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January 2024 Report 1108

Highlights of women's earnings in 2022

Highlights of women's earnings in 2022 image

In 2022, women who were full-time wage and salary workers had median usual weekly earnings that were 83 percent of those of male full-time wage and salary workers. In 1979, the first year for which comparable earnings data are available, women’s earnings were 62 percent of men’s earnings. Most of the growth in women’s earnings relative to men’s occurred in the 1980s (when the women’s-to-men’s earnings ratio went from 64 percent to 70 percent) and from 1990 to 2003 (when the ratio went from 72 percent to 79 percent). Since 2004, the women’s-to-men’s earnings ratio has remained in the 80 to 83 percent range. (See chart 1 and tables 1 and 12.)

This report presents earnings data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a national monthly sample survey of about 60,000 eligible households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). The weekly and hourly earnings estimates in this report reflect information collected from one-fourth of the households in the monthly survey and averaged for the calendar year. The data in this report are distinct from the annual earnings estimates for full-time, year-round workers collected separately in the Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to the CPS and published by the U.S. Census Bureau. (See the Current Population Survey’s frequently asked questions page for an explanation of the differences in these datasets.)

The earnings comparisons in this report are on a broad level and do not control for many factors that can be important in explaining earnings differences, such as job skills and responsibilities, work experience, and specialization. The earnings estimates referenced throughout this report are medians. The median is the mid-point in the earnings distribution, with half of workers having earnings above the median level and half having earnings below.

For more information, see the accompanying technical notes section, including a description of the source of the data and an explanation of the concepts and definitions used in this report.

Earnings of full-time workers

This report highlights data for women and men who usually work full time (35 hours or more per week) in wage and salary jobs, with sections focusing on characteristics such as age, race and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, education, occupation, and more.

Earnings by age group

In 2022, median weekly earnings were $958 for all women age 16 and older. For men age 16 and older, median weekly earnings were $1,154. Women’s median weekly earnings were highest for those ages 35 to 44 and 45 to 54, with earnings of $1,065 and $1,058, respectively. Women ages 55 to 64 had earnings that were slightly lower, at $1,007. For men, earnings were highest for those ages 45 to 54, with earnings of $1,336. Men ages 35 to 44 and ages 55 to 64 had earnings that were slightly lower, at $1,297 and $1,294, respectively. Young women and men ages 16 to 24 had the lowest earnings ($656 and $713, respectively). (See chart 2 and table 1.)

Among workers age 35 and older, women earned between 73 percent and 82 percent of what their male counterparts earned in 2022. Women ages 25 to 34 earned 90 percent of what men earned, while women ages 16 to 24 earned 92 percent of what men earned. The earnings difference between men and women has historically been smaller for those under age 35 than for those in older age groups. (See tables 1 and 12.)

Women’s-to-men’s earnings ratios have increased substantially for most age groups since 1979. For young workers ages 16 to 24, the gains primarily occurred in the 1980s, but the ratio has changed little, on net, since then. For workers age 25 and over, the gains in the 1980s flattened out in the early 1990s, then trended up in the late 1990s and 2000s. The increase in the women’s-to-men’s earnings ratio for this age group has tapered off in recent years. (See table 12.)

Earnings by race and ethnicity

Asian women and men earned more than their White, Black, and Hispanic counterparts in 2022. Among women, Whites ($973) earned 79 percent as much as Asians ($1,234), Blacks ($835) earned 68 percent as much, and Hispanics ($761) earned 62 percent. Among men, these earnings differences were even larger: White men ($1,172) earned 75 percent as much as Asian men ($1,559), Black men ($921) earned 59 percent as much, and Hispanic men ($887) earned 57 percent. (See chart 3 and table 1.)

Earnings differences between women and men were largest among Asians and Whites. Asian women earned 79 percent as much as Asian men and White women earned 83 percent as much as White men. In comparison, Black women had median earnings that were 91 percent of Black men’s, and Hispanic women’s earnings were 86 percent of Hispanic men’s. (See table 1.)

Women’s earnings have increased considerably since 1979 (the first year for which comparable data for Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics are available), with White women experiencing the greatest earnings growth. From 1979 to 2022, inflation-adjusted median weekly earnings (also called constant-dollar earnings) increased by 40 percent for White women and by 31 percent and 29 percent for Black and Hispanic women, respectively. Although data for Asians are not available before 2000, it is worth noting that inflation-adjusted earnings for Asian women increased by 32 percent between 2000 and 2022. (See table 18.)

After sharp increases in constant-dollar earnings for White, Black, Asian, and Hispanic women from 2019 to 2020, earnings declined from 2020 to 2022. This decline in earnings emerged as the economy experienced major changes tied to the COVID-19 pandemic and recovery, including the impacts of high inflation.

The large increases in constant-dollar median weekly earnings in 2020 were mainly due to steep job losses among lower-paid workers with the onset of the pandemic, which put upward pressure on (nominal) median weekly earnings. Subsequent increases in nominal earnings in 2021 and 2022 reflected, at least in part, the labor market’s recovery from the pandemic. At the same time, the inflation rate saw rapid change: from modest price changes in 2020 to large price increases in 2021 and 2022. Taking both rapidly evolving labor market conditions and inflation into account, constant-dollar earnings for White, Black, Asian, and Hispanic women were higher in 2022 than their pre-pandemic (2019) levels. (See table 18.)

