 -

Operations research analysts

141 51.0

Statisticians

45 -

Other mathematical science occupations

245 49.2

Architecture and engineering occupations

3,235 17.4

Architects, except landscape and naval

212 31.6

Landscape architects

27 -

Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists

41 -

Aerospace engineers

129 14.3

Agricultural engineers

8 -

Bioengineers and biomedical engineers

15 -

Chemical engineers

75 12.8

Civil engineers

431 17.4

Computer hardware engineers

88 13.4

Electrical and electronics engineers

299 7.1

Environmental engineers

33 -

Industrial engineers, including health and safety

216 26.0

Marine engineers and naval architects

12 -

Materials engineers

43 -

Mechanical engineers

354 9.4

Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers

8 -

Nuclear engineers

11 -

Petroleum engineers

16 -

Engineers, all other

666 16.3

Architectural and civil drafters

32 -

Other drafters

93 24.3

Electrical and electronic engineering technologists and technicians

74 10.9

Other engineering technologists and technicians, except drafters

293 21.3

Surveying and mapping technicians

57 12.6

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,640 47.4

Agricultural and food scientists

32 -

Biological scientists

94 48.1

Conservation scientists and foresters

22 -

Medical scientists

121 49.6

Life scientists, all other

8 -

Astronomers and physicists

22 -

Atmospheric and space scientists

11 -

Chemists and materials scientists

94 32.1

Environmental scientists and specialists, including health

40 -

Geoscientists and hydrologists, except geographers

42 -

Physical scientists, all other

370 41.2

Economists

21 -

Survey researchers

1 -

Clinical and counseling psychologists

13 -

School psychologists

58 90.4

Other psychologists

149 74.9

Sociologists

2 -

Urban and regional planners

28 -

Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers

54 53.5

Agricultural and food science technicians

30 -

Biological technicians

18 -

Chemical technicians

48 -

Environmental science and geoscience technicians

15 -

Nuclear technicians

2 -

Social science research assistants

6 -

Other life, physical, and social science technicians

269 47.3

Occupational health and safety specialists and technicians

72 30.9

Community and social service occupations

2,777 67.5

Substance abuse and behavioral disorder counselors

121 69.1

Educational, guidance, and career counselors and advisors

362 76.5

Marriage and family therapists

44 -

Mental health counselors

212 75.6

Rehabilitation counselors

11 -

Counselors, all other

250 67.1

Child, family, and school social workers

54 86.8

Healthcare social workers

77 73.4

Mental health and substance abuse social workers

15 -

Social workers, all other

681 83.6

Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists

88 50.5

Social and human service assistants

194 81.2

Other community and social service specialists

100 82.5

Clergy

404 16.2

Directors, religious activities and education

67 53.7

Religious workers, all other

96 70.9

Legal occupations

1,805 53.5

Lawyers

1,085 37.9

Judicial law clerks

24 -

Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers

77 58.0

Paralegals and legal assistants

431 84.8

Title examiners, abstractors, and searchers

107 72.1

Legal support workers, all other

80 61.9

Education, training, and library occupations

8,946 73.7

Postsecondary teachers

1,154 51.2

Preschool and kindergarten teachers

613 96.8

Elementary and middle school teachers

3,260 79.2

Secondary school teachers

940 59.5

Special education teachers

362 82.8

Tutors

168 70.5

Other teachers and instructors

737 65.3

Archivists, curators, and museum technicians

62 61.4

Librarians and media collections specialists

158 79.9

Library technicians

38 -

Teaching assistants

1,309 81.0

Other educational instruction and library workers

145 78.9

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

3,151 50.0

Artists and related workers

286 54.2

Commercial and industrial designers

11 -

Fashion designers

33 -

Floral designers

50 76.8

Graphic designers

271 59.9

Interior designers

123 83.8

Merchandise displayers and window trimmers

27 -

Other designers

389 41.5

Actors

45 -

Producers and directors

182 39.6

Athletes and sports competitors

37 -

Coaches and scouts

235 44.3

Umpires, referees, and other sports officials

17 -

Dancers and choreographers

11 -

Music directors and composers

52 29.8

Musicians and singers

127 24.0

Disc jockeys, except radio

15 -

Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other

43 -

Broadcast announcers and radio disc jockeys

18 -

News analysts, reporters, and journalists

79 55.3

Public relations specialists

122 59.1

Editors

105 66.7

Technical writers

71 54.4

Writers and authors

261 63.7

Interpreters and translators

93 73.4

Court reporters and simultaneous captioners

28 -

Media and communication workers, all other

30 -

Broadcast, sound, and lighting technicians

87 11.2

Photographers

192 49.3

Television, video, and film camera operators and editors

108 25.3

Media and communication equipment workers, all other

1 -

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

9,639 74.3

Chiropractors

59 24.2

Dentists

167 38.7

Dietitians and nutritionists

117 89.6

Optometrists

37 -

Pharmacists

352 57.8

Emergency medicine physicians

24 -

Radiologists

26 -

Other physicians

921 39.7

Surgeons

59 27.7

Physician assistants

165 64.4

Podiatrists

8 -

Audiologists

17 -

Occupational therapists

135 84.9

Physical therapists

273 66.9

Radiation therapists

15 -

Recreational therapists

18 -

Respiratory therapists

117 71.4

Speech-language pathologists

187 95.1

Exercise physiologists

6 -

Therapists, all other

242 87.1

Veterinarians

104 64.2

Registered nurses

3,201 86.7

Nurse anesthetists

35 -

Nurse midwives

8 -

Nurse practitioners

237 87.4

Acupuncturists

24 -

Healthcare diagnosing or treating practitioners, all other

13 -

Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians

369 68.8

Dental hygienists

207 95.1

Cardiovascular technologists and technicians

61 64.2

Diagnostic medical sonographers

88 85.5

Radiologic technologists and technicians

226 72.4

Magnetic resonance imaging technologists

47 -

Nuclear medicine technologists and medical dosimetrists

39 -

Emergency medical technicians

145 35.8

Paramedics

96 31.1

Pharmacy technicians

342 78.4

Psychiatric technicians

73 73.5

Surgical technologists

113 77.8

Veterinary technologists and technicians

129 89.8

Dietetic technicians and ophthalmic medical technicians

66 82.6

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

533 91.3

Medical records specialists

207 88.8

Opticians, dispensing

50 74.2

Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians

177 64.3

Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

105 73.2

Service occupations

24,403 57.7

Healthcare support occupations

4,887 85.1

Home health aides

570 87.0

Personal care aides

1,411 80.4

Nursing assistants

1,248 88.9

Orderlies and psychiatric aides

55 52.9

Occupational therapy assistants and aides

41 -

Physical therapist assistants and aides

74 70.7

Massage therapists

166 83.5

Dental assistants

323 92.0

Medical assistants

561 91.1

Medical transcriptionists

45 -

Pharmacy aides

35 -

Veterinary assistants and laboratory animal caretakers

78 84.1

Phlebotomists

114 90.6

Other healthcare support workers

164 75.7

Protective service occupations

2,987 23.8

First-line supervisors of correctional officers

38 -

First-line supervisors of police and detectives

92 15.8

First-line supervisors of firefighting and prevention workers

44 -

First-line supervisors of security workers

75 21.5

First-line supervisors of protective service workers, all other

5 -

Firefighters

294 5.1

Fire inspectors

30 -

Bailiffs

21 -

Correctional officers and jailers

297 30.4

Detectives and criminal investigators

130 27.3

Fish and game wardens

6 -

Parking enforcement workers

15 -

Police officers

753 15.3

Animal control workers

6 -

Private detectives and investigators

95 42.3

Security guards and gambling surveillance officers

844 26.8

Crossing guards and flaggers

51 52.6

Transportation security screeners

46 -

School bus monitors

28 -

Other protective service workers

117 38.0

Food preparation and serving related occupations

7,370 54.6

Chefs and head cooks

402 22.8

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

480 61.2

Cooks

1,905 40.2

Food preparation workers

872 58.3

Bartenders

362 57.4

Fast food and counter workers

775 65.7

Waiters and waitresses

1,631 68.2

Food servers, nonrestaurant

172 73.9

Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers

243 46.8

Dishwashers

243 23.5

Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop

282 84.3

Food preparation and serving related workers, all other

2 -

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

5,482 41.7

First-line supervisors of housekeeping and janitorial workers

338 38.9

First-line supervisors of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers

233 10.3

Janitors and building cleaners

2,113 39.7

Maids and housekeeping cleaners

1,357 88.7

Pest control workers

119 5.0

Landscaping and groundskeeping workers

1,211 6.2

Tree trimmers and pruners

98 2.2

Other grounds maintenance workers

13 -

Personal care and service occupations

3,676 78.7

Supervisors of personal care and service workers

250 74.6

Animal trainers

54 68.3

Animal caretakers

272 81.6

Gambling services workers

66 50.8

Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers

29 -

Other entertainment attendants and related workers

192 45.6

Embalmers, crematory operators, and funeral attendants

14 -

Morticians, undertakers, and funeral arrangers

30 -

Barbers

103 24.7

Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists

713 92.4

Manicurists and pedicurists

247 83.0

Skincare specialists

90 98.2

Other personal appearance workers

26 -

Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges

84 28.0

Tour and travel guides

42 -

Childcare workers

974 94.6

Exercise trainers and group fitness instructors

223 62.2

Recreation workers

139 68.7

Residential advisors

26 -

Personal care and service workers, all other

101 72.0

Sales and office occupations

30,166 61.5

Sales and related occupations

14,369 49.8

First-line supervisors of retail sales workers

3,058 47.0

First-line supervisors of non-retail sales workers

1,184 32.9

Cashiers

2,601 72.5

Counter and rental clerks

81 49.0

Parts salespersons

124 19.1

Retail salespersons

2,750 48.5

Advertising sales agents

104 49.3

Insurance sales agents

600 50.0

Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents

243 29.3

Travel agents

56 71.4

Sales representatives of services, except advertising, insurance, financial services, and travel

565 29.9

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing

1,216 30.1

Models, demonstrators, and product promoters

30 -

Real estate brokers and sales agents

1,170 59.7

Sales engineers

41 -

Telemarketers

33 -

Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers

104 72.6

Sales and related workers, all other

410 53.5

Office and administrative support occupations

15,797 72.2

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

1,217 71.3

Switchboard operators, including answering service

8 -

Telephone operators

23 -

Communications equipment operators, all other

5 -

Bill and account collectors

97 72.1

Billing and posting clerks

483 86.7

Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks

1,097 84.7

Gambling cage workers

15 -

Payroll and timekeeping clerks

153 86.7

Procurement clerks

29 -

Tellers

215 76.1

Financial clerks, all other

92 58.3

Brokerage clerks

9 -

Correspondence clerks

7 -

Court, municipal, and license clerks

77 76.4

Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks

41 -

Customer service representatives

2,512 64.8

Eligibility interviewers, government programs

60 87.1

File clerks

161 80.1

Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks

119 70.3

Interviewers, except eligibility and loan

203 75.9

Library assistants, clerical

88 84.2

Loan interviewers and clerks

144 69.4

New accounts clerks

12 -

Order clerks

112 56.5

Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping

38 -

Receptionists and information clerks

1,215 90.0

Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks

93 53.2

Information and record clerks, all other

107 76.0

Cargo and freight agents

10 -

Couriers and messengers

837 24.9

Public safety telecommunicators

88 74.3

Dispatchers, except police, fire, and ambulance

189 47.5

Meter readers, utilities

33 -

Postal service clerks

105 58.8

Postal service mail carriers

273 42.3

Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators

82 45.9

Production, planning, and expediting clerks

212 50.0

Shipping, receiving, and inventory clerks

615 36.9

Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping

49 -

Executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants

223 96.4

Legal secretaries and administrative assistants

49 -

Medical secretaries and administrative assistants

58 95.0

Secretaries and administrative assistants, except legal, medical, and executive

2,009 92.5

Data entry keyers

220 76.2

Word processors and typists

37 -

Desktop publishers

1 -

Insurance claims and policy processing clerks

257 78.2

Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service

53 46.9

Office clerks, general

1,249 83.6

Office machine operators, except computer

27 -

Proofreaders and copy markers

10 -

Statistical assistants

45 -

Office and administrative support workers, all other

639 71.6

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

13,959 5.6

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

1,061 24.2

First-line supervisors of farming, fishing, and forestry workers

49 -

Agricultural inspectors

10 -

Animal breeders

12 -

Graders and sorters, agricultural products

53 71.2

Miscellaneous agricultural workers

835 23.3

Fishing and hunting workers

31 -

Forest and conservation workers

21 -

Logging workers

51 4.0

Construction and extraction occupations

8,057 3.9

First-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workers

650 3.8

Boilermakers

21 -

Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons

97 2.2

Carpenters

1,230 3.1

Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers

156 7.7

Cement masons, concrete finishers, and terrazzo workers

67 0.0

Construction laborers

2,165 4.5

Construction equipment operators

360 3.0

Drywall installers, ceiling tile installers, and tapers

155 3.1

Electricians

845 1.7

Glaziers

53 7.6

Insulation workers

48 -

Painters and paperhangers

556 8.9

Pipelayers

37 -

Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters

587 2.1

Plasterers and stucco masons

22 -

Reinforcing iron and rebar workers

10 -

Roofers

221 2.9

Sheet metal workers

125 3.9

Structural iron and steel workers

41 -

Solar photovoltaic installers

23 -

Helpers, construction trades

71 3.5

Construction and building inspectors

103 10.0

Elevator and escalator installers and repairers

38 -

Fence erectors

41 -

Hazardous materials removal workers

27 -

Highway maintenance workers

99 3.6

Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators

15 -

Septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners

11 -

Miscellaneous construction and related workers

26 -

Derrick, rotary drill, and service unit operators, oil and gas

21 -

Excavating and loading machine and dragline operators, surface mining

4 -

Earth drillers, except oil and gas

27 -

Explosives workers, ordnance handling experts, and blasters

14 -

Underground mining machine operators

33 -

Roustabouts, oil and gas

3 -

Other extraction workers

55 0.5

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,840 4.3

First-line supervisors of mechanics, installers, and repairers

222 6.0

Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers

176 15.4

Radio and telecommunications equipment installers and repairers

155 4.5

Avionics technicians

5 -

Electric motor, power tool, and related repairers

21 -

Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment

1 -

Electrical and electronics repairers, industrial and utility

13 -

Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles

9 -

Audiovisual equipment installers and repairers

22 -

Security and fire alarm systems installers

72 4.5

Aircraft mechanics and service technicians

150 3.2

Automotive body and related repairers

123 2.4

Automotive glass installers and repairers

28 -

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

864 2.3

Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists

362 1.2

Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics

248 1.2

Small engine mechanics

43 -

Miscellaneous vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers

84 2.8

Control and valve installers and repairers

20 -

Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers

445 1.5

Home appliance repairers

49 -

Industrial and refractory machinery mechanics

429 5.1

Maintenance and repair workers, general

614 5.1

Maintenance workers, machinery

29 -

Millwrights

48 -

Electrical power-line installers and repairers

125 0.7

Telecommunications line installers and repairers

134 7.0

Precision instrument and equipment repairers

68 12.9

Wind turbine service technicians

11 -

Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers

29 -

Commercial divers

2 -

Locksmiths and safe repairers

30 -

Manufactured building and mobile home installers

1 -

Riggers

6 -

Helpers--installation, maintenance, and repair workers

19 -

Other installation, maintenance, and repair workers

182 10.6

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

19,309 24.3

Production occupations

7,950 28.3

First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

767 19.5

Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging, and systems assemblers

6 -

Electrical, electronics, and electromechanical assemblers

110 41.9

Engine and other machine assemblers

7 -

Structural metal fabricators and fitters

13 -

Other assemblers and fabricators

957 34.1

Bakers

229 64.8

Butchers and other meat, poultry, and fish processing workers

246 19.4

Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders

9 -

Food batchmakers

93 48.7

Food cooking machine operators and tenders

8 -

Food processing workers, all other

144 43.9

Computer numerically controlled tool operators and programmers

90 8.1

Forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

25 -

Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

70 26.4

Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

32 -

Other machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

8 -

Machinists

323 3.4

Metal furnace operators, tenders, pourers, and casters

17 -

Model makers and patternmakers, metal and plastic

1 -

Molders and molding machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

29 -

Tool and die makers

43 -

Welding, soldering, and brazing workers

555 3.5

Other metal workers and plastic workers

335 22.0

Prepress technicians and workers

17 -

Printing press operators

143 15.2

Print binding and finishing workers

8 -

Laundry and dry-cleaning workers

116 67.1

Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials

17 -

Sewing machine operators

120 71.1

Shoe and leather workers

18 -

Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers

58 86.5

Textile machine setters, operators, and tenders

12 -

Upholsterers

20 -

Other textile, apparel, and furnishings workers

14 -

Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters

67 5.8

Furniture finishers

11 -

Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood

26 -

Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing

16 -

Other woodworkers

22 -

Power plant operators, distributors, and dispatchers

32 -

Stationary engineers and boiler operators

66 7.9

Water and wastewater treatment plant and system operators

99 9.6

Miscellaneous plant and system operators

37 -

Chemical processing machine setters, operators, and tenders

72 13.9

Crushing, grinding, polishing, mixing, and blending workers

76 13.6

Cutting workers

53 24.9

Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders

25 -

Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders

13 -

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

829 39.3

Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers

51 52.0

Dental and ophthalmic laboratory technicians and medical appliance technicians

73 49.5

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

253 51.5

Painting workers

153 7.7

Photographic process workers and processing machine operators

21 -

Adhesive bonding machine operators and tenders

11 -

Etchers and engravers

2 -

Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic

21 -

Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders

16 -

Tire builders

8 -

Helpers--production workers

53 30.9

Other production equipment operators and tenders

6 -

Other production workers

1,178 29.1

Transportation and material moving occupations

11,359 21.6

Supervisors of transportation and material moving workers

355 24.3

Aircraft pilots and flight engineers

158 5.3

Air traffic controllers and airfield operations specialists

31 -

Flight attendants

105 64.6

Ambulance drivers and attendants, except emergency medical technicians

7 -

Bus drivers, school

276 55.3

Bus drivers, transit and intercity

241 41.0

Driver/sales workers and truck drivers

3,487 7.9

Shuttle drivers and chauffeurs

57 9.3

Taxi drivers

337 12.0

Motor vehicle operators, all other

163 15.1

Locomotive engineers and operators

39 -

Railroad conductors and yardmasters

39 -

Other rail transportation workers

14 -

Sailors and marine oilers

18 -

Ship and boat captains and operators

26 -

Ship engineers

3 -

Parking attendants

71 13.3

Transportation service attendants

89 10.7

Transportation inspectors

36 -

Passenger attendants

17 -

Other transportation workers

30 -

Crane and tower operators

56 1.1

Conveyor, dredge, and hoist and winch operators

35 -

Industrial truck and tractor operators

623 9.1

Cleaners of vehicles and equipment

301 17.0

Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

2,161 22.9

Machine feeders and offbearers

22 -

Packers and packagers, hand

742 52.1

Stockers and order fillers

1,652 37.1

Pumping station operators

16 -

Refuse and recyclable material collectors

87 12.1

Other material moving workers

66 17.7

NOTE: Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria. (Values not shown where base is less than 50,000.)
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 12. Employed women, by occupation, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2021 annual averages (Percent distribution)
Occupation White Black or
African
American
Asian Hispanic or
Latino
ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older (thousands)