The long-term trend in men’s earnings has been quite different than that for women. Inflation-adjusted earnings for White and Black men trended down from 1979 through the early 1990s, followed by a period of growth that stalled in the early 2000s. For Hispanic men, earnings also declined from 1979 through the mid-1990s, then began to trend upwards. Over the full period, 1979 through 2022, inflation-adjusted earnings among men have seen a net increase for Whites (4 percent), Blacks (7 percent), and Hispanics (7 percent). Over the shorter 2000–22 period for which earnings data on Asians are available, earnings for Asian men grew by 33 percent. In general, women and men’s weekly earnings were similarly impacted by inflation and the pandemic. (See table 18.)

Earnings by educational attainment

Median weekly earnings vary significantly by educational attainment. Among all workers age 25 and older, the weekly earnings of those without a high school diploma ($682) were 44 percent of those with a bachelor’s degree and higher ($1,544) in 2022. For workers with a high school diploma who had not attended college, median earnings ($853) were 55 percent of the median earnings of workers with a bachelor’s degree and higher. Those with some college or an associate’s degree ($969) made 63 percent of what workers with a bachelor’s degree and higher made. (See table 1.)

In each educational attainment category, the long-term trend in inflation-adjusted earnings has been more favorable for women than for men. The inflation-adjusted earnings of women without a high school diploma increased by 3 percent between 1979 and 2022. By contrast, inflation-adjusted earnings for men without a high school diploma declined by 22 percent. For those with a bachelor’s degree or higher, since 1979, inflation-adjusted earnings for women have increased by 38 percent, while earnings for men have risen by 18 percent. (See chart 4 and table 19.)

Earnings by occupation

Women and men working full time in management, business, and financial operations occupations had higher median weekly earnings than workers in any other major occupational category in 2022 ($1,409 for women and $1,772 for men). Within this category, women who were chief executives ($2,277) and computer and information systems managers ($1,850) had the highest median weekly earnings. Among men, those who were chief executives ($2,908) and architectural and engineering managers ($2,777) earned the most. (See table 2.)

The second-highest paying occupational category for women and men was professional and related occupations ($1,229 for women and $1,647 for men). This is a broad occupational category, made up of several distinct job groupings for specialized fields, such as computer science and math, architecture and engineering, law, education, and healthcare. Within this diverse category, women who were other physicians ($2,283) (such as gastroenterologists, oncologists, and pulmonologists), lawyers ($2,169), nurse practitioners ($2,084), software developers ($2,076), and pharmacists ($2,068) had the highest median weekly earnings in 2022. For men, those who were other physicians ($2,892), lawyers ($2,687), pharmacists ($2,320), and software developers ($2,300) earned the most. (See table 2.)

Women and men employed in service occupations earned the least in 2022 ($643 for women and $767 for men). Within this category, women who were in the fast food and counter workers subcategory ($539) and food preparation workers subcategory ($574) had the lowest median weekly earnings. For men, those who were employed as fast food and counter workers ($587) and dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers ($600) earned the least.

Occupational distributions of women and men

The occupational distributions of female and male full-time workers differ considerably. Compared with men, relatively few women work in natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations. In addition, compared with men, women are far more concentrated in office and administrative support jobs. Women are also more likely than men to work in professional and related occupations. (See chart 5 and table 2.)

In 2022, 32 percent of women worked in professional and related occupations, compared with 22 percent of men. Within the professional category, though, the proportion of women employed in the higher paying jobs is much smaller than the proportion of men employed in these types of jobs. In 2022, 12 percent of women in professional and related occupations were employed in the relatively high-paying computer and mathematical (median weekly earnings of $1,546 for women and $1,884 for men) and architecture and engineering ($1,593 for women and $1,751 for men) occupations, compared with 49 percent of men.

Sixty-five percent of women in professional occupations worked in education and healthcare jobs in 2022, compared with 28 percent of men. Women earned less than men in education ($1,089 for women and $1,354 for men) and healthcare ($1,277 for women and $1,605 for men) occupations. (See table 2.)

Across all occupational categories, the three most common jobs for women were elementary and middle school teacher ($1,151), registered nurse ($1,377), and secretary and administrative assistant ($820). Collectively, these occupations employed 6.2 million women in 2022, representing 12 percent of women in full-time wage and salary jobs.

Among men, the most common job by far was truck driver (driver/sales workers and truck drivers, $986). In 2022, 2.5 million, or 4 percent, of all male full-time wage and salary workers were truck drivers. Although engineering jobs are shown separately by specialty (civil, mechanical, etc.) in this report, if combined, engineer would be the second most common job for men. In 2022, a total of 2.1 million men were employed full time in the 16 designated engineering specialties (median weekly earnings ranging from $1,769 to $2,310). (See table 2.)

Earnings for those with and without children under 18

In 2022, one-third of full-time wage and salary workers were parents of children under age 18. (As defined here, “children” include sons, daughters, stepchildren, and adopted children under age 18 who live in the household.) Median weekly earnings for mothers of children under age 18 ($994) were higher than the earnings for women without children under 18 ($940). Earnings for fathers of children under age 18 ($1,316) were higher than the earnings for men without children under 18 ($1,088). (See table 7.) 

Earnings by state of residence

Median weekly earnings and women’s-to-men’s earnings ratios vary by state of residence. (In this report, “state” refers to the 50 states and the District of Columbia.) The differences among the states reflect, in part, variation in the occupations and industries found in each state and differences in the demographic composition of each state’s labor force. Readers should note that sampling error for the state estimates is considerably larger than it is for the national estimates. (See the technical notes section for an explanation of sampling error.) Consequently, earnings comparisons between states should be made with caution. Readers should also note that the state estimates are based on workers’ states of residence: a worker’s reported earnings are not necessarily from a job located in the same state. (See table 3.)

Weekly work hours of full-time workers

Among full-time workers (those usually working at a job 35 hours or more per week), men are more likely than women to work more than 40 hours per week. In 2022, 22 percent of men who usually work full time worked 41 or more hours per week, compared with 13 percent of women. Women were more likely than men to work 35 to 39 hours per week: 10 percent of women working full time worked such hours in 2022, while 4 percent of men did. A majority of both female (77 percent) and male (73 percent) full-time workers had a 40-hour workweek. Among these workers, women earned 87 percent as much as men. (This analysis excludes people who usually work 35 or more hours per week but whose hours vary.) (See table 5.)

Earnings of part-time workers

Women are more likely than men to work part time—that is, less than 35 hours per week on a sole or main job. Women who worked part time accounted for 21 percent of all female wage and salary workers in 2022. By comparison, 11 percent of men in wage and salary jobs worked part time. Median weekly earnings for female part-time workers were $347 in 2022, higher than the $328 median for men. (See tables 4 and 5.)

Part-time workers are more likely to be under age 25 than full-time workers. Among part-time workers, 32 percent of women and 43 percent of men were under age 25 in 2022. Among full-time workers, 9 percent were under age 25 for both men and women. (See tables 1 and 4.)

Earnings of workers paid by the hour

In 2022, 58 percent of women and 54 percent of men in wage and salary jobs were paid by the hour. Women who were paid hourly rates had median hourly earnings of $17.18, which were 87 percent of the $19.70 median for men. (See tables 8 and 11.)

Among workers who were paid hourly rates in 2022, 2 percent of women and 1 percent of men had hourly earnings at or below the prevailing federal minimum wage of $7.25. (See tables 10 and 11.) (See the technical notes section for information about BLS estimates of the number of minimum wage workers.)

Statistical Tables

Table 1. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by selected characteristics, 2022 annual averages
Characteristic Total Women Men Women's
earnings
as a
percentage
of men's
Number
of
workers
(in
thousands)
Median
weekly
earnings
Standard
error
of
median
Number
of
workers
(in
thousands)
Median
weekly
earnings
Standard
error
of
median
Number
of
workers
(in
thousands)
Median
weekly
earnings
Standard
error
of
median

Age

Total, 16 years and older

118,869 $1,059 $3 53,315 $958 $3 65,554 $1,154 $3 83.0

16 to 24 years

10,726 691 3 4,682 656 5 6,044 713 3 92.0

16 to 19 years

1,593 606 5 606 569 11 987 632 8 90.0

20 to 24 years

9,133 706 3 4,076 678 4 5,057 730 6 92.9

25 years and older

108,143 1,123 3 48,633 1,002 3 59,510 1,219 4 82.2

25 to 34 years

29,297 992 4 13,216 938 6 16,081 1,040 8 90.2

35 to 44 years

28,064 1,181 7 12,487 1,065 9 15,577 1,297 11 82.1

45 to 54 years

25,298 1,194 8 11,599 1,058 9 13,699 1,336 10 79.2

55 to 64 years

20,143 1,154 5 9,080 1,007 7 11,063 1,294 14 77.8

65 years and older

5,341 1,031 16 2,252 874 12 3,089 1,196 19 73.1

Race and Hispanic or
Latino Ethnicity

White

90,543 1,085 3 39,489 973 4 51,054 1,172 4 83.0

Black or African American

15,804 878 5 8,139 835 7 7,665 921 8 90.7

Asian

8,249 1,401 13 3,715 1,234 17 4,535 1,559 21 79.2

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

22,227 823 4 9,064 761 5 13,163 887 5 85.8

Marital Status

Never married

38,789 875 3 17,139 833 5 21,650 904 4 92.1

Married, spouse present(1)

62,837 1,228 4 26,502 1,074 6 36,335 1,359 6 79.0

Widowed, divorced, or separated(2)

17,243 998 6 9,674 921 7 7,569 1,118 11 82.4

Widowed

1,791 901 18 1,244 817 17 548 1,112 39 73.5

Divorced

11,328 1,050 8 6,428 971 9 4,900 1,167 12 83.2

Separated(2)

4,124 907 11 2,002 827 14 2,122 994 13 83.2

Union Affiliation(3)

Members of unions(4)

13,021 1,216 8 5,680 1,146 7 7,342 1,273 10 90.0

Represented by unions(5)