54,476 9,851 4,725 11,680

Percent

100.0 100 100 100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

47.7 39.6 56.7 29.9

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

18.0 14.5 20.0 11.5

Professional and related occupations

29.6 25.1 36.7 18.4

Service occupations

18.6 25.0 18.5 29.7

Sales and office occupations

26.5 25.9 18.3 27.4

Sales and related occupations

10.2 9.3 7.8 11.1

Office and administrative support occupations

16.2 16.6 10.5 16.3

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

1.2 0.7 0.6 2.3

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

0.4 0.1 0.2 1.1

Construction and extraction occupations

0.5 0.3 0.2 1.0

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

0.3 0.4 0.2 0.3

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

6.1 8.8 5.9 10.7

Production occupations

3.0 3.7 3.7 5.5

Transportation and material moving occupations

3.2 5.1 2.3 5.3

NOTE: Women whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 13. Employed people, by industry and gender, 2020 and 2021 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Industry and gender Year
2020 2021
Number Percent Number Percent

Total

Total, 16 years and older

147,795 100.0 152,581 100.0

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

2,349 1.6 2,291 1.5

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

684 0.5 603 0.4

Construction

10,786 7.3 11,271 7.4

Manufacturing

14,550 9.8 14,718 9.6

Durable goods manufacturing

9,129 6.2 9,349 6.1

Nondurable goods manufacturing

5,421 3.7 5,369 3.5

Wholesale and retail trade

18,989 12.8 19,623 12.9

Wholesale trade

3,380 2.3 3,451 2.3

Retail trade

15,609 10.6 16,172 10.6

Transportation and utilities

8,552 5.8 9,377 6.1

Transportation and warehousing

7,170 4.9 8,017 5.3

Utilities

1,382 0.9 1,360 0.9

Information

2,594 1.8 2,721 1.8

Financial activities

10,646 7.2 10,725 7.0

Finance and insurance

7,605 5.1 7,497 4.9

Real estate and rental and leasing

3,040 2.1 3,229 2.1

Professional and business services

18,816 12.7 19,295 12.6

Professional and technical services

12,643 8.6 12,877 8.4

Management, administrative, and waste services

6,173 4.2 6,418 4.2

Education and health services

34,105 23.1 34,725 22.8

Educational services

13,369 9.0 13,521 8.9

Health care and social assistance

20,736 14.0 21,204 13.9

Hospitals

7,305 4.9 7,364 4.8

Health services, except hospitals

10,284 7.0 10,696 7.0

Social assistance

3,147 2.1 3,144 2.1

Leisure and hospitality

11,480 7.8 12,635 8.3

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,601 1.8 2,896 1.9

Accommodation and food services

8,879 6.0 9,739 6.4

Other services

6,742 4.6 7,186 4.7

Other services, except private households

6,088 4.1 6,527 4.3

Private households

654 0.4 659 0.4

Public administration

7,501 5.1 7,410 4.9

Women

Total, 16 years and older

69,234 100.0 71,752 100.0

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

650 0.9 642 0.9

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

99 0.1 93 0.1

Construction

1,173 1.7 1,241 1.7

Manufacturing

4,295 6.2 4,302 6.0

Durable goods manufacturing

2,314 3.3 2,357 3.3

Nondurable goods manufacturing

1,981 2.9 1,945 2.7

Wholesale and retail trade

8,355 12.1 8,896 12.4

Wholesale trade

1,022 1.5 1,029 1.4

Retail trade

7,333 10.6 7,868 11.0

Transportation and utilities

2,059 3.0 2,325 3.2

Transportation and warehousing

1,764 2.5 2,011 2.8

Utilities

295 0.4 314 0.4

Information

1,050 1.5 1,069 1.5

Financial activities

5,524 8.0 5,588 7.8

Finance and insurance

4,060 5.9 4,002 5.6

Real estate and rental and leasing

1,464 2.1 1,586 2.2

Professional and business services

7,785 11.2 8,213 11.4

Professional and technical services

5,314 7.7 5,544 7.7

Management, administrative, and waste services

2,471 3.6 2,669 3.7

Education and health services

25,432 36.7 25,796 36.0

Educational services

9,292 13.4 9,349 13.0

Health care and social assistance

16,141 23.3 16,446 22.9

Hospitals

5,470 7.9 5,521 7.7

Health services, except hospitals

7,976 11.5 8,283 11.5

Social assistance

2,694 3.9 2,642 3.7

Leisure and hospitality

5,786 8.4 6,429 9.0

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,183 1.7 1,320 1.8

Accommodation and food services

4,603 6.6 5,108 7.1

Other services

3,544 5.1 3,729 5.2

Other services, except private households

2,963 4.3 3,152 4.4

Private households

581 0.8 577 0.8

Public administration

3,481 5.0 3,428 4.8

Men

Total, 16 years and older

78,560 100.0 80,829 100.0

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

1,699 2.2 1,649 2.0

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

585 0.7 510 0.6

Construction

9,613 12.2 10,030 12.4

Manufacturing

10,255 13.1 10,416 12.9

Durable goods manufacturing

6,814 8.7 6,992 8.7

Nondurable goods manufacturing

3,441 4.4 3,424 4.2

Wholesale and retail trade

10,634 13.5 10,727 13.3

Wholesale trade

2,358 3.0 2,423 3.0

Retail trade

8,276 10.5 8,304 10.3

Transportation and utilities

6,492 8.3 7,052 8.7

Transportation and warehousing

5,406 6.9 6,007 7.4

Utilities

1,087 1.4 1,046 1.3

Information

1,544 2.0 1,652 2.0

Financial activities

5,121 6.5 5,137 6.4

Finance and insurance

3,545 4.5 3,495 4.3

Real estate and rental and leasing

1,577 2.0 1,642 2.0

Professional and business services

11,031 14.0 11,082 13.7

Professional and technical services

7,329 9.3 7,333 9.1

Management, administrative, and waste services

3,702 4.7 3,749 4.6

Education and health services

8,672 11.0 8,929 11.0

Educational services

4,077 5.2 4,172 5.2

Health care and social assistance

4,595 5.8 4,757 5.9

Hospitals

1,835 2.3 1,843 2.3

Health services, except hospitals

2,307 2.9 2,412 3.0

Social assistance

453 0.6 501 0.6

Leisure and hospitality

5,694 7.2 6,206 7.7

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,418 1.8 1,575 1.9

Accommodation and food services

4,276 5.4 4,631 5.7

Other services

3,198 4.1 3,457 4.3

Other services, except private households

3,125 4.0 3,375 4.2

Private households

73 0.1 81 0.1

Public administration

4,020 5.1 3,982 4.9

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 14. Employed people, by detailed industry and gender, 2021 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Industry Total employed Percent women

Total, 16 years and older

152,581 47.0

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

2,291 28.0

Crop production

1,197 27.5

Animal production and aquaculture

766 29.7

Support activities for agriculture and forestry

151 40.7

Forestry, except logging

47 -

Logging

84 6.0

Fishing, hunting, and trapping

45 -

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

603 15.4

Oil and gas extraction

57 23.7

Coal mining

45 -

Metal ore mining

35 -

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

87 10.9

Not specified type of mining

0 -

Support activities for mining

378 15.6

Construction

11,271 11.0

Manufacturing

14,718 29.2

Durable goods manufacturing

9,349 25.2

Nonmetallic mineral products manufacturing

406 22.2

Pottery, ceramics, and plumbing fixture manufacturing

29 -

Clay building material and refractories manufacturing

21 -

Glass and glass product manufacturing

121 23.7

Cement, concrete, lime, and gypsum product manufacturing

156 15.2

Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing

80 25.0

Primary metals and fabricated metal products manufacturing

1,539 16.6

Iron and steel mills and steel product manufacturing

225 12.6

Aluminum production and processing

74 23.6

Nonferrous metal (except aluminum) production and processing

33 -

Foundries

52 11.5

Metal forgings and stampings

26 -

Cutlery and hand tool manufacturing

45 -

Structural metals, and boiler, tank, and shipping container manufacturing

371 17.7

Machine shops; turned product; screw, nut, and bolt manufacturing

283 12.0

Coating, engraving, heat treating, and allied activities

64 17.3

Ordnance

53 16.2

Miscellaneous fabricated metal product manufacturing

290 21.8

Not specified metal industries

23 -

Machinery manufacturing

1,170 23.1

Agricultural implement manufacturing

130 24.1

Construction, and mining and oil and gas field machinery manufacturing

130 15.4

Commercial and service industry machinery manufacturing

69 28.5

Metalworking machinery manufacturing

108 20.2

Engine, turbine, and power transmission equipment manufacturing

50 30.5

Machinery manufacturing, n.e.c. or not specified

683 23.7

Computers and electronic products manufacturing

1,017 28.9

Computer and peripheral equipment manufacturing

127 31.6

Communications, audio, and video equipment manufacturing

104 29.7

Navigational, measuring, electromedical, and control instruments manufacturing

168 30.4

Electronic component and product manufacturing, n.e.c.

617 27.8

Electrical equipment and appliances manufacturing

432 28.4

Household appliance manufacturing

78 27.1

Electrical lighting and electrical equipment manufacturing, and other electrical component manufacturing, n.e.c.

354 28.7

Transportation equipment manufacturing

2,466 25.4

Motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment manufacturing

1,361 27.1

Aircraft and parts manufacturing

749 24.1

Aerospace products and parts manufacturing

84 30.5

Railroad rolling stock manufacturing

27 -

Ship and boat building

203 15.9

Other transportation equipment manufacturing

43 -

Wood products manufacturing

427 17.4

Sawmills and wood preservation

128 14.0

Veneer, plywood, and engineered wood products

28 -

Prefabricated wood buildings and mobile homes manufacturing

33 -

Miscellaneous wood products

238 16.3

Furniture and related product manufacturing

370 25.7

Miscellaneous manufacturing

1,521 34.7

Medical equipment and supplies manufacturing

644 38.8

Sporting and athletic goods, and doll, toy and game manufacturing

86 37.3

Miscellaneous manufacturing, n.e.c.

424 32.7

Not specified manufacturing industries

367 29.0

Nondurable goods manufacturing

5,369 36.2

Food manufacturing

1,682 40.8

Animal food, grain, and oilseed milling

171 33.3

Sugar and confectionery products

76 40.0

Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty food manufacturing

127 35.1

Dairy product manufacturing

133 29.7

Animal slaughtering and processing

462 40.8

Retail bakeries

215 64.5

Bakeries and tortilla manufacturing, except retail bakeries

215 41.7

Seafood and other miscellaneous foods, n.e.c.

210 36.2

Not specified food industries

73 29.3

Beverages and tobacco products manufacturing

324 24.7

Beverage manufacturing

309 25.5

Tobacco manufacturing

15 -

Textiles, apparel, and leather manufacturing

440 51.4

Fiber, yarn, and thread mills

12 -

Fabric mills, except knitting mills

61 35.8

Textile and fabric finishing and coating mills

10 -

Carpet and rug mills

45 -

Textile product mills, except carpet and rug

68 55.1

Knitting fabric mills, and apparel knitting mills

13 -

Cut and sew, and apparel accessories and other apparel manufacturing

184 60.8

Footwear manufacturing

29 -

Leather and hide tanning and finishing, and other leather and allied product manufacturing

17 -

Paper manufacturing and printing

775 26.4

Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills

184 14.0

Paperboard container manufacturing

99 27.8

Miscellaneous paper and pulp products

79 31.7

Printing and related support activities

412 30.5

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

198 18.9

Petroleum refining

184 18.8

Miscellaneous petroleum and coal products

14 -

Chemicals manufacturing

1,425 38.3

Resin, synthetic rubber, and fibers and filaments manufacturing

122 28.3

Agricultural chemical manufacturing

32 -

Pharmaceutical and medicine manufacturing

654 46.4

Paint, coating, and adhesive manufacturing

58 31.1

Soap, cleaning compound, and cosmetics manufacturing

139 59.2

Industrial and miscellaneous chemicals

420 25.2

Plastics and rubber products manufacturing

525 31.5

Plastics product manufacturing

407 31.9

Tire manufacturing

59 29.4

Rubber product, except tire, manufacturing

59 31.0

Wholesale and retail trade

19,623 45.3

Wholesale trade

3,451 29.8

Motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts and supplies merchant wholesalers

173 20.3

Furniture and home furnishing merchant wholesalers

65 49.3

Lumber and other construction materials merchant wholesalers

164 21.1

Professional and commercial equipment and supplies merchant wholesalers

287 37.0

Metals and minerals, except petroleum, merchant wholesalers

41 -

Household appliances and electrical and electronic goods merchant wholesalers

167 24.4

Hardware, and plumbing heating equipment, and supplies merchant wholesalers

174 25.3

Machinery, equipment, and supplies merchant wholesalers

366 26.2

Recyclable material merchant wholesalers

70 8.2

Miscellaneous durable goods merchant wholesalers

62 40.3

Paper and paper products merchant wholesalers

31 -

Drugs, sundries, and chemical and allied products merchant wholesalers

243 47.5

Apparel, piece goods, and notions merchant wholesalers

75 55.0

Grocery and related product merchant wholesalers

825 27.2

Farm product raw material merchant wholesalers

56 25.3

Petroleum and petroleum products merchant wholesalers

109 16.5

Alcoholic beverages merchant wholesalers

135 25.0

Farm supplies merchant wholesalers

42 -

Miscellaneous nondurable goods merchant wholesalers

225 37.7

Wholesale electronic markets and agents and brokers

68 31.2

Not specified wholesale trade

72 33.0

Retail trade

16,172 48.6

Automobile dealers

1,178 22.2

Other motor vehicle dealers

158 28.6

Automotive parts, accessories, and tire stores

481 17.5

Furniture and home furnishings stores

500 42.2

Household appliance stores

62 28.3

Electronics stores

408 28.3

Building material and supplies dealers

1,076 31.0

Hardware stores

198 38.4

Lawn and garden equipment and supplies stores

289 34.8

Supermarkets and other grocery (except convenience) stores

2,530 46.5

Convenience stores

314 57.5

Specialty food stores

217 52.6

Beer, wine, and liquor stores

156 38.4

Pharmacies and drug stores

870 66.1

Health and personal care, except drug, stores

417 69.7

Gasoline stations

451 50.9

Clothing stores

869 76.9

Shoe stores

127 61.1

Jewelry, luggage, and leather goods stores

157 62.5

Sporting goods, and hobby and toy stores

441 44.0

Sewing, needlework, and piece goods stores

52 67.3

Musical instrument and supplies stores

39 -

Book stores and news dealers

86 62.2

Department stores

277 75.7

General merchandise stores, including warehouse clubs and supercenters

2,111 55.4

Florists

98 73.6

Office supplies and stationery stores

80 39.7

Used merchandise stores

229 65.2

Gift, novelty, and souvenir shops

96 78.3

Miscellaneous retail stores

571 56.7

Electronic shopping and mail-order houses

907 47.6

Vending machine operators

42 -

Fuel dealers

75 26.0

Other direct selling establishments

115 75.6

Not specified retail trade

495 55.7

Transportation and utilities

9,377 24.8

Transportation and warehousing

8,017 25.1

Air transportation

620 27.8

Rail transportation

197 7.6

Water transportation

76 16.7

Truck transportation

2,178 12.6

Bus service and urban transit

460 39.8

Taxi and limousine service

394 13.6

Pipeline transportation

61 10.8

Scenic and sightseeing transportation

22 -

Services incidental to transportation

818 25.3

Postal Service

643 45.7

Couriers and messengers

1,482 27.3

Warehousing and storage

1,065 35.2

Utilities

1,360 23.1

Electric power generation, transmission and distribution

727 19.9

Natural gas distribution

114 21.8

Electric and gas, and other combinations

101 35.3

Water, steam, air-conditioning, and irrigation systems

267 26.9

Sewage treatment facilities

120 17.8

Not specified utilities

31 -

Information

2,721 39.3

Newspaper publishers

126 52.7

Periodical, book, and directory publishers

162 52.1

Software publishers

83 30.4

Motion pictures and video industries

454 35.6

Sound recording industries

63 19.2

Broadcasting (except internet)

369 38.8

Internet publishing and broadcasting and web search portals

224 43.6

Wired telecommunications carriers

499 27.7

Telecommunications, except wired telecommunications carriers

386 30.6

Data processing, hosting, and related services

114 44.5

Libraries and archives

204 77.2

Other information services, except libraries and archives, and internet publishing and broadcasting and web search portals

38 -

Financial activities

10,725 52.1

Finance and insurance

7,497 53.4

Banking and related activities

1,924 56.3

Savings institutions, including credit unions

289 69.8

Nondepository credit and related activities

1,153 49.3

Securities, commodities, funds, trusts, and other financial investments

1,376 38.2

Insurance carriers and related activities

2,754 58.9

Insurance carriers

1,742 60.9

Agencies, brokerages, and other insurance related activities

1,012 55.5

Real estate and rental and leasing

3,229 49.1

Real estate

2,918 51.6

Lessors of real estate, and offices of real estate agents and brokers

2,371 53.2

Real estate property managers, offices of real estate appraisers, and other activities related to real estate

547 44.4

Rental and leasing services

310 26.4

Automotive equipment rental and leasing

126 27.5

Other consumer goods rental

66 32.1

Commercial, industrial, and other intangible assets rental and leasing

118 22.0

Professional and business services

19,295 42.6

Professional and technical services

12,877 43.1

Legal services

1,578 56.9

Accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll services

1,124 63.7

Architectural, engineering, and related services

1,723 27.1

Specialized design services

437 62.8

Computer systems design and related services

4,026 29.1

Management, scientific, and technical consulting services

1,651 43.9

Scientific research and development services

728 44.7

Advertising, public relations, and related services

554 49.6

Veterinary services

407 81.9

Other professional, scientific, and technical services

649 55.1

Management, administrative, and waste services

6,418 41.6

Management of companies and enterprises

64 51.2

Administrative and support services

5,906 43.2

Employment services

850 60.2

Business support services

539 67.0

Travel arrangement and reservation services

240 55.1

Investigation and security services

820 29.7

Services to buildings and dwellings (except cleaning during construction and immediately after construction)