14,552 1,203 8 6,485 1,135 7 8,068 1,266 9 89.7

Not represented by a union

104,317 1,029 3 46,831 932 3 57,486 1,137 4 82.0

Educational Attainment

Total, 25 years and older

108,143 1,123 3 48,633 1,002 3 59,510 1,219 4 82.2

Less than a high school diploma

6,203 682 4 2,021 594 4 4,181 745 6 79.7

High school graduates, no college

26,434 853 4 10,069 735 3 16,365 945 6 77.8

Some college or associate degree

26,276 969 4 12,240 847 5 14,035 1,111 7 76.2

Bachelor's degree and higher

49,231 1,544 4 24,303 1,372 6 24,928 1,765 8 77.7

Footnotes
(1) Includes people in both opposite-sex and same-sex marriages.
(2) Separated includes people who are married, spouse absent.
(3) Differences in earnings levels between workers with and without union affiliation reflect a variety of factors in addition to coverage by a collective bargaining agreement, including the distribution of workers by occupation, industry, and geographic region.
(4) Data refer to members of a labor union or an employee association similar to a union.
(5) Data refer to both union members and workers who report no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.

Note: Estimates for the race groups shown (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all race groups. People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race; estimates for the race groups include Hispanics.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 2. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers, by detailed occupation, 2022 annual averages [Numbers in thousands]
Occupation Total Women Men Women's
earnings
as a
percentage
of men's
Number of workers Median weekly earnings Standard error of median Number of workers Median weekly earnings Standard error of median Number of workers Median weekly earnings Standard error of median

Total, full-time wage and salary workers

118,869 $1,059 $3 53,315 $958 $3 65,554 $1,154 $3 83.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

53,962 1,465 5 27,733 1,284 7 26,229 1,726 11 74.4

Management, business, and financial operations occupations

22,707 1,569 9 10,629 1,409 10 12,079 1,772 14 79.5

Management occupations

14,909 1,658 13 6,376 1,457 13 8,532 1,868 13 78.0

Chief executives

1,249 2,701 50 370 2,277 211 878 2,908 13 78.3

General and operations managers

1,051 1,558 49 362 1,423 41 688 1,656 71 85.9

Legislators

9 - - 5 - - 5 - - -

Advertising and promotions managers

60 1,942 135 35 - - 25 - - -

Marketing managers

586 1,729 64 344 1,557 87 241 1,914 32 81.3

Sales managers

541 1,838 96 190 1,434 122 351 2,104 54 68.2

Public relations and fundraising managers

119 1,746 54 78 1,561 40 41 - - -

Administrative services managers

69 1,339 51 54 1,325 227 15 - - -

Facilities managers

136 1,460 94 24 - - 113 1,427 78 -

Computer and information systems managers

732 2,087 76 180 1,850 63 552 2,194 97 84.3

Financial managers

1,271 1,713 56 704 1,468 41 567 2,116 54 69.4

Compensation and benefits managers

13 - - 8 - - 5 - - -

Human resources managers

294 1,725 112 201 1,583 65 93 1,981 188 79.9

Training and development managers

65 1,770 315 28 - - 37 - - -

Industrial production managers

275 1,754 50 60 1,403 399 214 1,786 103 78.6

Purchasing managers

223 1,729 111 99 1,538 59 124 1,874 61 82.1

Transportation, storage, and distribution managers

321 1,231 97 77 1,040 71 244 1,327 76 78.4

Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers

113 975 59 20 - - 93 996 40 -

Construction managers

656 1,610 63 58 1,448 78 598 1,628 57 88.9

Education and childcare administrators

884 1,568 28 600 1,481 31 284 1,831 54 80.9

Architectural and engineering managers

196 2,880 137 22 - - 174 2,777 331 -

Food service managers

721 926 19 345 836 34 376 1,015 30 82.4

Funeral home managers

7 - - 1 - - 5 - - -

Entertainment and recreation managers

37 - - 12 - - 25 - - -

Lodging managers

73 1,031 200 34 - - 39 - - -

Medical and health services managers

661 1,648 44 476 1,424 67 185 1,919 21 74.2

Natural sciences managers

28 - - 16 - - 12 - - -

Postmasters and mail superintendents

21 - - 9 - - 13 - - -

Property, real estate, and community association managers

469 1,179 46 259 1,095 47 210 1,336 71 82.0

Social and community service managers

366 1,391 36 248 1,334 34 118 1,527 91 87.4

Emergency management directors

25 - - 11 - - 15 - - -

Personal service managers, all other

1 - - 1 - - 0 - - -

Managers, all other

3,635 1,734 26 1,445 1,530 27 2,189 1,858 34 82.3

Business and financial operations occupations

7,799 1,464 9 4,252 1,351 11 3,546 1,632 19 82.8

Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes

23 - - 9 - - 14 - - -

Buyers and purchasing agents, farm products

8 - - 2 - - 6 - - -

Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products

114 1,021 51 58 1,028 65 56 1,007 107 102.1

Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products

252 1,194 52 145 1,103 31 107 1,451 75 76.0

Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators

325 1,198 96 168 1,070 37 157 1,341 55 79.8

Compliance officers

284 1,427 42 156 1,448 48 128 1,398 59 103.6

Cost estimators

123 1,451 44 18 - - 104 1,516 78 -

Human resources workers

863 1,356 34 686 1,296 44 177 1,570 48 82.5

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

65 1,134 53 41 - - 25 - - -

Training and development specialists

147 1,301 60 80 1,174 196 66 1,428 202 82.2

Logisticians

155 1,360 29 64 1,287 78 91 1,469 92 87.6

Project management specialists

815 1,769 46 332 1,642 44 483 1,886 18 87.1

Management analysts

689 1,733 53 343 1,553 37 346 1,884 23 82.4

Meeting, convention, and event planners

118 1,227 84 88 1,179 77 30 - - -

Fundraisers

72 1,482 40 62 1,507 37 10 - - -

Market research analysts and marketing specialists

354 1,546 24 207 1,468 115 147 1,573 149 93.3

Business operations specialists, all other

374 1,271 60 226 1,193 40 148 1,402 39 85.1

Accountants and auditors

1,389 1,523 26 788 1,418 49 601 1,665 39 85.2

Property appraisers and assessors

68 1,146 57 30 - - 38 - - -

Budget analysts

55 1,738 79 26 - - 29 - - -

Credit analysts

49 - - 23 - - 26 - - -

Financial and investment analysts

344 1,747 33 146 1,445 60 198 1,905 57 75.9

Personal financial advisors

432 1,604 45 164 1,254 64 268 1,985 254 63.2

Insurance underwriters

103 1,226 74 68 1,185 37 34 - - -

Financial examiners

19 - - 11 - - 7 - - -

Credit counselors and loan officers

369 1,344 29 205 1,210 71 164 1,471 55 82.3

Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents

65 1,463 205 35 - - 30 - - -

Tax preparers

53 1,146 66 30 - - 23 - - -

Other financial specialists

72 1,455 64 39 - - 33 - - -

Professional and related occupations

31,255 1,392 6 17,104 1,229 6 14,150 1,647 10 74.6

Computer and mathematical occupations

5,733 1,789 25 1,521 1,546 17 4,212 1,884 10 82.1

Computer and information research scientists

33 - - 10 - - 23 - - -

Computer systems analysts

457 1,674 48 176 1,553 40 281 1,794 89 86.6

Information security analysts

156 2,076 77 31 - - 125 2,097 46 -

Computer programmers

422 1,772 85 92 1,552 67 330 1,872 55 82.9

Software developers

1,976 2,282 24 413 2,076 59 1,563 2,300 15 90.3

Software quality assurance analysts and testers

79 1,731 218 22 - - 58 1,667 255 -

Web developers

70 1,445 86 17 - - 53 1,549 90 -

Web and digital interface designers

52 1,513 40 21 - - 31 - - -

Computer support specialists

635 1,312 40 154 1,181 102 481 1,367 41 86.4

Database administrators and architects

144 1,829 198 59 1,526 114 86 2,012 41 75.8

Network and computer systems administrators

210 1,589 59 40 - - 171 1,649 63 -

Computer network architects

90 1,909 32 11 - - 79 1,912 30 -

Computer occupations, all other

864 1,431 35 218 1,254 28 646 1,497 43 83.8

Actuaries

34 - - 12 - - 21 - - -

Mathematicians

2 - - 0 - - 2 - - -

Operations research analysts

136 1,630 72 72 1,532 42 64 1,743 63 87.9

Statisticians

52 1,595 143 24 - - 29 - - -

Other mathematical science occupations

321 1,549 63 150 1,434 25 172 1,841 55 77.9

Architecture and engineering occupations

3,224 1,735 15 496 1,593 67 2,729 1,751 13 91.0

Architects, except landscape and naval

139 1,664 164 40 - - 99 1,647 44 -

Landscape architects

15 - - 7 - - 7 - - -

Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists

26 - - 2 - - 24 - - -

Aerospace engineers

149 1,914 42 28 - - 122 1,879 91 -

Agricultural engineers

4 - - 0 - - 4 - - -

Bioengineers and biomedical engineers

20 - - 9 - - 11 - - -

Chemical engineers

65 1,834 53 16 - - 49 - - -

Civil engineers

442 1,727 50 73 1,363 39 369 1,769 76 77.0

Computer hardware engineers

89 2,277 102 13 - - 75 2,310 51 -

Electrical and electronics engineers

299 1,864 48 22 - - 277 1,868 52 -

Environmental engineers

43 - - 12 - - 31 - - -

Industrial engineers, including health and safety

200 1,773 42 38 - - 162 1,770 30 -

Marine engineers and naval architects

10 - - 0 - - 10 - - -

Materials engineers

40 - - 15 - - 25 - - -

Mechanical engineers

418 1,816 76 35 - - 382 1,833 44 -

Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers

4 - - 0 - - 4 - - -

Nuclear engineers

9 - - 0 - - 9 - - -

Petroleum engineers

21 - - 0 - - 21 - - -

Engineers, all other

613 1,909 17 101 1,653 36 512 1,985 51 83.3

Architectural and civil drafters

50 1,176 79 5 - - 45 - - -

Other drafters

73 1,120 22 9 - - 64 1,121 23 -

Electrical and electronic engineering technologists and technicians

80 1,131 83 6 - - 73 1,164 124 -

Other engineering technologists and technicians, except drafters

343 1,312 46 56 1,054 35 286 1,363 36 77.3

Surveying and mapping technicians

73 948 84 6 - - 67 1,008 91 -

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,508 1,463 29 697 1,409 29 811 1,539 40 91.6