1,755 57.6

Landscaping services

1,395 9.9

Other administrative and other support services

307 49.5

Waste management and remediation services

448 19.5

Education and health services

34,725 74.3

Educational services

13,521 69.1

Elementary and secondary schools

8,854 75.3

Colleges, universities, and professional schools, including junior colleges

3,693 55.3

Business, technical, and trade schools and training

54 59.6

Other schools and instruction, and educational support services

919 65.9

Health care and social assistance

21,204 77.6

Hospitals

7,364 75.0

General medical and surgical hospitals, and specialty (except psychiatric and substance abuse) hospitals

7,274 75.0

Psychiatric and substance abuse hospitals

90 74.7

Health services, except hospitals

10,696 77.4

Offices of physicians

1,579 74.8

Offices of dentists

974 82.6

Offices of chiropractors

142 64.2

Offices of optometrists

152 76.0

Offices of other health practitioners

345 79.4

Outpatient care centers

2,071 78.1

Home health care services

1,450 86.0

Other health care services

1,719 68.5

Nursing care facilities (skilled nursing facilities)

1,352 81.3

Residential care facilities, except skilled nursing facilities

911 74.1

Social assistance

3,144 84.0

Individual and family services

1,586 77.3

Community food and housing, and emergency services

157 72.6

Vocational rehabilitation services

87 59.5

Child day care services

1,314 95.1

Leisure and hospitality

12,635 50.9

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

2,896 45.6

Performing arts companies

174 43.5

Spectator sports

131 29.3

Promoters of performing arts, sports, and similar events, agents and managers for artists, athletes, entertainers, and other public figures

90 44.6

Independent artists, writers, and performers

369 49.9

Museums, art galleries, historical sites, and similar institutions

349 49.0

Bowling centers

40 -

Other amusement, gambling, and recreation industries

1,743 45.6

Accommodation and food services

9,739 52.5

Accommodation

1,075 57.0

Traveler accommodation

988 57.7

Recreational vehicle parks and camps, and rooming and boarding houses, dormitories, and workers' camps

87 49.1

Food services and drinking places

8,664 51.9

Restaurants and other food services

8,500 51.8

Drinking places, alcoholic beverages

164 58.5

Other services

7,186 51.9

Other services, except private households

6,527 48.3

Repair and maintenance

2,125 11.6

Automotive repair and maintenance

1,306 9.5

Car washes

195 11.9

Electronic and precision equipment repair and maintenance

120 19.4

Commercial and industrial machinery and equipment repair and maintenance

322 8.5

Personal and household goods repair and maintenance

183 26.2

Personal and laundry services

2,440 74.7

Barber shops

130 34.0

Beauty salons

943 91.4

Nail salons and other personal care services

543 78.9

Drycleaning and laundry services

231 46.8

Funeral homes, and cemeteries and crematories

126 42.1

Other personal services

467 69.9

Membership associations and organizations

1,962 55.3

Religious organizations

979 45.4

Civic, social, advocacy organizations, and grantmaking and giving services

754 67.3

Labor unions

75 45.6

Business, professional, political, and similar organizations

154 63.7

Other services, private households

659 87.6

Public administration

7,410 46.3

Executive offices and legislative bodies

1,102 52.0

Public finance activities

330 55.4

Other general government and support

160 35.2

Justice, public order, and safety activities

2,661 36.0

Administration of human resource programs

1,236 73.9

Administration of environmental quality and housing programs

298 44.5

Administration of economic programs and space research

586 44.0

National security and international affairs

1,037 34.3

n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified.
Note: Dash indicates data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 15. Employed women, by industry, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2021 annual averages (Percent distribution)
Industry White Black or
African
American
Asian Hispanic or
Latino
ethnicity

Total, 16 years and older (thousands)

54,476 9,851 4,725 11,680

Percent

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Agriculture and related

1.1 0.1 0.2 1.3

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1

Construction

2.0 0.7 0.9 2.3

Manufacturing

6.1 5.3 7.3 7.2

Durable goods manufacturing

3.3 3.1 4.2 3.3

Nondurable goods manufacturing

2.8 2.3 3.1 3.9

Wholesale and retail trade

12.7 11.5 10.2 14.4

Wholesale trade

1.5 0.9 1.5 1.9

Retail trade

11.1 10.6 8.7 12.6

Transportation and utilities

2.9 5.3 2.7 3.8

Transportation and warehousing

2.5 4.8 2.5 3.5

Utilities

0.5 0.5 0.2 0.3

Information

1.5 1.4 2.0 0.9

Financial activities

7.8 7.5 8.6 5.9

Finance and insurance

5.4 5.9 7.1 4.2

Real estate and rental and leasing

2.4 1.6 1.5 1.7

Professional and business services

11.6 8.9 15.9 11.9

Professional and technical services

7.8 4.5 13.8 5.2

Management, administrative, and waste services

3.7 4.4 2.1 6.6

Education and health services

35.8 40.1 31.9 30.0

Educational services

13.8 11.0 10.1 9.7

Health care and social assistance

22.0 29.1 21.8 20.3

Hospitals

7.4 9.1 8.9 5.3

Health services, except hospitals

11.0 15.1 10.5 10.7

Social assistance

3.6 4.9 2.5 4.4

Leisure and hospitality

9.0 7.8 8.5 12.5

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1.9 1.2 1.4 1.4

Accommodation and food services

7.0 6.6 7.2 11.1

Other services

5.2 3.9 7.6 5.8

Other services, except private households

4.3 3.5 7.1 3.8

Private households

0.9 0.5 0.5 2.0

Public administration

4.3 7.3 4.0 3.8

NOTE: Women whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 16. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, in current dollars, by race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, and gender, 1979–2021 annual averages
Year and gender
Total White Black or
African
American
Asian Hispanic
or Latino
ethnicity

Total

1979

$241 $248 $199 - $194

1980

262 269 212 - 209

1981

284 291 235 - 223

1982

302 310 245 - 240

1983

313 320 261 - 250

1984

326 336 269 - 259

1985

344 356 277 - 270

1986

359 371 291 - 277

1987

374 384 301 - 285

1988

385 395 314 - 290

1989

399 409 319 - 298

1990

412 424 329 - 304

1991

426 442 348 - 312

1992

440 458 357 - 321

1993

459 475 369 - 331

1994

467 484 371 - 324

1995

479 494 383 - 329

1996

490 506 387 - 339

1997

503 519 400 - 351

1998

523 545 426 - 370

1999

549 573 445 - 385

2000

576 590 474 $615 399

2001

596 610 491 639 417

2002

608 623 498 658 424

2003

620 636 514 693 440

2004

638 657 525 708 456

2005

651 672 520 753 471

2006

671 690 554 784 486

2007

695 716 569 830 503

2008

722 742 589 861 529

2009

739 757 601 880 541

2010

747 765 611 855 535

2011

756 775 615 866 549

2012

768 792 621 920 568

2013

776 802 629 942 578

2014

791 816 639 953 594

2015

809 835 641 993 604

2016

832 862 678 1,021 624

2017

860 890 682 1,043 655

2018

886 916 694 1,095 680

2019

917 945 735 1,174 706

2020

984 1,003 794 1,310 758

2021

998 1,018 801 1,328 777

Women

1979

$182 $184 $169 - $157

1980

201 203 185 - 172

1981

219 221 206 - 190

1982

239 242 217 - 203

1983

252 254 232 - 215

1984

265 268 241 - 223

1985

277 281 252 - 230

1986

291 294 264 - 241

1987

303 307 276 - 251

1988

315 318 288 - 260

1989

328 334 301 - 269

1990

346 353 308 - 278

1991

366 373 323 - 292

1992

380 387 335 - 302

1993

393 401 348 - 313

1994

399 408 346 - 305

1995

406 415 355 - 305

1996

418 428 362 - 316

1997

431 444 375 - 318

1998

456 468 400 - 337

1999

473 483 409 - 348

2000

493 502 429 $547 366

2001

512 522 454 563 388

2002

529 547 473 566 397

2003

552 567 491 598 410

2004

573 584 505 613 419

2005

585 596 499 665 429

2006

600 609 519 699 440

2007

614 626 533 731 473

2008

638 654 554 753 501

2009

657 669 582 779 509

2010

669 684 592 773 508

2011

684 703 595 751 518

2012

691 710 599 770 521

2013

706 722 606 819 541

2014

719 734 611 841 548

2015

726 743 615 877 566

2016

749 766 641 902 586

2017

770 795 657 903 603

2018

789 817 654 937 617

2019

821 840 704 1,025 642

2020

891 905 764 1,143 705

2021

912 925 776 1,141 718

Men

1979

$292 $298 $227 - $219

1980

313 320 244 - 234

1981

340 350 268 - 251

1982

364 375 278 - 269

1983

379 387 294 - 274

1984

392 401 303 - 287

1985

407 418 305 - 296

1986

419 433 319 - 299

1987

434 450 327 - 306

1988

449 465 348 - 308

1989

468 482 348 - 315

1990

481 494 361 - 318

1991

493 506 375 - 323

1992

501 514 380 - 339

1993

510 524 392 - 346

1994

522 547 400 - 343

1995

538 566 411 - 350

1996

557 580 412 - 356

1997

579 595 432 - 371

1998

598 615 468 - 390

1999

618 638 488 - 406

2000

641 662 510 $685 417

2001

670 689 529 732 440

2002

679 702 524 756 451

2003

695 715 555 772 464

2004

713 732 569 802 480

2005

722 743 559 825 489

2006

743 761 591 882 505

2007

766 788 600 936 520

2008

798 825 620 966 559

2009

819 845 621 952 569

2010

824 850 633 936 560

2011

832 856 653 970 571

2012

854 879 665 1,055 592

2013

860 884 664 1,059 594

2014

871 897 680 1,080 616

2015

895 920 680 1,129 631

2016

915 942 718 1,151 663

2017

941 971 710 1,207 690

2018

973 1,002 735 1,241 720

2019

1,007 1,036 769 1,336 747

2020

1,082 1,110 830 1,447 797

2021

1,097 1,125 825 1,453 820

Women's earnings as a percentage of men's

1979

62.3 61.7 74.4 - 71.7

1980

64.2 63.4 75.8 - 73.5

1981

64.4 63.1 76.9 - 75.7

1982

65.7 64.5 78.1 - 75.5

1983

66.5 65.6 78.9 - 78.5

1984

67.6 66.8 79.5 - 77.7

1985

68.1 67.2 82.6 - 77.7

1986

69.5 67.9 82.8 - 80.6

1987

69.8 68.2 84.4 - 82.0

1988

70.2 68.4 82.8 - 84.4

1989

70.1 69.3 86.5 - 85.4

1990

71.9 71.5 85.3 - 87.4

1991

74.2 73.7 86.1 - 90.4

1992

75.8 75.3 88.2 - 89.1

1993

77.1 76.5 88.8 - 90.5

1994

76.4 74.6 86.5 - 88.9

1995

75.5 73.3 86.4 - 87.1

1996

75.0 73.8 87.9 - 88.8

1997

74.4 74.6 86.8 - 85.7

1998

76.3 76.1 85.5 - 86.4

1999

76.5 75.7 83.8 - 85.7

2000

76.9 75.8 84.1 79.9 87.8

2001

76.4 75.8 85.8 76.9 88.2

2002

77.9 77.9 90.3 74.9 88.0

2003

79.4 79.3 88.5 77.5 88.4

2004

80.4 79.8 88.8 76.4 87.3

2005

81.0 80.2 89.3 80.6 87.7

2006

80.8 80.0 87.8 79.3 87.1

2007

80.2 79.4 88.8 78.1 91.0

2008

79.9 79.3 89.4 78.0 89.6

2009

80.2 79.2 93.7 81.8 89.5

2010

81.2 80.5 93.5 82.6 90.7

2011

82.2 82.1 91.1 77.4 90.7

2012

80.9 80.8 90.1 73.0 88.0

2013

82.1 81.7 91.3 77.3 91.1

2014

82.5 81.8 89.9 77.9 89.0

2015

81.1 80.8 90.4 77.7 89.7

2016

81.9 81.3 89.3 78.4 88.4

2017

81.8 81.9 92.5 74.8 87.4

2018

81.1 81.5 89.0 75.5 85.7

2019

81.5 81.1 91.5 76.7 85.9

2020

82.3 81.5 92.0 79.0 88.5

2021

83.1 82.2 94.1 78.5 87.6

NOTE: The comparability of historical labor force data has been affected at various times by methodological and conceptual changes in the Current Population Survey (CPS). For an explanation, see the historical comparability section of the household data technical documentation provided at www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#comp. Beginning in 2003, estimates for the groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are not included. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Data for 2000 to 2002 are for the category Asians and Pacific Islanders. Starting in 2003, Asians constituted a separate category. For more information, see the historical comparability documentation. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
Dashes indicate that data for Asians were not tabulated prior to 2000.
Data exclude all self-employed people, both those with incorporated and unincorporated businesses.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 17. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, 25 years and older, by educational attainment and gender, 2021 annual averages
Educational attainment and gender Total employed (in
thousands)
Median
weekly
earnings

Total

Total

103,924 $1,057

Less than high school diploma

6,033 626

High school graduate or more

97,891 1,103

High school graduate, no college

24,860 809

Some college or associate's degree

25,824 925

Some college, no degree

14,597 899

Associate's degree

11,227 963

Occupational program

4,589 963

Academic program

6,638 963

Bachelor's degree and higher

47,207 1,452

Bachelor's degree

28,930 1,334

Master's degree

13,641 1,574

Professional degree

1,893 1,924

Doctoral degree

2,743 1,909

Women

Total

46,733 954

Less than high school diploma

1,910 550

High school graduate or more

44,823 977

High school graduate, no college

9,364 698

Some college or associate's degree

12,049 803

Some college, no degree

6,487 779

Associate's degree

5,562 836

Occupational program

2,099 827

Academic program

3,463 842

Bachelor's degree and higher

23,409 1,272

Bachelor's degree

13,861 1,165

Master's degree

7,449 1,403

Professional degree

818 1,766

Doctoral degree

1,281 1,686

Men

Total

57,191 1,160

Less than high school diploma

4,123 684

High school graduate or more

53,069 1,214

High school graduate, no college

15,496 904

Some college or associate's degree

13,775 1,047

Some college, no degree

8,110 1,010

Associate's degree

5,665 1,103

Occupational program

2,491 1,098

Academic program

3,175 1,106

Bachelor's degree and higher

23,798 1,661

Bachelor's degree

15,069 1,512

Master's degree

6,192 1,878

Professional degree

1,075 2,186

Doctoral degree

1,462 2,276

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed people, both those with incorporated and unincorporated businesses.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 18. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation and gender, 2021 annual averages
(Numbers in thousands)
Occupation Total Women Men Women's
earnings as a
percentage of
men's
Number
of workers
Median
weekly
earnings
Number
of
workers
Median
weekly
earnings
Number of
workers
Median
weekly
earnings