Agricultural and food scientists

10 - - 5 - - 6 - - -

Biological scientists

104 1,442 64 57 1,453 63 47 - - -

Conservation scientists and foresters

28 - - 10 - - 18 - - -

Medical scientists

135 1,544 46 68 1,391 77 67 1,735 52 80.2

Life scientists, all other

18 - - 9 - - 9 - - -

Astronomers and physicists

21 - - 5 - - 16 - - -

Atmospheric and space scientists

10 - - 6 - - 4 - - -

Chemists and materials scientists

73 1,500 48 35 - - 38 - - -

Environmental scientists and specialists, including health

28 - - 7 - - 21 - - -

Geoscientists and hydrologists, except geographers

40 - - 9 - - 31 - - -

Physical scientists, all other

379 1,764 56 168 1,511 149 212 1,911 40 79.1

Economists

26 - - 7 - - 19 - - -

Survey researchers

1 - - 1 - - 0 - - -

Clinical and counseling psychologists

9 - - 4 - - 5 - - -

School psychologists

37 - - 33 - - 4 - - -

Other psychologists

60 1,511 60 46 - - 14 - - -

Sociologists

4 - - 4 - - 0 - - -

Urban and regional planners

26 - - 15 - - 11 - - -

Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers

50 1,238 66 26 - - 24 - - -

Agricultural and food science technicians

40 - - 11 - - 29 - - -

Biological technicians

19 - - 8 - - 11 - - -

Chemical technicians

49 - - 19 - - 30 - - -

Environmental science and geoscience technicians

10 - - 0 - - 10 - - -

Nuclear technicians

4 - - 0 - - 4 - - -

Social science research assistants

3 - - 3 - - 0 - - -

Other life, physical, and social science technicians

245 1,240 14 122 1,227 49 123 1,249 17 98.2

Occupational health and safety specialists and technicians

79 1,500 35 21 - - 58 1,508 47 -

Community and social service occupations

2,378 1,128 12 1,574 1,093 15 803 1,199 31 91.2

Substance abuse and behavioral disorder counselors

112 945 70 83 922 33 30 - - -

Educational, guidance, and career counselors and advisors

362 1,157 17 270 1,156 19 92 1,158 36 99.8

Marriage and family therapists

12 - - 10 - - 3 - - -

Mental health counselors

103 1,150 79 75 1,152 73 28 - - -

Rehabilitation counselors

19 - - 16 - - 3 - - -

Counselors, all other

168 1,038 44 114 986 40 54 1,195 77 82.5

Child, family, and school social workers

58 1,099 32 50 1,080 36 7 - - -

Healthcare social workers

78 1,142 39 60 1,122 45 19 - - -

Mental health and substance abuse social workers

17 - - 11 - - 6 - - -

Social workers, all other

660 1,130 30 532 1,120 27 128 1,182 40 94.8

Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists

78 1,325 92 38 - - 40 - - -

Social and human service assistants

192 979 57 152 928 45 40 - - -

Other community and social service specialists

85 1,032 66 63 1,016 52 22 - - -

Clergy

347 1,170 33 51 1,038 78 297 1,197 76 86.7

Directors, religious activities and education

49 - - 28 - - 21 - - -

Religious workers, all other

37 - - 22 - - 16 - - -

Legal occupations

1,430 1,763 51 787 1,445 25 643 2,297 45 62.9

Lawyers

806 2,420 93 318 2,169 118 488 2,687 201 80.7

Judicial law clerks

21 - - 16 - - 5 - - -

Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers

61 1,997 131 36 - - 25 - - -

Paralegals and legal assistants

388 1,137 30 329 1,118 29 59 1,438 62 77.7

Title examiners, abstractors, and searchers

93 1,208 82 50 1,013 73 43 - - -

Legal support workers, all other

62 1,223 103 38 - - 24 - - -

Education, training, and library occupations

7,330 1,148 6 5,364 1,089 10 1,966 1,354 17 80.4

Postsecondary teachers

863 1,634 29 405 1,466 49 458 1,825 91 80.3

Preschool and kindergarten teachers

518 750 17 504 748 17 15 - - -

Elementary and middle school teachers

3,073 1,170 11 2,433 1,151 9 640 1,283 40 89.7

Secondary school teachers

873 1,249 21 501 1,184 34 371 1,335 32 88.7

Special education teachers

342 1,219 30 281 1,209 30 61 1,247 36 97.0

Tutors

25 - - 18 - - 7 - - -

Other teachers and instructors

447 1,143 31 235 1,028 62 211 1,259 48 81.7

Archivists, curators, and museum technicians

51 1,253 30 32 - - 19 - - -

Librarians and media collections specialists

125 1,092 39 104 1,042 83 21 - - -

Library technicians

23 - - 21 - - 2 - - -

Teaching assistants

869 662 14 746 662 14 123 662 34 100.0

Other educational instruction and library workers

121 1,250 48 84 1,248 47 37 - - -

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1,889 1,273 26 892 1,173 25 998 1,380 38 85.0