Total, full-time wage and salary workers

114,316 $998 51,388 $912 62,928 $1,097 83.1

Management, professional, and related occupations

51,166 1,390 26,605 1,222 24,561 1,609 75.9

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

21,529 1,482 10,299 1,306 11,231 1,672 78.1

Management occupations

13,942 1,546 6,116 1,341 7,826 1,752 76.5

Chief executives

1,151 2,473 348 1,904 803 2,721 70.0

General and operations managers

999 1,449 361 1,285 637 1,548 83.0

Legislators

13 - 7 - 6 - -

Advertising and promotions managers

55 1,338 23 - 31 - -

Marketing managers

490 1,545 309 1,490 182 1,698 87.8

Sales managers

500 1,749 150 1,344 350 1,910 70.4

Public relations and fundraising managers

100 1,670 66 1,659 34 - -

Administrative services managers

50 1,227 41 - 9 - -

Facilities managers

132 1,456 25 - 106 1,542 -

Computer and information systems managers

675 2,085 184 1,908 492 2,135 89.4

Financial managers

1,220 1,569 681 1,372 539 1,885 72.8

Compensation and benefits managers

18 - 14 - 5 - -

Human resources managers

260 1,587 211 1,545 49 - -

Training and development managers

49 - 34 - 15 - -

Industrial production managers

236 1,636 46 - 190 1,666 -

Purchasing managers

214 1,562 97 1,363 117 1,612 84.6

Transportation, storage, and distribution managers

304 1,113 65 984 239 1,221 80.6

Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers

126 1,032 24 - 103 1,048 -

Construction managers

633 1,534 54 1,165 578 1,548 75.3

Education and childcare administrators

856 1,551 540 1,411 315 1,857 76.0

Architectural and engineering managers

176 2,709 20 - 156 2,723 -

Food service managers

758 881 398 789 360 1,014 77.8

Funeral home managers

5 - 2 - 4 - -

Entertainment and recreation managers

31 - 10 - 22 - -

Lodging managers

83 973 41 - 42 - -

Medical and health services managers

676 1,463 515 1,363 161 1,773 76.9

Natural sciences managers

17 - 9 - 9 - -

Postmasters and mail superintendents

12 - 6 - 6 - -

Property, real estate, and community association managers

466 1,162 254 1,086 212 1,360 79.9

Social and community service managers

348 1,204 222 1,150 125 1,317 87.3

Emergency management directors

12 - 7 - 5 - -

Personal service managers, all other

0 - 0 - 0 - -

Managers, all other

3,276 1,573 1,352 1,396 1,924 1,747 79.9

Business and financial operations occupations

7,587 1,382 4,183 1,253 3,404 1,552 80.7

Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes

30 - 15 - 15 - -

Buyers and purchasing agents, farm products

9 - 1 - 8 - -

Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products

126 1,061 69 1,027 56 1,072 95.8

Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products

212 1,165 132 1,165 80 1,165 100.0

Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators

327 1,147 189 973 138 1,327 73.3

Compliance officers

274 1,369 137 1,423 137 1,331 106.9

Cost estimators

119 1,395 27 - 92 1,448 -

Human resources workers

795 1,251 579 1,212 217 1,411 85.9

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

66 1,232 48 - 18 - -

Training and development specialists

130 1,342 64 1,195 66 1,464 81.6

Logisticians

116 1,322 43 - 72 1,336 -

Project management specialists

735 1,649 321 1,455 415 1,861 78.2

Management analysts

707 1,608 323 1,451 384 1,887 76.9

Meeting, convention, and event planners

84 1,080 71 1,037 13 - -

Fundraisers

80 1,667 54 1,540 26 - -

Market research analysts and marketing specialists

335 1,446 200 1,276 135 1,743 73.2

Business operations specialists, all other

497 1,241 289 1,162 208 1,326 87.6

Accountants and auditors

1,374 1,345 852 1,261 521 1,494 84.4

Property appraisers and assessors

39 - 14 - 25 - -

Budget analysts

59 1,558 35 - 24 - -

Credit analysts

46 - 29 - 17 - -

Financial and investment analysts

313 1,719 137 1,607 177 1,837 87.5

Personal financial advisors

389 1,773 154 1,424 235 2,183 65.2

Insurance underwriters

122 1,367 73 1,365 49 - -

Financial examiners

13 - 9 - 4 - -

Credit counselors and loan officers

427 1,332 218 1,127 208 1,560 72.2

Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents

60 1,015 31 - 28 - -

Tax preparers

50 961 30 - 20 - -

Other financial specialists

54 1,441 37 - 17 - -

Professional and related occupations

29,637 1,335 16,306 1,167 13,330 1,555 75.0

Computer and mathematical occupations

5,267 1,660 1,350 1,499 3,917 1,742 86.1

Computer and information research scientists

41 - 13 - 28 - -

Computer systems analysts

423 1,489 157 1,414 266 1,556 90.9

Information security analysts

145 1,874 26 - 120 1,904 -

Computer programmers

387 1,734 79 1,677 308 1,742 96.3

Software developers

1,875 1,922 369 1,840 1,507 1,992 92.4

Software quality assurance analysts and testers

70 1,550 33 - 37 - -

Web developers

59 1,327 22 - 38 - -

Web and digital interface designers

40 - 17 - 23 - -

Computer support specialists

620 1,256 148 1,209 471 1,265 95.6

Database administrators and architects

103 1,879 35 - 68 1,920 -

Network and computer systems administrators

205 1,505 35 - 171 1,529 -

Computer network architects

104 1,990 11 - 93 2,006 -

Computer occupations, all other

787 1,413 211 1,143 577 1,483 77.1

Actuaries

30 - 15 - 16 - -

Mathematicians

2 - 0 - 2 - -

Operations research analysts

126 1,574 67 1,408 60 1,773 79.4

Statisticians

37 - 15 - 21 - -

Other mathematical science occupations

213 1,458 99 1,388 115 1,470 94.4

Architecture and engineering occupations

2,985 1,641 502 1,435 2,483 1,725 83.2

Architects, except landscape and naval

151 1,642 45 - 106 1,751 -

Landscape architects

19 - 6 - 12 - -

Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists

34 - 4 - 31 - -

Aerospace engineers

125 1,863 22 - 103 1,895 -

Agricultural engineers

8 - 0 - 8 - -

Bioengineers and biomedical engineers

15 - 1 - 15 - -

Chemical engineers

76 1,875 12 - 65 1,915 -

Civil engineers

403 1,633 69 1,531 334 1,661 92.2

Computer hardware engineers

86 2,006 9 - 77 2,083 -

Electrical and electronics engineers

286 1,899 19 - 267 1,910 -

Environmental engineers

32 - 12 - 20 - -

Industrial engineers, including health and safety

221 1,648 60 1,571 161 1,725 91.1

Marine engineers and naval architects

15 - 0 - 15 - -

Materials engineers

49 - 15 - 33 - -

Mechanical engineers

329 1,660 31 - 298 1,732 -

Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers

9 - 3 - 6 - -

Nuclear engineers

11 - 2 - 10 - -

Petroleum engineers

11 - 3 - 8 - -

Engineers, all other

602 1,771 97 1,549 505 1,833 84.5

Architectural and civil drafters

29 - 7 - 21 - -

Other drafters

90 1,280 25 - 66 1,437 -

Electrical and electronic engineering technologists and technicians

62 1,243 7 - 55 1,261 -

Other engineering technologists and technicians, except drafters

275 1,245 52 903 222 1,367 66.1

Surveying and mapping technicians

50 796 2 - 48 - -

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,391 1,407 627 1,342 763 1,496 89.7

Agricultural and food scientists

30 - 14 - 16 - -

Biological scientists

89 1,317 42 - 46 - -

Conservation scientists and foresters

19 - 7 - 12 - -

Medical scientists

116 1,662 59 1,368 57 2,291 59.7

Life scientists, all other

8 - 5 - 3 - -

Astronomers and physicists

19 - 6 - 13 - -

Atmospheric and space scientists

9 - 3 - 6 - -

Chemists and materials scientists

90 1,647 28 - 62 1,681 -

Environmental scientists and specialists, including health

39 - 15 - 25 - -

Geoscientists and hydrologists, except geographers

42 - 11 - 31 - -

Physical scientists, all other

332 1,738 138 1,500 193 1,933 77.6

Economists

20 - 8 - 12 - -

Survey researchers

1 - 1 - 0 - -

Clinical and counseling psychologists

4 - 3 - 1 - -

School psychologists

51 1,343 47 - 5 - -

Other psychologists

56 1,493 43 - 13 - -

Sociologists

4 - 4 - 0 - -

Urban and regional planners

21 - 10 - 11 - -

Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers

47 - 24 - 23 - -

Agricultural and food science technicians

37 - 9 - 28 - -

Biological technicians

14 - 6 - 9 - -

Chemical technicians

39 - 19 - 20 - -

Environmental science and geoscience technicians

12 - 5 - 7 - -

Nuclear technicians

4 - 0 - 4 - -

Social science research assistants

5 - 3 - 2 - -

Other life, physical, and social science technicians

213 1,093 98 1,059 114 1,142 92.7

Occupational health and safety specialists and technicians

70 1,325 19 - 51 1,388 -

Community and social service occupations

2,276 1,065 1,489 1,016 788 1,164 87.3

Substance abuse and behavioral disorder counselors

110 969 69 911 41 - -

Educational, guidance, and career counselors and advisors

296 1,091 228 1,077 69 1,173 91.8

Marriage and family therapists

26 - 22 - 4 - -

Mental health counselors

139 1,140 101 1,133 38 - -

Rehabilitation counselors

9 - 7 - 2 - -

Counselors, all other

181 953 107 860 75 1,083 79.4

Child, family, and school social workers

58 1,012 46 - 11 - -

Healthcare social workers

71 924 54 894 17 - -

Mental health and substance abuse social workers

7 - 7 - 0 - -

Social workers, all other

601 1,073 508 1,049 93 1,232 85.1

Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists

87 1,247 45 - 42 - -

Social and human service assistants

160 914 126 886 34 - -

Other community and social service specialists

88 1,111 69 1,050 19 - -

Clergy

339 1,135 43 - 296 1,152 -

Directors, religious activities and education

45 - 19 - 26 - -

Religious workers, all other

60 937 39 - 20 - -

Legal occupations

1,401 1,586 807 1,332 594 2,233 59.7

Lawyers

793 2,252 331 1,912 462 2,495 76.6

Judicial law clerks

18 - 14 - 4 - -

Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers

68 1,652 40 - 28 - -

Paralegals and legal assistants

361 1,080 310 1,065 51 1,229 86.7

Title examiners, abstractors, and searchers

89 1,120 64 999 25 - -

Legal support workers, all other

72 1,238 49 - 23 - -

Education, training, and library occupations

7,124 1,138 5,248 1,071 1,877 1,332 80.4

Postsecondary teachers

920 1,550 460 1,483 460 1,653 89.7

Preschool and kindergarten teachers

471 780 455 771 16 - -

Elementary and middle school teachers

3,000 1,163 2,375 1,138 625 1,301 87.5

Secondary school teachers

860 1,216 495 1,159 365 1,269 91.3

Special education teachers

338 1,126 275 1,097 64 1,198 91.6

Tutors

12 - 9 - 3 - -

Other teachers and instructors

389 1,118 224 1,002 165 1,260 79.5

Archivists, curators, and museum technicians

42 - 29 - 13 - -

Librarians and media collections specialists

144 1,131 115 1,142 29 - -

Library technicians

20 - 18 - 1 - -

Teaching assistants

803 641 687 641 116 639 100.3

Other educational instruction and library workers

127 1,271 107 1,274 20 - -

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1,707 1,229 781 1,145 925 1,317 86.9

Artists and related workers

87 1,355 41 - 46 - -

Commercial and industrial designers

10 - 3 - 7 - -

Fashion designers

22 - 17 - 6 - -

Floral designers

35 - 24 - 11 - -

Graphic designers

180 1,163 91 1,225 89 1,151 106.4

Interior designers

45 - 40 - 5 - -

Merchandise displayers and window trimmers

17 - 10 - 7 - -

Other designers

284 1,402 99 1,271 185 1,429 88.9

Actors

11 - 6 - 5 - -

Producers and directors

139 1,369 61 1,347 78 1,522 88.5

Athletes and sports competitors

21 - 2 - 20 - -

Coaches and scouts

110 913 29 - 81 1,136 -

Umpires, referees, and other sports officials

2 - 0 - 2 - -

Dancers and choreographers

3 - 3 - 0 - -

Music directors and composers

15 - 3 - 12 - -

Musicians and singers

13 - 2 - 11 - -

Disc jockeys, except radio

3 - 1 - 2 - -

Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other

9 - 1 - 8 - -

Broadcast announcers and radio disc jockeys

12 - 4 - 7 - -

News analysts, reporters, and journalists

55 1,036 33 - 22 - -

Public relations specialists

113 1,641 69 1,615 44 - -

Editors

63 1,350 35 - 28 - -

Technical writers

62 1,540 31 - 31 - -

Writers and authors

131 1,239 82 1,155 49 - -

Interpreters and translators

52 993 39 - 13 - -

Court reporters and simultaneous captioners

12 - 9 - 3 - -

Media and communication workers, all other

23 - 12 - 12 - -

Broadcast, sound, and lighting technicians

54 1,370 5 - 50 1,537 -

Photographers

59 858 14 - 45 - -

Television, video, and film camera operators and editors

63 1,051 17 - 46 - -

Media and communication equipment workers, all other

3 - 0 - 3 - -

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

7,485 1,273 5,503 1,218 1,983 1,516 80.3

Chiropractors

21 - 7 - 14 - -

Dentists

76 2,492 34 - 42 - -

Dietitians and nutritionists

88 1,184 78 1,179 10 - -

Optometrists

21 - 11 - 9 - -

Pharmacists

245 2,019 133 2,087 112 2,010 103.8

Emergency medicine physicians

21 - 4 - 17 - -

Radiologists

21 - 2 - 18 - -

Other physicians

714 2,418 304 2,283 410 2,647 86.2

Surgeons

45 - 12 - 33 - -

Physician assistants

126 1,884 79 1,855 47 - -

Podiatrists

3 - 0 - 3 - -

Audiologists

17 - 11 - 5 - -

Occupational therapists

107 1,467 84 1,470 23 - -

Physical therapists

203 1,527 129 1,478 74 1,551 95.3

Radiation therapists

14 - 9 - 5 - -

Recreational therapists

11 - 9 - 2 - -

Respiratory therapists

104 1,262 71 1,242 33 - -

Speech-language pathologists

132 1,233 126 1,229 5 - -

Exercise physiologists

1 - 0 - 1 - -

Therapists, all other

137 1,147 113 1,132 24 - -

Veterinarians

67 1,797 48 - 18 - -

Registered nurses

2,615 1,305 2,240 1,274 375 1,437 88.7

Nurse anesthetists

25 - 14 - 11 - -

Nurse midwives

6 - 6 - 0 - -

Nurse practitioners

188 1,955 160 1,903 28 - -

Acupuncturists

3 - 3 - 0 - -

Healthcare diagnosing or treating practitioners, all other

0 - 0 - 0 - -

Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians

322 992 210 1,001 112 964 103.8

Dental hygienists

97 1,269 90 1,264 7 - -

Cardiovascular technologists and technicians

46 - 29 - 16 - -

Diagnostic medical sonographers

61 1,462 46 - 15 - -

Radiologic technologists and technicians

201 1,167 137 1,140 64 1,280 89.1

Magnetic resonance imaging technologists

27 - 14 - 13 - -

Nuclear medicine technologists and medical dosimetrists

31 - 20 - 11 - -

Emergency medical technicians

110 883 31 - 79 910 -

Paramedics

97 1,288 30 - 67 1,352 -

Pharmacy technicians

268 800 207 796 61 822 96.8

Psychiatric technicians

54 749 41 - 12 - -

Surgical technologists

109 1,036 78 1,006 31 - -

Veterinary technologists and technicians

106 779 97 765 9 - -

Dietetic technicians and ophthalmic medical technicians

37 - 31 - 7 - -

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

444 921 399 918 45 - -

Medical records specialists

181 894 165 889 16 - -

Opticians, dispensing

42 - 30 - 12 - -

Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians

150 891 97 835 54 1,003 83.3

Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

91 1,362 61 1,327 31 - -

Service occupations

14,630 644 7,630 598 7,000 723 82.7

Healthcare support occupations

3,269 637 2,742 624 527 723 86.3

Home health aides

314 587 264 581 49 - -

Personal care aides

848 611 656 598 192 666 89.8

Nursing assistants

916 626 805 615 110 740 83.1

Orderlies and psychiatric aides

43 - 25 - 18 - -

Occupational therapy assistants and aides

29 - 24 - 5 - -

Physical therapist assistants and aides

37 - 28 - 9 - -

Massage therapists

42 - 35 - 7 - -

Dental assistants

219 665 200 653 19 - -

Medical assistants

482 676 430 668 51 980 68.2

Medical transcriptionists

26 - 19 - 8 - -

Pharmacy aides

28 - 19 - 9 - -

Veterinary assistants and laboratory animal caretakers

47 - 40 - 7 - -

Phlebotomists

109 681 99 666 10 - -

Other healthcare support workers

128 768 96 656 32 - -

Protective service occupations

2,608 998 577 814 2,031 1,067 76.3

First-line supervisors of correctional officers

36 - 11 - 25 - -

First-line supervisors of police and detectives

89 1,360 15 - 74 1,413 -

First-line supervisors of firefighting and prevention workers

46 - 4 - 43 - -

First-line supervisors of security workers

66 1,147 14 - 52 1,146 -

First-line supervisors of protective service workers, all other

7 - 5 - 2 - -

Firefighters

278 1,291 17 - 261 1,320 -

Fire inspectors

24 - 3 - 21 - -

Bailiffs

20 - 10 - 10 - -

Correctional officers and jailers

275 920 76 807 199 983 82.1

Detectives and criminal investigators

120 1,294 34 - 86 1,319 -

Fish and game wardens

6 - 0 - 6 - -

Parking enforcement workers

12 - 2 - 9 - -

Police officers

751 1,232 113 1,197 638 1,242 96.4

Animal control workers

7 - 4 - 3 - -

Private detectives and investigators

70 1,018 35 - 35 - -

Security guards and gambling surveillance officers

675 689 172 641 502 704 91.1

Crossing guards and flaggers

22 - 6 - 17 - -

Transportation security screeners

42 - 21 - 21 - -

School bus monitors

14 - 13 - 1 - -

Other protective service workers

48 - 22 - 26 - -

Food preparation and serving related occupations

3,863 573 1,901 534 1,962 598 89.3

Chefs and head cooks

319 750 63 655 256 777 84.3

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

349 621 223 596 126 706 84.4

Cooks

1,187 549 436 512 751 572 89.5

Food preparation workers

439 547 254 531 184 571 93.0

Bartenders

217 668 111 627 106 709 88.4

Fast food and counter workers

268 507 172 503 96 511 98.4

Waiters and waitresses

674 576 416 524 258 605 86.6

Food servers, nonrestaurant

102 544 79 529 23 - -

Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers

102 509 50 477 52 583 81.8

Dishwashers

128 512 36 - 92 511 -

Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop

77 498 60 500 17 - -

Food preparation and serving related workers, all other

1 - 1 - 0 - -

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3,347 623 1,253 555 2,094 685 81.0

First-line supervisors of housekeeping and janitorial workers

176 829 60 728 116 881 82.6

First-line supervisors of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers

76 900 11 - 65 907 -

Janitors and building cleaners

1,437 630 494 561 943 675 83.1

Maids and housekeeping cleaners

744 546 637 529 107 622 85.0

Pest control workers

108 868 6 - 102 876 -

Landscaping and groundskeeping workers

738 622 45 - 693 629 -

Tree trimmers and pruners

59 846 1 - 59 851 -

Other grounds maintenance workers

9 - 0 - 9 - -

Personal care and service occupations

1,543 618 1,157 603 387 699 86.3

Supervisors of personal care and service workers

92 784 59 743 33 - -

Animal trainers

27 - 15 - 11 - -

Animal caretakers

133 595 104 600 29 - -

Gambling services workers

54 852 28 - 26 - -

Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers

9 - 4 - 5 - -

Other entertainment attendants and related workers

68 615 28 - 41 - -

Embalmers, crematory operators, and funeral attendants

3 - 1 - 2 - -

Morticians, undertakers, and funeral arrangers

18 - 6 - 13 - -

Barbers

36 - 8 - 28 - -

Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists

252 604 228 595 24 - -

Manicurists and pedicurists

153 655 128 624 26 - -

Skincare specialists

27 - 26 - 1 - -

Other personal appearance workers

2 - 2 - 0 - -

Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges

62 612 17 - 45 - -

Tour and travel guides

10 - 1 - 9 - -

Childcare workers

402 569 374 571 28 - -

Exercise trainers and group fitness instructors

54 729 31 - 24 - -

Recreation workers

88 652 61 653 27 - -

Residential advisors

22 - 16 - 6 - -

Personal care and service workers, all other

31 - 22 - 8 - -

Sales and office occupations

21,748 826 13,071 766 8,677 970 79.0

Sales and related occupations

9,281 887 4,191 720 5,090 1,049 68.6

First-line supervisors of retail sales workers

2,165 875 990 733 1,175 992 73.9

First-line supervisors of non-retail sales workers

833 1,191 292 1,130 540 1,257 89.9

Cashiers

1,235 515 888 513 346 520 98.7

Counter and rental clerks

56 781 19 - 37 - -

Parts salespersons

103 778 19 - 84 776 -

Retail salespersons

1,665 745 666 635 999 855 74.3

Advertising sales agents

93 1,174 50 1,136 44 - -

Insurance sales agents

462 1,008 249 839 213 1,253 67.0

Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents

206 1,630 69 1,054 137 1,891 55.7

Travel agents

33 - 23 - 10 - -

Sales representatives of services, except advertising, insurance, financial services, and travel

523 1,169 155 1,122 368 1,237 90.7

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing

1,014 1,263 301 1,157 712 1,356 85.3

Models, demonstrators, and product promoters

4 - 3 - 1 - -

Real estate brokers and sales agents

524 1,141 302 1,037 222 1,324 78.3

Sales engineers

29 - 0 - 29 - -

Telemarketers

22 - 13 - 9 - -

Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers

17 - 10 - 7 - -

Sales and related workers, all other

298 943 140 843 157 1,017 82.9

Office and administrative support occupations

12,467 806 8,880 779 3,587 899 86.7

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

1,098 964 757 913 341 1,184 77.1

Switchboard operators, including answering service

8 - 6 - 2 - -

Telephone operators

17 - 11 - 5 - -

Communications equipment operators, all other

3 - 2 - 1 - -

Bill and account collectors

81 726 59 742 22 - -

Billing and posting clerks

398 772 346 774 53 767 100.9

Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks

741 825 604 802 137 1,009 79.5

Gambling cage workers

15 - 12 - 3 - -

Payroll and timekeeping clerks

144 921 125 913 19 - -

Procurement clerks

35 - 17 - 18 - -

Tellers

173 695 132 691 40 - -

Financial clerks, all other

95 909 59 833 36 - -

Brokerage clerks

9 - 5 - 4 - -

Correspondence clerks

1 - 1 - 0 - -

Court, municipal, and license clerks

69 811 53 778 16 - -

Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks

40 - 26 - 14 - -

Customer service representatives

1,863 780 1,219 737 645 867 85.0

Eligibility interviewers, government programs

67 840 56 790 11 - -

File clerks

126 775 98 791 29 - -

Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks

74 652 54 653 20 - -

Interviewers, except eligibility and loan

172 772 130 775 43 - -

Library assistants, clerical

29 - 26 - 3 - -

Loan interviewers and clerks

126 899 91 886 34 - -

New accounts clerks

9 - 5 - 4 - -

Order clerks

89 714 52 712 37 - -

Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping

37 - 30 - 7 - -

Receptionists and information clerks

871 685 774 674 97 796 84.7

Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks

74 786 39 - 34 - -

Information and record clerks, all other

98 774 79 751 19 - -

Cargo and freight agents

3 - 0 - 3 - -

Couriers and messengers

492 802 90 680 402 846 80.4

Public safety telecommunicators

82 911 58 908 24 - -

Dispatchers, except police, fire, and ambulance

163 812 71 765 92 842 90.9

Meter readers, utilities

30 - 2 - 28 - -

Postal service clerks

96 1,047 66 1,006 31 - -

Postal service mail carriers

259 992 104 978 155 1,008 97.0

Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators

76 879 37 - 39 - -

Production, planning, and expediting clerks

184 1,115 91 1,018 93 1,174 86.7

Shipping, receiving, and inventory clerks

537 725 191 696 346 748 93.0

Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping

42 - 12 - 29 - -

Executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants

211 1,027 201 1,015 10 - -

Legal secretaries and administrative assistants

46 - 44 - 2 - -

Medical secretaries and administrative assistants

53 756 48 - 5 - -

Secretaries and administrative assistants, except legal, medical, and executive

1,532 819 1,405 807 127 1,006 80.2

Data entry keyers

195 718 148 712 47 - -

Word processors and typists

23 - 21 - 2 - -

Desktop publishers

1 - 0 - 1 - -

Insurance claims and policy processing clerks

262 763 202 766 60 754 101.6

Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service

40 - 16 - 24 - -

Office clerks, general

927 744 770 726 157 823 88.2

Office machine operators, except computer

22 - 20 - 2 - -

Proofreaders and copy markers

4 - 3 - 1 - -

Statistical assistants

42 - 16 - 26 - -

Office and administrative support workers, all other

582 890 395 874 187 949 92.1

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

11,182 919 547 696 10,635 930 74.8

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

800 623 149 585 651 637 91.8

First-line supervisors of farming, fishing, and forestry workers

35 - 2 - 32 - -

Agricultural inspectors

11 - 3 - 8 - -

Animal breeders

6 - 4 - 3 - -

Graders and sorters, agricultural products

41 - 26 - 16 - -

Miscellaneous agricultural workers

641 613 110 590 531 617 95.6

Fishing and hunting workers

16 - 1 - 15 - -

Forest and conservation workers

12 - 2 - 9 - -

Logging workers

38 - 1 - 37 - -

Construction and extraction occupations

6,171 904 207 720 5,965 908 79.3

First-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workers

545 1,208 24 - 522 1,213 -

Boilermakers

23 - 0 - 23 - -

Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons

77 867 3 - 74 868 -

Carpenters

830 850 29 - 801 864 -

Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers

104 778 10 - 93 783 -

Cement masons, concrete finishers, and terrazzo workers

63 917 0 - 63 917 -

Construction laborers

1,503 766 45 - 1,457 771 -

Construction equipment operators

334 992 8 - 326 990 -

Drywall installers, ceiling tile installers, and tapers

133 704 4 - 128 709 -

Electricians

737 1,060 17 - 720 1,064 -

Glaziers

45 - 3 - 42 - -

Insulation workers

30 - 1 - 29 - -

Painters and paperhangers

360 741 20 - 340 759 -

Pipelayers

36 - 2 - 34 - -

Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters

506 992 10 - 496 986 -

Plasterers and stucco masons

15 - 0 - 15 - -

Reinforcing iron and rebar workers

9 - 0 - 9 - -

Roofers

151 685 2 - 148 681 -

Sheet metal workers

115 979 4 - 111 988 -

Structural iron and steel workers

35 - 2 - 33 - -

Solar photovoltaic installers

20 - 0 - 20 - -

Helpers, construction trades

63 691 3 - 60 701 -

Construction and building inspectors

65 988 7 - 58 1,013 -

Elevator and escalator installers and repairers

37 - 4 - 33 - -

Fence erectors

25 - 0 - 25 - -

Hazardous materials removal workers

25 - 3 - 22 - -

Highway maintenance workers

90 880 2 - 87 866 -

Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators

11 - 0 - 11 - -

Septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners

9 - 0 - 9 - -

Miscellaneous construction and related workers

19 - 0 - 19 - -

Derrick, rotary drill, and service unit operators, oil and gas

20 - 0 - 20 - -

Excavating and loading machine and dragline operators, surface mining

4 - 0 - 4 - -

Earth drillers, except oil and gas

30 - 0 - 30 - -

Explosives workers, ordnance handling experts, and blasters

11 - 2 - 10 - -

Underground mining machine operators

35 - 1 - 34 - -

Roustabouts, oil and gas

3 - 0 - 3 - -

Other extraction workers

55 1,160 0 - 55 1,159 -

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,211 1,017 192 836 4,019 1,023 81.7

First-line supervisors of mechanics, installers, and repairers

217 1,304 18 - 199 1,335 -

Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers

148 1,017 23 - 126 1,058 -

Radio and telecommunications equipment installers and repairers

127 1,225 7 - 121 1,269 -

Avionics technicians

3 - 0 - 3 - -

Electric motor, power tool, and related repairers

17 - 0 - 17 - -

Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment

1 - 0 - 1 - -

Electrical and electronics repairers, industrial and utility

16 - 4 - 12 - -

Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles

8 - 1 - 7 - -

Audiovisual equipment installers and repairers

13 - 0 - 13 - -

Security and fire alarm systems installers

63 1,008 3 - 60 999 -

Aircraft mechanics and service technicians

152 1,282 6 - 146 1,297 -

Automotive body and related repairers

113 990 5 - 109 995 -

Automotive glass installers and repairers

24 - 1 - 23 - -

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

651 906 15 - 636 909 -

Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists

318 996 5 - 312 993 -

Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics

237 1,122 3 - 234 1,120 -

Small engine mechanics

36 - 2 - 34 - -

Miscellaneous vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers

75 781 2 - 73 786 -

Control and valve installers and repairers

15 - 0 - 15 - -

Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers

370 1,009 3 - 367 1,009 -

Home appliance repairers

30 - 3 - 27 - -

Industrial and refractory machinery mechanics

426 1,050 27 - 399 1,056 -

Maintenance and repair workers, general

556 958 29 - 527 978 -

Maintenance workers, machinery

23 - 0 - 23 - -

Millwrights

47 - 4 - 43 - -

Electrical power-line installers and repairers

123 1,219 0 - 122 1,217 -

Telecommunications line installers and repairers

128 1,078 8 - 120 1,090 -

Precision instrument and equipment repairers

54 1,150 7 - 47 - -

Wind turbine service technicians

12 - 0 - 12 - -

Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers

22 - 4 - 19 - -

Commercial divers

0 - 0 - 0 - -

Locksmiths and safe repairers

19 - 2 - 17 - -

Manufactured building and mobile home installers

1 - 0 - 1 - -

Riggers

7 - 0 - 7 - -

Helpers--installation, maintenance, and repair workers

18 - 2 - 16 - -

Other installation, maintenance, and repair workers

140 830 12 - 129 845 -

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

15,590 774 3,535 638 12,056 825 77.3

Production occupations

7,107 809 1,856 653 5,251 884 73.9

First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

738 1,080 137 796 601 1,138 69.9

Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging, and systems assemblers

8 - 2 - 6 - -

Electrical, electronics, and electromechanical assemblers

111 745 40 - 71 767 -

Engine and other machine assemblers

6 - 1 - 5 - -

Structural metal fabricators and fitters

14 - 2 - 12 - -

Other assemblers and fabricators

894 710 315 664 579 751 88.4

Bakers

143 614 86 599 57 664 90.2

Butchers and other meat, poultry, and fish processing workers

236 718 47 - 189 742 -

Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders

10 - 2 - 8 - -

Food batchmakers

67 669 22 - 45 - -

Food cooking machine operators and tenders

7 - 2 - 6 - -

Food processing workers, all other

136 734 52 648 84 818 79.2

Computer numerically controlled tool operators and programmers

83 1,036 5 - 79 1,036 -

Forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

23 - 2 - 21 - -

Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

63 746 19 - 44 - -

Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

26 - 4 - 22 - -

Other machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

7 - 0 - 7 - -

Machinists

295 914 10 - 284 916 -

Metal furnace operators, tenders, pourers, and casters

17 - 0 - 17 - -

Model makers and patternmakers, metal and plastic

2 - 0 - 2 - -

Molders and molding machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

34 - 7 - 28 - -

Tool and die makers

44 - 1 - 43 - -

Welding, soldering, and brazing workers

506 904 24 - 482 907 -

Other metal workers and plastic workers

340 769 64 731 276 783 93.4

Prepress technicians and workers

13 - 3 - 10 - -

Printing press operators

130 839 19 - 111 869 -

Print binding and finishing workers

6 - 0 - 6 - -

Laundry and dry-cleaning workers

88 511 59 492 29 - -

Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials

13 - 4 - 9 - -

Sewing machine operators

94 572 67 560 27 - -

Shoe and leather workers

11 - 3 - 7 - -

Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers

25 - 20 - 4 - -

Textile machine setters, operators, and tenders

6 - 2 - 4 - -

Upholsterers

17 - 6 - 11 - -

Other textile, apparel, and furnishings workers

9 - 6 - 3 - -

Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters

57 788 3 - 53 782 -

Furniture finishers

6 - 2 - 4 - -

Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood

18 - 2 - 16 - -

Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing

15 - 2 - 12 - -

Other woodworkers

12 - 1 - 10 - -

Power plant operators, distributors, and dispatchers

34 - 0 - 34 - -

Stationary engineers and boiler operators

64 1,184 7 - 57 1,175 -

Water and wastewater treatment plant and system operators

94 960 8 - 86 965 -

Miscellaneous plant and system operators

32 - 0 - 32 - -

Chemical processing machine setters, operators, and tenders

65 969 12 - 53 979 -

Crushing, grinding, polishing, mixing, and blending workers

69 838 9 - 59 856 -

Cutting workers

51 775 8 - 43 - -

Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders

24 - 7 - 17 - -

Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders

10 - 4 - 5 - -

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

750 883 283 733 466 1,005 72.9

Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers

21 - 7 - 13 - -

Dental and ophthalmic laboratory technicians and medical appliance technicians

50 692 28 - 22 - -

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

251 671 118 605 133 755 80.1

Painting workers

134 822 10 - 124 893 -

Photographic process workers and processing machine operators

21 - 10 - 12 - -

Adhesive bonding machine operators and tenders

14 - 3 - 11 - -

Etchers and engravers

1 - 1 - 1 - -

Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic

17 - 3 - 15 - -

Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders

8 - 3 - 5 - -

Tire builders

8 - 0 - 8 - -

Helpers--production workers

32 - 10 - 22 - -

Other production equipment operators and tenders

5 - 1 - 4 - -

Other production workers

1,022 761 280 630 742 809 77.9

Transportation and material moving occupations

8,483 738 1,679 624 6,804 786 79.4

Supervisors of transportation and material moving workers

310 996 68 779 241 1,077 72.3

Aircraft pilots and flight engineers

115 1,913 2 - 113 1,912 -

Air traffic controllers and airfield operations specialists

28 - 0 - 28 - -

Flight attendants

77 859 47 - 30 - -

Ambulance drivers and attendants, except emergency medical technicians

6 - 0 - 5 - -

Bus drivers, school

125 710 69 695 57 712 97.6

Bus drivers, transit and intercity

182 801 71 679 111 942 72.1

Driver/sales workers and truck drivers

2,680 920 181 732 2,499 933 78.5

Shuttle drivers and chauffeurs

29 - 2 - 27 - -

Taxi drivers

148 678 10 - 138 690 -

Motor vehicle operators, all other

94 723 15 - 80 745 -

Locomotive engineers and operators

41 - 3 - 38 - -

Railroad conductors and yardmasters

38 - 1 - 37 - -

Other rail transportation workers

13 - 3 - 10 - -

Sailors and marine oilers

17 - 0 - 17 - -

Ship and boat captains and operators

17 - 0 - 17 - -

Ship engineers

2 - 0 - 2 - -

Parking attendants

47 - 7 - 40 - -

Transportation service attendants

70 630 3 - 67 629 -

Transportation inspectors

34 - 7 - 27 - -

Passenger attendants

6 - 1 - 5 - -

Other transportation workers

28 - 5 - 23 - -

Crane and tower operators

53 1,047 0 - 53 1,047 -

Conveyor, dredge, and hoist and winch operators

28 - 3 - 25 - -

Industrial truck and tractor operators

581 743 55 713 526 746 95.6

Cleaners of vehicles and equipment

215 590 42 - 173 589 -

Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

1,649 689 355 624 1,294 703 88.8

Machine feeders and offbearers

16 - 7 - 9 - -

Packers and packagers, hand

541 614 308 603 233 633 95.3

Stockers and order fillers

1,151 612 400 603 752 620 97.3

Pumping station operators

15 - 0 - 15 - -

Refuse and recyclable material collectors

63 728 3 - 59 707 -

Other material moving workers

62 777 8 - 55 775 -

NOTE: Median earnings are not shown where employment is less than 50,000. Women's earnings as a percentage of men's are not shown where employment for either women or men is less than 50,000. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 19. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by industry and gender, 2021 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Industry Total Women Men Women's
earnings as a
percentage of
men's
Number of
workers
Median
weekly
earnings
Number
of
workers
Median
weekly
earnings
Number of
workers
Median
weekly
earnings

Total, 16 years and older

114,316 $998 51,388 $912 62,928 $1,097 83.1

Agriculture and related industries

1,164 683 250 623 915 702 88.7

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

553 1,320 78 1,299 475 1,327 97.9

Construction

8,020 969 829 947 7,192 973 97.3

Manufacturing

13,603 1,036 3,857 875 9,746 1,119 78.2

Durable goods manufacturing

8,738 1,064 2,189 890 6,549 1,132 78.6

Nondurable goods manufacturing

4,865 996 1,668 856 3,196 1,089 78.6

Wholesale and retail trade

13,806 791 5,652 697 8,154 888 78.5

Wholesale trade

2,898 1,003 825 907 2,073 1,048 86.5

Retail trade

10,908 744 4,827 673 6,081 824 81.7

Transportation and utilities

7,336 988 1,774 861 5,563 1,024 84.1

Transportation and warehousing

6,019 935 1,473 807 4,546 980 82.3

Utilities

1,318 1,330 301 1,137 1,017 1,351 84.2

Information

2,161 1,360 822 1,142 1,339 1,539 74.2

Financial activities

8,655 1,232 4,565 1,058 4,090 1,483 71.3

Finance and insurance

6,672 1,313 3,665 1,074 3,007 1,657 64.8

Real estate and rental and leasing

1,984 1,003 900 990 1,083 1,011 97.9

Professional and business services

14,127 1,238 5,735 1,068 8,393 1,386 77.1

Professional and technical services

9,904 1,514 4,093 1,257 5,811 1,736 72.4

Management, administrative, and waste services

4,224 748 1,642 707 2,582 781 90.5

Education and health services

26,953 1,020 19,694 962 7,259 1,230 78.2

Educational services

10,839 1,125 7,442 1,063 3,396 1,248 85.2

Health care and social assistance

16,114 957 12,252 900 3,862 1,201 74.9

Leisure and hospitality

6,795 656 3,171 609 3,624 703 86.6

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

1,515 834 631 756 884 892 84.8

Accommodation and food services

5,280 618 2,540 588 2,740 665 88.4

Other services

4,202 855 1,812 739 2,390 952 77.6

Other services, except private households

3,869 892 1,523 783 2,347 958 81.7

Private households

333 579 290 561 43 - -

Public administration

6,940 1,193 3,149 1,058 3,791 1,311 80.7

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed people, both those with incorporated and unincorporated businesses. Women's earnings as a percentage of men's are not shown where employment for either women or men is less than 50,000. Median earnings are not shown where employment is less than 50,000. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 20. Wage and salary workers paid hourly rates with earnings at or below prevailing federal minimum wage, by selected characteristics, 2021 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Characteristic Workers paid hourly rates
Total Total at or below prevailing federal minimum wage
Total Percentage
of hourly paid
workers
At prevailing
federal
minimum
wage
Below
prevailing
federal
minimum
wage

Age and gender

Total, 16 years and older

76,125 1,091 1.4 181 910

16 to 24 years

15,153 484 3.2 111 373

25 years and older

60,973 607 1.0 70 538

Women, 16 years and older

38,036 693 1.8 94 599

16 to 24 years

7,608 325 4.3 61 264

25 years and older

30,428 368 1.2 34 335

Men, 16 years and older

38,089 398 1.0 87 311

16 to 24 years

7,544 159 2.1 51 108

25 years and older

30,545 239 0.8 36 203

Race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity(1)

White

58,021 832 1.4 127 706

Women

28,366 539 1.9 62 477

Men

29,656 293 1.0 64 229

Black or African American

11,019 146 1.3 34 112

Women

6,010 84 1.4 21 63

Men

5,009 62 1.2 13 49

Asian

3,809 44 1.1 9 34

Women

2,044 29 1.4 4 24

Men

1,766 15 0.8 5 10

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

16,998 226 1.3 33 194

Women

7,534 137 1.8 11 125

Men

9,464 90 0.9 21 69

Full- and part-time status(2)

Full-time workers

58,259 520 0.9 47 473

Women

26,432 318 1.2 20 297

Men

31,827 202 0.6 27 175

Part-time workers

17,757 567 3.2 134 433

Women

11,552 374 3.2 74 300

Men

6,205 193 3.1 60 133

(1) Estimates for the race groups—White, Black or African American, and Asian—do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
(2) The distinction between full- and part-time workers is based on hours usually worked. These data will not sum to totals because full- or part-time status on the principal job is not identifiable for a small number of multiple jobholders. Full time is 35 hours or more per week; part time is less than 35 hours.