Artists and related workers

116 1,427 489 45 - - 71 1,600 153 -

Commercial and industrial designers

9 - - 3 - - 6 - - -

Fashion designers

16 - - 7 - - 9 - - -

Floral designers

22 - - 20 - - 2 - - -

Graphic designers

224 1,153 40 117 1,044 34 107 1,265 40 82.5

Interior designers

64 1,332 286 54 1,265 42 10 - - -

Merchandise displayers and window trimmers

22 - - 14 - - 8 - - -

Other designers

282 1,431 64 120 1,260 41 162 1,549 46 81.3

Actors

17 - - 9 - - 8 - - -

Producers and directors

137 1,473 292 66 1,390 49 71 1,742 321 79.8

Athletes and sports competitors

38 - - 5 - - 33 - - -

Coaches and scouts

132 1,156 29 44 - - 88 1,183 70 -

Umpires, referees, and other sports officials

4 - - 1 - - 3 - - -

Dancers and choreographers

6 - - 4 - - 2 - - -

Music directors and composers

9 - - 2 - - 6 - - -

Musicians and singers

31 - - 6 - - 25 - - -

Disc jockeys, except radio

4 - - 0 - - 4 - - -

Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other

19 - - 8 - - 11 - - -

Broadcast announcers and radio disc jockeys

18 - - 2 - - 16 - - -

News analysts, reporters, and journalists

57 1,163 40 27 - - 30 - - -

Public relations specialists

105 1,492 309 67 1,366 46 38 - - -

Editors

68 1,541 46 47 - - 21 - - -

Technical writers

50 1,528 252 34 - - 17 - - -

Writers and authors

152 1,426 61 83 1,341 62 69 1,565 154 85.7

Interpreters and translators

52 856 43 39 - - 13 - - -

Court reporters and simultaneous captioners

26 - - 19 - - 7 - - -

Media and communication workers, all other

25 - - 18 - - 7 - - -

Broadcast, sound, and lighting technicians

61 1,478 303 4 - - 58 1,411 299 -

Photographers

50 1,039 64 12 - - 37 - - -

Television, video, and film camera operators and editors

73 1,384 106 15 - - 58 1,416 111 -

Media and communication equipment workers, all other

1 - - 0 - - 1 - - -

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

7,761 1,354 9 5,774 1,277 13 1,987 1,605 21 79.6

Chiropractors

17 - - 10 - - 8 - - -

Dentists

57 2,703 151 31 - - 26 - - -

Dietitians and nutritionists

105 1,289 72 94 1,253 30 11 - - -

Optometrists

19 - - 9 - - 10 - - -

Pharmacists

300 2,210 98 176 2,068 116 124 2,320 155 89.1

Emergency medicine physicians

16 - - 7 - - 8 - - -

Radiologists

20 - - 4 - - 16 - - -

Other physicians

758 2,481 228 328 2,283 121 430 2,892 35 78.9

Surgeons

42 - - 9 - - 34 - - -

Physician assistants

132 1,910 36 83 1,878 57 48 - - -

Podiatrists

5 - - 1 - - 4 - - -

Audiologists

13 - - 8 - - 5 - - -

Occupational therapists

118 1,324 53 100 1,329 59 18 - - -

Physical therapists

212 1,510 34 136 1,501 40 76 1,532 94 98.0

Radiation therapists

19 - - 10 - - 9 - - -

Recreational therapists

15 - - 13 - - 2 - - -

Respiratory therapists

94 1,344 32 53 1,246 71 41 - - -

Speech-language pathologists

137 1,317 90 133 1,301 61 4 - - -

Exercise physiologists

7 - - 6 - - 1 - - -

Therapists, all other

151 1,305 99 115 1,238 31 36 - - -

Veterinarians

40 - - 28 - - 12 - - -

Registered nurses

2,753 1,395 13 2,368 1,377 13 386 1,541 19 89.4

Nurse anesthetists

31 - - 20 - - 11 - - -

Nurse midwives

5 - - 5 - - 0 - - -

Nurse practitioners

224 2,107 51 194 2,084 138 30 - - -

Acupuncturists

1 - - 1 - - 0 - - -

Healthcare diagnosing or treating practitioners, all other

4 - - 2 - - 2 - - -

Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians

289 1,058 42 212 1,038 43 76 1,186 64 87.5

Dental hygienists

110 1,257 38 102 1,274 86 9 - - -

Cardiovascular technologists and technicians

46 - - 32 - - 14 - - -

Diagnostic medical sonographers

76 1,351 29 56 1,336 24 20 - - -

Radiologic technologists and technicians

171 1,194 53 123 1,132 36 49 - - -

Magnetic resonance imaging technologists

47 - - 33 - - 14 - - -

Nuclear medicine technologists and medical dosimetrists

25 - - 10 - - 15 - - -

Emergency medical technicians

126 972 60 41 - - 86 1,053 176 -

Paramedics

107 1,535 207 27 - - 80 1,530 219 -

Pharmacy technicians

266 771 25 219 775 30 47 - - -

Psychiatric technicians

60 831 51 40 - - 19 - - -

Surgical technologists

85 1,197 103 70 1,063 66 14 - - -

Veterinary technologists and technicians

120 800 64 108 811 59 12 - - -

Dietetic technicians and ophthalmic medical technicians

55 711 43 41 - - 15 - - -

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

494 897 17 430 899 15 64 869 91 103.5

Medical records specialists