NOTE: Data exclude all self-employed persons whether or not their businesses are incorporated.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 21. Employed people, by full- and part-time status and gender, 1968–2021 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Year and gender Total employed Usually full time Usually part time Percentage usually
full time
Percentage usually
part time

Total

1968

75,920 65,277 10,644 86.0 14.0

1969

77,902 66,596 11,306 85.5 14.5

1970

78,678 66,753 11,925 84.8 15.2

1971

79,367 66,973 12,393 84.4 15.6

1972

82,153 69,214 12,939 84.3 15.7

1973

85,064 71,803 13,262 84.4 15.6

1974

86,794 73,093 13,701 84.2 15.8

1975

85,846 71,586 14,260 83.4 16.6

1976

88,752 73,964 14,788 83.3 16.7

1977

92,017 76,625 15,391 83.3 16.7

1978

96,048 80,193 15,855 83.5 16.5

1979

98,824 82,654 16,171 83.6 16.4

1980

99,303 82,562 16,740 83.1 16.9

1981

100,397 83,243 17,154 82.9 17.1

1982

99,526 81,421 18,106 81.8 18.2

1983

100,834 82,322 18,511 81.6 18.4

1984

105,005 86,544 18,462 82.4 17.6

1985

107,150 88,534 18,615 82.6 17.4

1986

109,597 90,529 19,069 82.6 17.4

1987

112,440 92,957 19,483 82.7 17.3

1988

114,968 95,214 19,754 82.8 17.2

1989

117,342 97,369 19,973 83.0 17.0

1990

118,793 98,666 20,128 83.1 16.9

1991

117,718 97,190 20,528 82.6 17.4

1992

118,492 97,664 20,828 82.4 17.6

1993

120,259 99,114 21,145 82.4 17.6

1994

123,060 99,772 23,288 81.1 18.9

1995

124,900 101,679 23,220 81.4 18.6

1996

126,708 103,537 23,170 81.7 18.3

1997

129,558 106,334 23,224 82.1 17.9

1998

131,463 108,202 23,261 82.3 17.7

1999

133,488 110,302 23,186 82.6 17.4

2000

136,891 113,846 23,044 83.2 16.8

2001

136,933 113,573 23,361 82.9 17.1

2002

136,485 112,700 23,785 82.6 17.4

2003

137,736 113,324 24,412 82.3 17.7

2004

139,252 114,518 24,734 82.2 17.8

2005

141,730 117,016 24,714 82.6 17.4

2006

144,427 119,688 24,739 82.9 17.1

2007

146,047 121,091 24,956 82.9 17.1

2008

145,362 120,030 25,332 82.6 17.4

2009

139,877 112,634 27,244 80.5 19.5

2010

139,064 111,714 27,350 80.3 19.7

2011

139,869 112,556 27,313 80.5 19.5

2012

142,469 114,809 27,661 80.6 19.4

2013

143,929 116,314 27,615 80.8 19.2

2014

146,305 118,718 27,587 81.1 18.9

2015

148,834 121,492 27,341 81.6 18.4

2016

151,436 123,761 27,675 81.7 18.3

2017

153,337 125,967 27,370 82.2 17.8

2018

155,761 128,572 27,189 82.5 17.5

2019

157,538 130,597 26,941 82.9 17.1

2020

147,795 123,188 24,607 83.4 16.6

2021

152,581 127,159 25,421 83.3 16.7

Women

1968

27,807 20,893 6,914 75.1 24.9

1969

29,084 21,781 7,303 74.9 25.1

1970

29,688 21,929 7,758 73.9 26.1

1971

29,976 21,950 8,026 73.2 26.8

1972

31,257 22,842 8,416 73.1 26.9

1973

32,715 23,960 8,756 73.2 26.8

1974

33,769 24,714 9,055 73.2 26.8

1975

33,989 24,598 9,391 72.4 27.6

1976

35,615 25,814 9,799 72.5 27.5

1977

37,289 27,076 10,213 72.6 27.4

1978

39,569 28,912 10,658 73.1 26.9

1979

41,217 30,227 10,990 73.3 26.7

1980

42,117 30,845 11,270 73.2 26.8

1981

43,000 31,337 11,664 72.9 27.1

1982

43,256 31,086 12,170 71.9 28.1

1983

44,047 31,679 12,367 71.9 28.1

1984

45,915 33,473 12,441 72.9 27.1

1985

47,259 34,672 12,587 73.4 26.6

1986

48,706 35,845 12,862 73.6 26.4

1987

50,334 37,210 13,124 73.9 26.1

1988

51,696 38,398 13,298 74.3 25.7

1989

53,027 39,484 13,544 74.5 25.5

1990

53,689 40,165 13,524 74.8 25.2

1991

53,496 39,783 13,713 74.4 25.6

1992

54,052 40,301 13,751 74.6 25.4

1993

54,910 40,991 13,919 74.7 25.3

1994

56,610 40,940 15,670 72.3 27.7

1995

57,523 41,743 15,779 72.6 27.4

1996

58,501 42,776 15,725 73.1 26.9

1997

59,873 44,076 15,797 73.6 26.4

1998

60,771 45,014 15,757 74.1 25.9

1999

62,042 46,372 15,670 74.7 25.3

2000

63,586 47,916 15,670 75.4 24.6

2001

63,737 47,950 15,788 75.2 24.8

2002

63,582 47,494 16,088 74.7 25.3

2003

64,404 47,946 16,459 74.4 25.6

2004

64,728 48,073 16,654 74.3 25.7

2005

65,757 49,158 16,598 74.8 25.2

2006

66,925 50,380 16,545 75.3 24.7

2007

67,792 51,056 16,736 75.3 24.7

2008

67,876 51,178 16,698 75.4 24.6

2009

66,208 48,683 17,525 73.5 26.5

2010

65,705 48,214 17,491 73.4 26.6

2011

65,579 48,224 17,355 73.5 26.5

2012

66,914 49,331 17,583 73.7 26.3

2013

67,577 49,979 17,598 74.0 26.0

2014

68,613 50,889 17,724 74.2 25.8

2015

69,703 52,142 17,561 74.8 25.2

2016

70,868 53,194 17,674 75.1 24.9

2017

71,936 54,396 17,539 75.6 24.4

2018

73,063 55,638 17,425 76.2 23.8

2019

74,078 56,773 17,304 76.6 23.4

2020

69,234 53,727 15,508 77.6 22.4

2021

71,752 55,648 16,103 77.6 22.4

Men

1968

48,114 44,384 3,730 92.2 7.8

1969

48,818 44,815 4,003 91.8 8.2

1970

48,990 44,825 4,166 91.5 8.5

1971

49,390 45,023 4,367 91.2 8.8

1972

50,896 46,373 4,523 91.1 8.9

1973

52,349 47,843 4,507 91.4 8.6

1974

53,024 48,378 4,646 91.2 8.8

1975

51,857 46,988 4,870 90.6 9.4

1976

53,138 48,150 4,988 90.6 9.4

1977

54,728 49,551 5,178 90.5 9.5

1978

56,479 51,281 5,198 90.8 9.2

1979

57,607 52,427 5,180 91.0 9.0

1980

57,186 51,717 5,471 90.4 9.6

1981

57,397 51,906 5,492 90.4 9.6

1982

56,271 50,334 5,937 89.4 10.6

1983

56,787 50,643 6,145 89.2 10.8

1984

59,091 53,070 6,020 89.8 10.2

1985

59,891 53,862 6,028 89.9 10.1

1986

60,892 54,685 6,207 89.8 10.2

1987

62,107 55,746 6,360 89.8 10.2

1988

63,273 56,816 6,457 89.8 10.2

1989

64,315 57,885 6,430 90.0 10.0

1990

65,104 58,501 6,604 89.9 10.1

1991

64,223 57,407 6,815 89.4 10.6

1992

64,440 57,363 7,077 89.0 11.0

1993

65,349 58,123 7,226 88.9 11.1

1994

66,450 58,832 7,617 88.5 11.5

1995

67,377 59,936 7,441 89.0 11.0

1996

68,207 60,762 7,445 89.1 10.9

1997

69,685 62,258 7,427 89.3 10.7

1998

70,693 63,189 7,504 89.4 10.6

1999

71,446 63,930 7,516 89.5 10.5

2000

73,305 65,930 7,375 89.9 10.1

2001

73,196 65,623 7,573 89.7 10.3

2002

72,903 65,205 7,697 89.4 10.6

2003

73,332 65,379 7,953 89.2 10.8

2004

74,524 66,444 8,080 89.2 10.8

2005

75,973 67,858 8,115 89.3 10.7

2006

77,502 69,307 8,194 89.4 10.6

2007

78,254 70,035 8,220 89.5 10.5

2008

77,486 68,853 8,634 88.9 11.1

2009

73,670 63,951 9,719 86.8 13.2

2010

73,359 63,501 9,858 86.6 13.4

2011

74,290 64,333 9,957 86.6 13.4

2012

75,555 65,477 10,078 86.7 13.3

2013

76,353 66,335 10,017 86.9 13.1

2014

77,692 67,829 9,863 87.3 12.7

2015

79,131 69,351 9,780 87.6 12.4

2016

80,568 70,567 10,002 87.6 12.4

2017

81,402 71,571 9,831 87.9 12.1

2018

82,698 72,935 9,764 88.2 11.8

2019

83,460 73,824 9,637 88.5 11.5

2020

78,560 69,461 9,099 88.4 11.6

2021

80,829 71,511 9,318 88.5 11.5

NOTE: Full time is 35 or more hours per week; part time is 1 to 34 hours per week. Data for 1994 and subsequent years are not directly comparable with data for 1993 and earlier years because of the introduction of a major redesign of the Current Population Survey.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 22. Average weekly hours at work in all industries and in nonagricultural industries, by gender, 1976–2021 annual averages
Year All industries Nonagricultural industries
Total Women Men Total Women Men

1976

38.7 34.1 41.7 38.4 34.1 41.4

1977

38.8 34.2 41.9 38.5 34.2 41.6

1978

39.0 34.5 42.1 38.7 34.4 41.8

1979

38.9 34.5 42.0 38.6 34.4 41.7

1980

38.5 34.5 41.5 38.3 34.4 41.2

1981

38.1 34.1 41.1 37.9 34.1 40.7

1982

38.0 34.1 40.9 37.7 34.0 40.6

1983

38.3 34.5 41.2 38.1 34.4 41.0

1984

38.8 34.9 41.8 38.6 34.9 41.5

1985

39.0 35.2 42.0 38.9 35.2 41.8

1986

39.1 35.4 42.1 38.9 35.3 41.9

1987

39.0 35.3 42.0 38.8 35.3 41.8

1988

39.4 35.7 42.4 39.3 35.7 42.2

1989

39.6 35.8 42.6 39.4 35.8 42.4

1990

39.4 35.8 42.3 39.3 35.8 42.1

1991

39.2 35.8 42.0 39.1 35.8 41.9

1992

38.9 35.6 41.7 38.8 35.6 41.6

1993

39.4 36.0 42.2 39.3 36.0 42.1

1994

39.2 35.5 42.2 39.1 35.6 42.1

1995

39.3 35.6 42.3 39.2 35.7 42.2

1996

39.3 35.7 42.3 39.2 35.7 42.2

1997

39.5 36.0 42.4 39.4 36.0 42.3

1998

39.3 35.8 42.2 39.2 35.9 42.2

1999

39.6 36.2 42.4 39.5 36.2 42.4

2000

39.7 36.4 42.5 39.6 36.4 42.4

2001

39.2 36.1 41.9 39.2 36.1 41.8

2002

39.2 36.0 41.8 39.1 36.1 41.7

2003

39.0 35.9 41.7 39.0 35.9 41.6

2004

39.0 35.9 41.7 39.0 35.9 41.6

2005

39.2 36.1 41.8 39.1 36.1 41.7

2006

39.2 36.2 41.8 39.2 36.2 41.7

2007

39.2 36.1 41.7 39.1 36.1 41.6

2008

38.9 36.1 41.3 38.8 36.1 41.2

2009

37.9 35.3 40.2 37.8 35.3 40.1

2010

38.2 35.5 40.5 38.1 35.6 40.4

2011

38.3 35.6 40.6 38.2 35.6 40.6

2012

38.5 35.8 40.8 38.4 35.8 40.7

2013

38.6 36.0 40.9 38.5 36.0 40.8

2014

38.6 35.9 41.0 38.6 35.9 40.9

2015

38.6 35.9 40.9 38.5 35.9 40.8

2016

38.7 36.2 41.0 38.7 36.2 40.9

2017

38.7 36.2 40.9 38.6 36.2 40.8

2018

38.9 36.4 41.1 38.9 36.4 41.0

2019

39.0 36.5 41.1 38.9 36.6 41.0

2020

38.3 36.1 40.2 38.2 36.1 40.1

2021

38.7 36.6 40.6 38.7 36.6 40.5

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 23. Work experience of the population, by gender and full- and part-time status, selected years, 1970–2020 (Percent distribution)
Year and gender Population (in
thousands)
Worked during the year Percent distribution by work experience
Total (in
thousands)
Percentage
of population
Total Usually work full time Usually work part time
Total 50 to 52
weeks
1 to 49
weeks
Total 50 to 52
weeks
1 to 49
weeks

Total

1970

138,953 93,850 67.5 100.0 79.4 55.6 23.8 20.6 6.7 13.9

1975

153,180 102,603 67.0 100.0 78.9 54.3 24.6 21.2 7.5 13.7

1980

169,452 115,752 68.3 100.0 78.5 56.1 22.4 21.4 7.7 13.7

1985

179,944 123,466 68.6 100.0 78.2 58.7 19.5 21.9 8.3 13.6

1990

189,238 132,562 70.1 100.0 78.8 60.4 18.4 21.3 8.7 12.6

1995

199,925 138,971 69.5 100.0 78.6 62.9 15.7 21.3 9.1 12.2

2000

214,292 150,787 70.4 100.0 80.4 66.7 13.8 19.5 9.3 10.2

2005

227,975 154,322 67.7 100.0 80.3 67.5 12.8 19.7 10.0 9.7

2006

231,033 156,658 67.8 100.0 80.9 68.4 12.5 19.1 9.7 9.4

2007

232,995 157,653 67.7 100.0 80.9 68.4 12.5 19.1 9.8 9.3

2008

235,086 157,472 67.0 100.0 79.5 65.6 13.9 20.5 10.5 10.0

2009

237,158 153,929 64.9 100.0 78.3 64.0 14.3 21.7 11.3 10.4

2010

238,999 152,320 63.7 100.0 78.2 64.7 13.5 21.8 11.2 10.6

2011

242,602 153,479 63.3 100.0 78.6 65.8 12.8 21.4 11.2 10.2

2012

244,993 156,194 63.8 100.0 78.4 65.5 12.9 21.6 11.2 10.4

2013

247,258 156,987 63.5 100.0 79.0 66.9 12.1 21.0 10.9 10.1

2014

250,080 159,056 63.6 100.0 79.6 67.9 11.7 20.4 10.8 9.6

2015

252,766 162,329 64.2 100.0 79.6 68.0 11.6 20.4 10.6 9.8

2016

254,413 163,638 64.3 100.0 79.8 68.8 11.0 20.2 10.7 9.6

2017

257,097 165,163 64.2 100.0 80.4 69.5 10.9 19.6 10.6 9.0

2018

258,527 166,402 64.4 100.0 80.8 70.4 10.4 19.2 10.4 8.8

2019

259,757 168,632 64.9 100.0 80.8 70.2 10.6 19.2 10.2 9.0

2020

260,995 165,666 63.5 100.0 80.9 63.1 17.8 19.1 7.9 11.2

Women

1970

73,657 38,809 52.7 100.0 67.9 40.7 27.2 32.2 10.1 22.1

1975

80,834 43,511 53.8 100.0 67.1 41.4 25.7 32.8 11.7 21.1

1980

89,259 51,492 57.7 100.0 67.7 44.7 23.0 32.3 11.9 20.4

1985

94,490 56,165 59.4 100.0 68.1 48.9 19.2 31.8 12.3 19.5

1990

98,970 61,494 62.1 100.0 69.8 51.5 18.3 30.2 12.8 17.4

1995

104,058 65,304 62.8 100.0 70.2 54.3 15.9 29.7 13.3 16.4

2000

111,440 71,341 64.0 100.0 72.9 58.4 14.5 27.1 13.4 13.7

2005

117,814 72,309 61.4 100.0 72.7 59.9 12.8 27.3 14.1 13.2

2006

119,300 73,527 61.6 100.0 73.0 60.7 12.3 27.0 14.1 12.9

2007

120,300 74,115 61.6 100.0 73.6 61.5 12.1 26.4 14.2 12.2

2008

121,328 74,363 61.3 100.0 72.2 59.3 12.9 27.8 15.0 12.9

2009

122,339 72,855 59.6 100.0 71.5 59.3 12.2 28.5 15.8 12.7

2010

123,012 71,980 58.5 100.0 71.5 59.4 12.1 28.5 15.6 12.9

2011

125,619 72,976 58.1 100.0 71.7 59.8 11.9 28.3 15.7 12.6

2012

126,791 74,051 58.4 100.0 71.5 59.4 12.1 28.5 15.2 13.3

2013

127,863 74,397 58.2 100.0 71.8 60.5 11.3 28.2 15.2 13.0

2014

129,342 75,416 58.3 100.0 72.7 61.2 11.5 27.3 14.7 12.6

2015

130,656 76,811 58.8 100.0 73.0 61.4 11.6 27.0 14.6 12.4

2016

131,469 77,574 59.0 100.0 73.1 62.2 10.9 26.9 14.6 12.3

2017

132,766 78,016 58.8 100.0 73.5 63.1 10.4 26.5 14.9 11.6

2018

133,500 79,239 59.4 100.0 74.4 64.0 10.3 25.6 14.3 11.3

2019

134,119 80,558 60.1 100.0 74.9 64.5 10.4 25.1 13.7 11.3

2020

134,737 79,085 58.7 100.0 75.0 57.8 17.2 25.0 10.5 14.5

Men

1970

65,296 55,041 84.3 100.0 87.6 66.1 21.5 12.4 4.4 8.0

1975

72,346 59,091 81.7 100.0 87.5 63.8 23.7 12.5 4.4 8.1

1980

80,193 64,260 80.1 100.0 87.2 65.2 22.0 12.8 4.4 8.4

1985

85,454 67,301 78.8 100.0 86.5 66.8 19.7 13.5 4.8 8.7

1990

90,269 71,068 78.7 100.0 86.4 68.0 18.4 13.5 5.1 8.4

1995

95,867 73,667 76.8 100.0 86.2 70.6 15.6 13.9 5.5 8.4

2000

102,853 79,446 77.2 100.0 87.5 74.2 13.2 12.6 5.5 7.1

2005

110,161 82,013 74.4 100.0 87.0 74.2 12.8 13.0 6.3 6.7

2006

111,733 83,131 74.4 100.0 87.8 75.2 12.6 12.2 5.7 6.5

2007

112,695 83,538 74.1 100.0 87.4 74.6 12.8 12.6 5.9 6.7

2008

113,758 83,109 73.1 100.0 86.0 71.2 14.8 14.0 6.5 7.5

2009

114,820 81,073 70.6 100.0 84.4 68.3 16.1 15.6 7.3 8.3

2010

115,986 80,341 69.3 100.0 84.3 69.4 14.9 15.7 7.3 8.4

2011

116,984 80,503 68.8 100.0 84.8 71.2 13.6 15.2 7.2 8.0

2012

118,202 82,143 69.5 100.0 84.5 71.0 13.5 15.5 7.5 8.0

2013

119,395 82,590 69.2 100.0 85.5 72.7 12.8 14.5 7.1 7.4

2014

120,738 83,640 69.3 100.0 85.7 73.9 11.8 14.3 7.2 7.1

2015

122,110 85,518 70.0 100.0 85.6 73.9 11.7 14.4 7.0 7.4

2016

122,944 86,063 70.0 100.0 85.8 74.7 11.1 14.2 7.1 7.0

2017

124,331 87,147 70.1 100.0 86.6 75.3 11.3 13.4 6.7 6.7

2018

125,027 87,163 69.7 100.0 86.7 76.2 10.4 13.3 6.9 6.4

2019

125,638 88,074 70.1 100.0 86.2 75.4 10.8 13.8 7.0 6.8

2020

126,259 86,581 68.6 100.0 86.3 67.9 18.4 13.7 5.5 8.2

NOTE: These data reflect work experience for the entire year.
The 2013 data in this report, collected in the 2014 ASEC, are based on fewer sample responses than in recent years. Approximately three-eighths of the 2014 CPS ASEC sample was used to test redesigned questions on income and health insurance coverage; this portion of the sample was not used to generate the estimates in this table.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplements, 1971–2021.

Table 24A. Opposite-sex married-couple families, by number and relationship of earners, 1967–2020 (Numbers in thousands)
Year Opposite-sex married-couple families
Total No earners One earner Two or more earners
Total Husband
only
Wife only Other family
member
Total Husband
and wife
Husband
and other
family
member
Wife and
other family
member
Husband
and wife are
not earners

1967

43,292 2,943 16,490 15,429 716 345 23,859 18,888 4,639 - -

1968

43,842 2,888 16,375 15,310 730 335 24,579 19,743 4,522 - -

1969

44,436 3,022 16,268 15,133 797 339 25,145 20,327 4,517 - -

1970

44,832 3,252 16,117 14,931 867 320 25,464 20,510 4,622 - -

1971

45,939 3,471 16,847 15,502 1,004 340 25,621 20,641 4,651 - -

1972

46,594 3,632 16,787 15,387 1,003 398 26,175 21,279 4,553 - -

1973

47,185 4,027 16,080 14,547 1,110 423 27,078 22,152 4,535 - -

1974

47,438 4,325 15,795 14,122 1,216 457 27,319 22,451 4,442 - -

1975

47,878 4,943 16,217 14,343 1,394 481 26,717 22,338 3,861 - -

1976

48,150 4,962 15,630 13,690 1,424 516 27,559 23,104 3,829 - -

1977

48,131 5,177 15,119 13,153 1,456 512 27,835 23,474 3,812 - -

1978

48,532 5,226 14,456 12,434 1,509 513 28,850 24,655 3,609 - -

1979

49,132 5,559 13,912 11,934 1,499 480 29,660 25,595 3,476 - -

1980

49,316 5,903 13,900 11,621 1,707 573 29,513 25,557 3,380 - -

1981

49,669 6,213 13,832 11,524 1,680 628 29,624 25,729 3,212 - -

1982

49,947 6,427 14,235 11,575 2,048 613 29,285 25,387 3,149 - -

1983

50,134 6,549 13,692 11,100 1,944 647 29,893 26,119 2,996 - -

1984

50,395 6,630 12,952 10,472 1,852 628 30,814 27,035 2,891 - -

1985

50,978 6,693 12,961 10,406 1,897 658 31,324 27,787 2,764 - -

1986

51,574 6,731 12,565 9,984 1,917 664 32,278 28,811 2,730 - -

1987

51,847 6,741 12,435 9,787 1,946 702 32,671 29,369 2,576 - -

1988

52,149 6,754 11,876 9,463 1,777 636 33,519 30,536 2,303 532 148

1989

52,385 6,812 11,748 9,212 1,840 695 33,825 30,879 2,373 435 138

1990

52,241 6,770 11,630 9,107 1,826 698 33,841 30,829 2,369 479 164

1991

52,549 7,091 11,523 8,873 1,993 657 33,935 31,049 2,161 527 197

1992

53,254 7,256 11,977 9,114 2,145 718 34,021 31,268 1,940 624 189

1993

53,248 7,282 11,842 8,745 2,411 687 34,123 31,302 2,051 614 156

1994

53,929 7,227 11,774 8,719 2,374 681 34,928 32,125 2,048 603 151

1995

53,621 7,278 11,739 8,821 2,253 664 34,604 32,061 1,878 539 127

1996

53,654 7,148 11,556 8,671 2,214 671 34,950 32,406 1,899 522 123

1997

54,362 7,289 11,728 8,792 2,302 634 35,345 32,764 1,853 569 158

1998

54,829 7,257 12,279 9,198 2,419 662 35,293 32,810 1,726 616 141

1999

55,352 7,163 12,328 9,093 2,595 640 35,861 33,360 1,815 519 167

2000

56,643 7,463 12,717 9,515 2,601 600 36,463 33,892 1,865 566 139

2001

56,798 7,666 12,907 9,621 2,698 588 36,224 33,696 1,898 501 129

2002

57,362 7,803 13,487 10,109 2,818 560 36,071 33,547 1,845 558 121

2003

57,767 8,043 14,051 10,469 3,026 557 35,673 33,220 1,789 548 117

2004

58,045 7,996 14,352 10,821 2,991 540 35,696 33,131 1,832 610 123

2005

58,225 8,017 14,292 10,603 3,096 593 35,915 33,380 1,818 597 121

2006

59,050 8,091 14,545 10,693 3,261 591 36,414 33,880 1,752 639 142

2007

58,490 7,914 14,264 10,392 3,265 608 36,312 33,718 1,847 597 149

2008

59,183 8,083 14,622 10,567 3,435 620 36,477 33,930 1,739 650 158

2009

58,516 8,466 15,035 10,565 3,849 621 35,015 32,327 1,789 739 160

2010

58,135 8,626 15,406 10,880 3,935 591 34,103 31,425 1,783 722 172

2011

59,071 9,152 15,972 11,301 4,015 656 33,947 31,212 1,833 739 163

2012

59,327 9,101 15,831 11,271 3,891 669 34,395 31,594 1,881 750 170

2013

59,795 9,556 15,825 11,368 3,788 669 34,414 31,685 1,849 711 169

2014

60,091 9,434 15,627 11,240 3,767 620 35,030 32,000 2,082 764 183

2015

60,338 9,379 15,640 11,178 3,733 729 35,320 32,333 2,028 756 203

2016

60,912 9,814 15,490 11,054 3,742 695 35,608 32,647 2,054 752 155

2017

61,348 9,944 15,887 11,386 3,841 660 35,517 32,430 2,092 781 214

2018

61,505 10,022 15,575 10,960 3,916 699 35,908 32,839 2,019 783 268

2019

61,840 10,350 15,032 10,463 3,739 830 36,458 33,394 2,090 764 209

2020

60,853 10,839 15,081 10,346 3,919 816 34,933 31,935 2,006 801 191

NOTE: Data refer to opposite-sex married-couple families only. Data reflect earnings and work experience for the entire year. Dash indicates data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplements 1968–2021.

Table 24B. Opposite-sex married-couple families, by number and relationship of earners, 1967–2020 (Percent distribution)
Year Opposite-sex married-couple families
Total No earners One earner Two or more earners
Total Husband
only
Wife only Other family
member
Total Husband
and wife
Husband
and other
family
member
Wife and
other family
member
Husband
and wife are
not earners

1967

100.0 6.8 38.1 35.6 1.7 0.8 55.1 43.6 10.7 - -

1968

100.0 6.6 37.4 34.9 1.7 0.8 56.1 45.0 10.3 - -

1969

100.0 6.8 36.6 34.1 1.8 0.8 56.6 45.7 10.2 - -

1970

100.0 7.3 35.9 33.3 1.9 0.7 56.8 45.7 10.3 - -

1971

100.0 7.6 36.7 33.7 2.2 0.7 55.8 44.9 10.1 - -

1972

100.0 7.8 36.0 33.0 2.2 0.9 56.2 45.7 9.8 - -

1973

100.0 8.5 34.1 30.8 2.4 0.9 57.4 46.9 9.6 - -

1974

100.0 9.1 33.3 29.8 2.6 1.0 57.6 47.3 9.4 - -

1975

100.0 10.3 33.9 30.0 2.9 1.0 55.8 46.7 8.1 - -

1976

100.0 10.3 32.5 28.4 3.0 1.1 57.2 48.0 8.0 - -

1977

100.0 10.8 31.4 27.3 3.0 1.1 57.8 48.8 7.9 - -

1978

100.0 10.8 29.8 25.6 3.1 1.1 59.4 50.8 7.4 - -

1979

100.0 11.3 28.3 24.3 3.1 1.0 60.4 52.1 7.1 - -

1980

100.0 12.0 28.2 23.6 3.5 1.2 59.8 51.8 6.9 - -

1981

100.0 12.5 27.8 23.2 3.4 1.3 59.6 51.8 6.5 - -

1982

100.0 12.9 28.5 23.2 4.1 1.2 58.6 50.8 6.3 - -

1983

100.0 13.1 27.3 22.1 3.9 1.3 59.6 52.1 6.0 - -

1984

100.0 13.2 25.7 20.8 3.7 1.2 61.1 53.6 5.7 - -

1985

100.0 13.1 25.4 20.4 3.7 1.3 61.4 54.5 5.4 - -

1986

100.0 13.1 24.4 19.4 3.7 1.3 62.6 55.9 5.3 - -

1987

100.0 13.0 24.0 18.9 3.8 1.4 63.0 56.6 5.0 - -

1988

100.0 13.0 22.8 18.1 3.4 1.2 64.3 58.6 4.4 1.0 0.3

1989

100.0 13.0 22.4 17.6 3.5 1.3 64.6 58.9 4.5 0.8 0.3

1990

100.0 13.0 22.3 17.4 3.5 1.3 64.8 59.0 4.5 0.9 0.3

1991

100.0 13.5 21.9 16.9 3.8 1.3 64.6 59.1 4.1 1.0 0.4

1992

100.0 13.6 22.5 17.1 4.0 1.3 63.9 58.7 3.6 1.2 0.4

1993

100.0 13.7 22.2 16.4 4.5 1.3 64.1 58.8 3.9 1.2 0.3

1994

100.0 13.4 21.8 16.2 4.4 1.3 64.8 59.6 3.8 1.1 0.3

1995

100.0 13.6 21.9 16.5 4.2 1.2 64.5 59.8 3.5 1.0 0.2

1996

100.0 13.3 21.5 16.2 4.1 1.3 65.1 60.4 3.5 1.0 0.2

1997

100.0 13.4 21.6 16.2 4.2 1.2 65.0 60.3 3.4 1.0 0.3

1998

100.0 13.2 22.4 16.8 4.4 1.2 64.4 59.8 3.1 1.1 0.3

1999

100.0 12.9 22.3 16.4 4.7 1.2 64.8 60.3 3.3 0.9 0.3

2000

100.0 13.2 22.5 16.8 4.6 1.1 64.4 59.8 3.3 1.0 0.2

2001

100.0 13.5 22.7 16.9 4.8 1.0 63.8 59.3 3.3 0.9 0.2

2002

100.0 13.6 23.5 17.6 4.9 1.0 62.9 58.5 3.2 1.0 0.2

2003

100.0 13.9 24.3 18.1 5.2 1.0 61.8 57.5 3.1 0.9 0.2

2004

100.0 13.8 24.7 18.6 5.2 0.9 61.5 57.1 3.2 1.1 0.2

2005

100.0 13.8 24.5 18.2 5.3 1.0 61.7 57.3 3.1 1.0 0.2

2006

100.0 13.7 24.6 18.1 5.5 1.0 61.7 57.4 3.0 1.1 0.2

2007

100.0 13.5 24.4 17.8 5.6 1.0 62.1 57.6 3.2 1.0 0.3

2008

100.0 13.7 24.7 17.9 5.8 1.0 61.6 57.3 2.9 1.1 0.3

2009

100.0 14.5 25.7 18.1 6.6 1.1 59.8 55.2 3.1 1.3 0.3

2010

100.0 14.8 26.5 18.7 6.8 1.0 58.7 54.1 3.1 1.2 0.3

2011

100.0 15.5 27.0 19.1 6.8 1.1 57.5 52.8 3.1 1.3 0.3

2012

100.0 15.3 26.7 19.0 6.6 1.1 58.0 53.3 3.2 1.3 0.3

2013

100.0 16.0 26.5 19.0 6.3 1.1 57.6 53.0 3.1 1.2 0.3

2014

100.0 15.7 26.0 18.7 6.3 1.0 58.3 53.3 3.5 1.3 0.3

2015

100.0 15.5 25.9 18.5 6.2 1.2 58.5 53.6 3.4 1.3 0.3

2016

100.0 16.1 25.4 18.1 6.1 1.1 58.5 53.6 3.4 1.2 0.3

2017

100.0 16.2 25.9 18.6 6.3 1.1 57.9 52.9 3.4 1.3 0.3

2018

100.0 16.3 25.3 17.8 6.4 1.1 58.4 53.4 3.3 1.3 0.4

2019

100.0 16.7 24.3 16.9 6.0 1.3 59.0 54.0 3.4 1.2 0.3

2020

100.0 17.8 24.8 17.0 6.4 1.3 57.4 52.5 3.3 1.3 0.3

NOTE: Data refer to opposite-sex married-couple families only. Data reflect earnings and work experience for the entire year. Dash indicates data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplements 1968–2021.

Table 25. Contribution of wives' earnings to family income, 1970–2020
Year Contribution to family income (median
percentage)

1970

26.6

1971

27.5

1972

26.7

1973

26.0

1974

25.4

1975

26.3

1976

26.4

1977

26.1

1978

26.1

1979

26.0

1980

26.7

1981

27.3

1982

28.4

1983

28.8

1984

28.4

1985

28.3

1986

29.0

1987

29.5

1988

29.6

1989

29.9

1990

30.7

1991

31.3

1992

32.4

1993

32.2

1994

31.9

1995

31.9

1996

32.6

1997

32.7

1998

32.8

1999

32.8

2000

33.5

2001

34.4

2002

34.8

2003

35.2

2004

34.9

2005

35.1

2006

35.6

2007

36.0

2008

36.0

2009

37.1

2010

37.6

2011

37.0

2012

37.3

2013

37.3

2014

36.0

2015

37.1

2016

37.1

2017

37.1

2018

37.5

2019

36.5

2020

36.3

NOTE: Data refer to opposite-sex married-couple families only. Data reflect earnings and work experience for the entire year.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplements 1971–2021.

Table 26. Working poor: Poverty status of people in the labor force for 27 weeks or more, by age, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2020 (Numbers in thousands)
Age and gender Total Below poverty level Rate(1)
Total White Black or African
American
Asian Hispanic or
Latino
Total White Black or African
American
Asian Hispanic or
Latino
Total White Black or African
American
Asian Hispanic or
Latino

Total, 16 years and older

153,201 118,627 19,362 9,793 27,126 6,306 4,398 1,300 253 2,020 4.1 3.7 6.7 2.6 7.4

16 to 19 years

3,498 2,680 527 103 753 274 189 66 - 95 7.8 7.1 12.6 - 12.6

20 to 24 years

12,396 9,327 1,761 586 2,988 982 656 197 59 238 7.9 7.0 11.2 10.1 8.0

25 to 34 years

35,399 26,327 4,992 2,456 7,084 1,778 1,185 436 61 548 5.0 4.5 8.7 2.5 7.7

35 to 44 years

33,189 25,075 4,386 2,532 6,537 1,513 1,098 298 49 614 4.6 4.4 6.8 2.0 9.4

45 to 54 years

31,105 24,284 3,782 2,135 5,459 939 667 173 42 330 3.0 2.7 4.6 2.0 6.0

55 to 64 years

26,987 21,932 2,944 1,508 3,362 663 496 98 30 158 2.5 2.3 3.3 2.0 4.7

65 years and older

10,627 9,002 968 474 943 157 107 30 12 37 1.5 1.2 3.1 2.5 3.9

Women, 16 years and older

72,191 54,648 10,264 4,608 11,613 3,352 2,194 833 129 901 4.6 4.0 8.1 2.8 7.8

16 to 19 years

1,837 1,380 323 52 342 152 107 41 - 36 8.3 7.8 12.6 - 10.5

20 to 24 years

6,098 4,532 915 302 1,389 593 398 111 37 136 9.7 8.8 12.1 12.1 9.8

25 to 34 years

16,566 12,096 2,525 1,146 3,003 1,033 631 306 32 263 6.2 5.2 12.1 2.8 8.8

35 to 44 years

15,172 11,065 2,364 1,160 2,672 743 485 207 18 258 4.9 4.4 8.7 1.5 9.6

45 to 54 years

14,828 11,290 2,077 995 2,365 411 280 88 21 124 2.8 2.5 4.2 2.1 5.2

55 to 64 years

12,998 10,445 1,526 722 1,463 339 245 64 13 68 2.6 2.4 4.2 1.7 4.6

65 years and older

4,693 3,840 533 230 378 82 49 16 10 17 1.7 1.3 3.1 4.2 4.4

Men, 16 years and older

81,010 63,979 9,097 5,186 15,514 2,954 2,204 467 124 1,119 3.6 3.4 5.1 2.4 7.2

16 to 19 years

1,662 1,301 204 51 411 122 82 25 - 59 7.3 6.3 12.5 - 14.4

20 to 24 years

6,298 4,795 846 284 1,599 388 258 86 22 103 6.2 5.4 10.1 7.9 6.4

25 to 34 years

18,833 14,230 2,467 1,310 4,081 746 554 130 29 284 4.0 3.9 5.3 2.2 7.0

35 to 44 years

18,016 14,011 2,022 1,372 3,865 770 613 92 32 356 4.3 4.4 4.5 2.3 9.2

45 to 54 years

16,277 12,994 1,705 1,140 3,094 529 388 86 21 206 3.2 3.0 5.0 1.9 6.7

55 to 64 years

13,989 11,487 1,418 787 1,899 324 251 34 17 91 2.3 2.2 2.4 2.2 4.8

65 years and older

5,934 5,162 435 244 565 75 58 14 2 20 1.3 1.1 3.2 0.9 3.6

(1) Number below the poverty level as a percentage of the total in the labor force for 27 or more weeks.

NOTE: These data reflect the earnings and work experience for the entire year. Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates no data or data where labor force base is less than 80,000.
Source: Current Population Survey, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2021 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

Table 27. Long-tenured displaced workers, by age, gender, race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, and employment status, January 2022
Age, gender, race and Hispanic or
Latino ethnicity
Total (in
thousands)
Percentage distribution by employment status
Total Employed Unemployed Not in the
labor force

Total, 20 years and older

3,596 100.0 65.2 12.4 22.3

20 to 24 years

119 100.0 67.7 16.8 15.5

25 to 54 years

2,227 100.0 72.2 12.3 15.6

55 to 64 years

852 100.0 63.9 13.2 23.0

65 years and older

398 100.0 28.7 10.4 60.9

Women, 20 years and older

1,708 100.0 62.2 11.2 26.7

20 to 24 years

54 100.0 - - -

25 to 54 years

1,027 100.0 67.8 10.3 21.9

55 to 64 years

426 100.0 62.3 12.0 25.7

65 years and older

201 100.0 30.4 12.2 57.5

Men, 20 years and older

1,889 100.0 68.0 13.6 18.4

20 to 24 years

65 100.0 - - -

25 to 54 years

1,201 100.0 75.9 13.9 10.2

55 to 64 years

426 100.0 65.4 14.3 20.3

65 years and older

197 100.0 27.0 8.7 64.4

White

Total, 20 years and older

2,819 100.0 64.2 12.2 23.5

Women

1,391 100.0 60.2 11.3 28.5

Men

1,428 100.0 68.2 13.1 18.7

Black or African American

Total, 20 years and older

357 100.0 71.2 8.3 20.4

Women

154 100.0 74.9 8.8 16.3

Men

203 100.0 68.5 8.0 23.6

Asian

Total, 20 years and older

278 100.0 66.0 17.2 16.8

Women

89 100.0 68.7 5.4 25.9

Men

189 100.0 64.7 22.8 12.5

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total, 20 years and older

597 100.0 64.7 16.7 18.6

Women

285 100.0 54.7 19.5 25.8

Men

312 100.0 73.8 14.2 12.0

NOTE: Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000). Workers who had 3 or more years of tenure on a job they had lost or left between January 2019 and December 2021 because of plant or company closings or relocations, insufficient work, or the abolishment of their positions or shifts.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, January 2022 Displaced Worker, Employee Tenure and Occupational Mobility Supplement.

Table 28. Employed wage and salary workers, by age, gender, and median years of tenure with current employer, selected years, 2004–22
Age and gender January 2004 January 2006 January 2008 January 2010 January 2012 January 2014 January 2016 January 2018 January 2020 January 2022

Total, 16 years and older

4.0 4.0 4.1 4.4 4.6 4.6 4.2 4.2 4.1 4.1

16 to 17 years

0.7 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7

18 to 19 years

0.8 0.7 0.8 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.7

20 to 24 years

1.3 1.3 1.3 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.2

25 years and older

4.9 4.9 5.1 5.2 5.4 5.5 5.1 5.0 4.9 4.9

25 to 34 years

2.9 2.9 2.7 3.1 3.2 3.0 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8

35 to 44 years

4.9 4.9 4.9 5.1 5.3 5.2 4.9 4.9 4.9 4.7

45 to 54 years

7.7 7.3 7.6 7.8 7.8 7.9 7.9 7.6 7.5 6.9

55 to 64 years

9.6 9.3 9.9 10.0 10.3 10.4 10.1 10.1 9.9 9.8

65 years and older

9.0 8.8 10.2 9.9 10.3 10.3 10.3 10.2 10.3 9.9

Women, 16 years and older

3.8 3.9 3.9 4.2 4.6 4.5 4.0 4.0 3.9 3.8

16 to 17 years

0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.6

18 to 19 years

0.8 0.7 0.8 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

20 to 24 years

1.3 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.1

25 years and older

4.7 4.8 4.9 5.1 5.4 5.4 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.7

25 to 34 years

2.8 2.8 2.6 3.0 3.1 2.9 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.7

35 to 44 years

4.5 4.6 4.7 4.9 5.2 5.1 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.5

45 to 54 years

6.4 6.7 7.0 7.1 7.3 7.6 7.5 7.1 6.8 6.3

55 to 64 years

9.2 9.2 9.8 9.7 10.0 10.2 10.0 10.1 9.8 9.5

65 years and older

9.6 9.5 9.9 10.1 10.5 10.5 10.4 10.1 10.4 10.0

Men, 16 years and older

4.1 4.1 4.2 4.6 4.7 4.7 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3

16 to 17 years

0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.7

18 to 19 years

0.8 0.7 0.8 1.0 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.7

20 to 24 years

1.3 1.4 1.4 1.6 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.3

25 years and older

5.1 5.0 5.2 5.3 5.5 5.5 5.2 5.1 5.1 5.1

25 to 34 years

3.0 2.9 2.8 3.2 3.2 3.1 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9

35 to 44 years

5.2 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.4 5.0 5.0 5.1 5.0

45 to 54 years

9.6 8.1 8.2 8.5 8.5 8.2 8.4 8.1 8.2 7.5

55 to 64 years

9.8 9.5 10.1 10.4 10.7 10.7 10.2 10.2 10.0 10.0

65 years and older

8.2 8.3 10.4 9.7 10.2 10.0 10.2 10.2 10.3 9.7

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, January 2004–22 Displaced Worker, Employee Tenure and Occupational Mobility Supplement.

Table 29. Labor force status of 2021 high school graduates and 2020–21 high school dropouts 16 to 24 years old, by school enrollment and gender, October 2021 (Numbers in thousands)
Characteristic Civilian
noninstitutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in
labor force
Total Percentage of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percentage
of population
Total Percentage
of labor force

Total, 2021 high school graduates(1)

2,731 1,258 46.1 1,060 38.8 199 15.8 1,473

Women

1,287 562 43.7 474 36.8 89 15.8 725

Men

1,444 696 48.2 586 40.6 110 15.8 748

Enrolled in college

1,688 560 33.2 513 30.4 48 8.5 1,128

Percentage of total 2021 graduates

61.8 44.5 - 48.4 - 24.0 - 76.6

Women

895 284 31.7 263 29.4 20 7.2 611

Percentage of female 2021 graduates

69.5 50.5 - 55.6 - 23.0 - 84.3

Men

793 276 34.9 249 31.4 27 9.9 517

Percentage of male 2021 graduates

54.9 39.7 - 42.5 - 24.8 - 69.0

Not enrolled in college

1,044 698 66.9 547 52.4 151 21.6 345

Percentage of total 2021 graduates

38.2 55.5 - 51.6 - 76.0 - 23.4

Women

392 279 71.0 210 53.6 68 24.5 114

Percentage of female 2021 graduates

30.5 49.5 - 44.4 - 77.0 - 15.7

Men

651 420 64.4 337 51.8 83 19.7 232

Percentage of male 2021 graduates

45.1 60.3 - 57.5 - 75.2 - 31.0

Total, 2020–21 high school dropouts(2)

449 176 39.1 148 33.0 27 15.6 273

Women

193 88 45.4 80 41.2 8 9.1 106

Men

256 88 34.4 69 26.8 19 22.1 168

(1) Data refer to people who graduated from high school in January through October 2021.
(2) Data refer to people who dropped out of school between October 2020 and October 2021.

NOTE: Dash indicates no data or data that do not meet publication criteria (values not shown where base is less than 75,000). Sums of individual items may not equal totals because of rounding.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, October 2021 School Enrollment Supplement.

Table 30. Labor force status of people 16 to 24 years old, by school enrollment, gender, and educational attainment, October 2021 (Numbers in thousands)
Characteristic Civilian
noninstitutional
population
Civilian labor force Not in
labor force
Total Percentage of
population
Employed Unemployed
Total Percentage
of population
Total Percentage
of labor force

Enrolled in school

20,541 7,512 36.6 7,045 34.3 467 6.2 13,029

Women

10,882 4,303 39.5 4,040 37.1 263 6.1 6,579

Men

9,659 3,209 33.2 3,005 31.1 204 6.4 6,450

Enrolled in high school(1)

9,324 2,165 23.2 1,985 21.3 180 8.3 7,159

Women

4,595 1,150 25.0 1,051 22.9 99 8.6 3,445

Men

4,729 1,015 21.5 934 19.7 81 8.0 3,714

Enrolled in college

11,217 5,347 47.7 5,060 45.1 287 5.4 5,870

Women

6,287 3,153 50.2 2,989 47.5 164 5.2 3,134

Men

4,930 2,194 44.5 2,071 42.0 123 5.6 2,736

Not enrolled in school

16,681 13,273 79.6 12,077 72.4 1,196 9.0 3,408

Women

7,663 5,881 76.7 5,378 70.2 503 8.6 1,782

Less than a high school diploma

851 461 54.1 373 43.8 88 19.1 390

High school graduates, no college(2)

3,408 2,502 73.4 2,216 65.0 285 11.4 906

Some college or associate's degree

1,906 1,536 80.6 1,457 76.5 79 5.1 370

Bachelor's degree and higher

1,498 1,383 92.3 1,332 88.9 51 3.7 115

Men

9,018 7,392 82.0 6,699 74.3 693 9.4 1,626

Less than a high school diploma

1,063 668 62.8 574 54.0 94 14.0 395

High school graduates, no college(2)

4,835 3,906 80.8 3,543 73.3 363 9.3 929

Some college or associate's degree

1,919 1,679 87.5 1,549 80.7 130 7.7 240

Bachelor's degree and higher

1,201 1,139 94.8 1,032 86.0 107 9.4 62

(1) Includes a small number of people enrolled in grades below high school.
(2) Includes those who have earned a high school diploma or the equivalent.

NOTE: Sums of individual items may not equal totals because of rounding.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, October 2021 School Enrollment Supplement.

Table 31. Multiple jobholders and multiple jobholding rates, by gender, 1994–2021 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Year Total
employed
Multiple jobholders Multiple-jobholding rate(1)
Total Women Men Total Women Men
Number Percentage of all multiple jobholders

1994

123,060 7,260 3,336 46.0 3,924 5.9 5.9 5.9

1995

124,900 7,693 3,554 46.2 4,139 6.2 6.2 6.1

1996

126,708 7,832 3,640 46.5 4,192 6.2 6.2 6.1

1997

129,558 7,955 3,718 46.7 4,237 6.1 6.2 6.1

1998

131,463 7,926 3,748 47.3 4,178 6.0 6.2 5.9

1999

133,488 7,802 3,698 47.4 4,104 5.8 6.0 5.7

2000

136,891 7,604 3,608 47.4 3,996 5.6 5.7 5.5

2001

136,933 7,357 3,523 47.9 3,834 5.4 5.5 5.2

2002

136,485 7,291 3,557 48.8 3,734 5.3 5.6 5.1

2003

137,736 7,315 3,599 49.2 3,716 5.3 5.6 5.1

2004

139,252 7,473 3,638 48.7 3,835 5.4 5.6 5.1

2005

141,730 7,546 3,691 48.9 3,855 5.3 5.6 5.1

2006

144,427 7,576 3,753 49.5 3,822 5.2 5.6 4.9

2007

146,047 7,655 3,822 49.9 3,833 5.2 5.6 4.9

2008

145,362 7,620 3,783 49.6 3,837 5.2 5.6 5.0

2009

139,877 7,271 3,741 51.5 3,530 5.2 5.6 4.8

2010

139,064 6,878 3,552 51.6 3,326 4.9 5.4 4.5

2011

139,869 6,880 3,496 50.8 3,384 4.9 5.3 4.6

2012

142,469 6,943 3,495 50.3 3,448 4.9 5.2 4.6

2013

143,929 7,002 3,517 50.2 3,486 4.9 5.2 4.6

2014

146,305 7,146 3,636 50.9 3,511 4.9 5.3 4.5

2015

148,834 7,262 3,692 50.8 3,571 4.9 5.3 4.5

2016

151,436 7,531 3,887 51.6 3,645 5.0 5.5 4.5

2017

153,337 7,545 3,798 50.3 3,748 4.9 5.3 4.6

2018

155,761 7,769 3,934 50.6 3,835 5.0 5.4 4.6

2019

157,538 8,050 4,141 51.4 3,908 5.1 5.6 4.7

2020

147,795 6,687 3,429 51.3 3,258 4.5 5.0 4.1

2021

152,581 7,007 3,562 50.8 3,445 4.6 5.0 4.3

(1) Multiple jobholders as a percent of all employed people in specified group.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Table 32. Unincorporated self-employed people in nonagricultural industries, by gender, 1976–2021 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
Year Total Women Men Self-employed women as
percentage of total self-
employed
Total
employed
Self-
employed
Self-employed as a
percentage of total
Total
employed
Self-
employed
Self-employed as a
percentage of total
Total
employed
Self-
employed
Self-employed as a
percentage of total

1976

85,421 5,783 6.8 35,027 1,549 4.4 50,394 4,233 8.4 26.8

1977

88,734 6,114 6.9 36,677 1,692 4.6 52,057 4,423 8.5 27.7

1978

92,661 6,429 6.9 38,900 1,814 4.7 53,761 4,614 8.6 28.2

1979

95,477 6,791 7.1 40,556 1,982 4.9 54,921 4,810 8.8 29.2

1980

95,938 7,000 7.3 41,461 2,097 5.1 54,477 4,904 9.0 30.0

1981

97,030 7,097 7.3 42,333 2,192 5.2 54,697 4,905 9.0 30.9

1982

96,125 7,262 7.6 42,591 2,309 5.4 53,534 4,954 9.3 31.8

1983

97,450 7,575 7.8 43,367 2,439 5.6 54,083 5,136 9.5 32.2

1984

101,685 7,785 7.7 45,262 2,566 5.7 56,423 5,219 9.2 33.0

1985

103,971 7,811 7.5 46,615 2,603 5.6 57,356 5,207 9.1 33.3

1986

106,434 7,881 7.4 48,054 2,610 5.4 58,381 5,271 9.0 33.1

1987

109,232 8,201 7.5 49,668 2,778 5.6 59,564 5,423 9.1 33.9

1988

111,800 8,519 7.6 51,020 2,955 5.8 60,780 5,564 9.2 34.7

1989

114,142 8,605 7.5 52,341 3,043 5.8 61,802 5,562 9.0 35.4

1990

115,570 8,719 7.5 53,011 3,122 5.9 62,559 5,597 8.9 35.8

1991

114,449 8,850 7.7 52,815 3,150 6.0 61,634 5,700 9.2 35.6

1992

115,245 8,575 7.4 53,380 2,963 5.6 61,866 5,613 9.1 34.5

1993

117,144 8,959 7.6 54,273 3,065 5.6 62,871 5,894 9.4 34.2

1994

119,651 9,003 7.5 55,755 3,443 6.2 63,896 5,560 8.7 38.2

1995

121,460 8,902 7.3 56,642 3,440 6.1 64,818 5,461 8.4 38.6

1996

123,264 8,971 7.3 57,630 3,506 6.1 65,634 5,465 8.3 39.1

1997

126,159 9,056 7.2 59,026 3,550 6.0 67,133 5,506 8.2 39.2

1998

128,085 8,962 7.0 59,945 3,482 5.8 68,140 5,480 8.0 38.9

1999

130,207 8,790 6.8 61,193 3,424 5.6 69,014 5,366 7.8 39.0

2000

134,427 9,205 6.8 62,983 3,631 5.8 71,444 5,573 7.8 39.4

2001

134,635 9,121 6.8 63,147 3,594 5.7 71,488 5,527 7.7 39.4

2002

134,174 8,923 6.7 62,995 3,499 5.6 71,179 5,425 7.6 39.2

2003

135,461 9,344 6.9 63,824 3,609 5.7 71,636 5,736 8.0 38.6

2004

137,020 9,467 6.9 64,182 3,607 5.6 72,838 5,860 8.0 38.1

2005

139,532 9,509 6.8 65,213 3,565 5.5 74,319 5,944 8.0 37.5

2006

142,221 9,685 6.8 66,382 3,681 5.5 75,838 6,004 7.9 38.0

2007

143,952 9,557 6.6 67,302 3,637 5.4 76,650 5,920 7.7 38.1

2008

143,194 9,219 6.4 67,358 3,483 5.2 75,836 5,736 7.6 37.8

2009

137,775 8,995 6.5 65,712 3,468 5.3 72,062 5,527 7.7 38.6

2010

136,858 8,860 6.5 65,164 3,388 5.2 71,694 5,472 7.6 38.2

2011

137,615 8,603 6.3 65,023 3,341 5.1 72,592 5,26