161 988 50 142 962 32 20 - - -

Opticians, dispensing

29 - - 21 - - 7 - - -

Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians

124 972 39 73 945 25 50 1,132 60 83.5

Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

77 1,359 39 50 1,344 53 27 - - -

Service occupations

15,468 697 3 8,005 643 4 7,463 767 5 83.8

Healthcare support occupations

3,348 685 4 2,820 677 5 528 743 20 91.1

Home health aides

357 618 11 313 614 10 45 - - -

Personal care aides

855 638 10 675 623 8 180 700 17 89.0

Nursing assistants

911 678 8 812 675 9 99 712 26 94.8

Orderlies and psychiatric aides

40 - - 18 - - 22 - - -

Occupational therapy assistants and aides

19 - - 17 - - 2 - - -

Physical therapist assistants and aides

50 847 109 39 - - 11 - - -

Massage therapists

45 - - 33 - - 12 - - -

Dental assistants

250 724 19 232 732 24 18 - - -

Medical assistants

438 713 10 389 709 10 49 - - -

Medical transcriptionists

19 - - 13 - - 5 - - -

Pharmacy aides

29 - - 23 - - 7 - - -

Veterinary assistants and laboratory animal caretakers

52 696 23 45 - - 7 - - -

Phlebotomists

93 751 40 86 734 37 6 - - -

Other healthcare support workers

190 829 23 126 788 22 64 1,035 125 76.1

Protective service occupations

2,749 1,024 15 600 835 18 2,149 1,106 25 75.5

First-line supervisors of correctional officers

47 - - 21 - - 27 - - -

First-line supervisors of police and detectives

96 1,476 89 16 - - 80 1,505 86 -

First-line supervisors of firefighting and prevention workers

62 1,769 414 6 - - 56 1,891 52 -

First-line supervisors of security workers

70 1,120 72 16 - - 54 1,299 47 -

First-line supervisors of protective service workers, all other

2 - - 0 - - 2 - - -

Firefighters

289 1,356 28 20 - - 269 1,370 49 -

Fire inspectors

36 - - 5 - - 31 - - -

Bailiffs

19 - - 8 - - 10 - - -

Correctional officers and jailers

279 907 22 86 751 27 193 1,003 32 74.9

Detectives and criminal investigators

132 1,704 105 34 - - 98 1,748 31 -

Fish and game wardens

9 - - 1 - - 9 - - -

Parking enforcement workers

6 - - 0 - - 6 - - -

Police officers

758 1,229 29 101 1,046 42 657 1,248 23 83.8

Animal control workers

8 - - 3 - - 5 - - -

Private detectives and investigators

85 1,088 155 36 - - 49 - - -

Security guards and gambling surveillance officers

732 724 11 190 699 15 542 738 16 94.7

Crossing guards and flaggers

15 - - 9 - - 6 - - -

Transportation security screeners

35 - - 10 - - 24 - - -

School bus monitors

23 - - 17 - - 6 - - -

Other protective service workers

45 - - 20 - - 25 - - -

Food preparation and serving related occupations

4,125 622 4 1,976 598 5 2,149 663 8 90.2

Chefs and head cooks

392 771 23 96 713 21 296 829 39 86.0

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

362 731 20 202 663 17 160 812 19 81.7

Cooks

1,247 611 6 449 583 8 798 634 13 92.0

Food preparation workers

476 595 8 259 574 11 217 637 17 90.1

Bartenders

250 707 19 141 700 21 110 721 39 97.1

Fast food and counter workers

237 557 12 142 539 14 95 587 20 91.8

Waiters and waitresses

786 606 9 500 590 12 286 634 35 93.1

Food servers, nonrestaurant

86 649 27 58 652 22 28 - - -

Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers

94 594 13 43 - - 51 600 15 -

Dishwashers

120 583 18 26 - - 94 607 18 -

Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop

70 611 18 56 613 25 14 - - -

Food preparation and serving related workers, all other

5 - - 4 - - 1 - - -

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

3,518 671 5 1,327 596 6 2,191 716 5 83.2

First-line supervisors of housekeeping and janitorial workers

152 833 53 55 810 24 96 867 63 93.4

First-line supervisors of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers

94 895 51 5 - - 89 909 50 -

Janitors and building cleaners

1,503 683 6 508 601 10 996 717 7 83.8

Maids and housekeeping cleaners

823 592 6 706 586 7 117 618 13 94.8

Pest control workers

90 798 45 2 - - 88 809 45 -

Landscaping and groundskeeping workers

769 681 9 44 - - 725 685 9 -

Tree trimmers and pruners

73 916 100 3 - - 70 874 195 -

Other grounds maintenance workers

13 - - 3 - - 10 - - -

Personal care and service occupations

1,728 686 9 1,282 655 12 446 789 27 83.0

Supervisors of personal care and service workers

89 743 38 60 717 19 28 - - -

Animal trainers

23 - - 19 - - 5 - - -

Animal caretakers

144 623 16 113 612 13 31 - - -

Gambling services workers

53 890 41 27 - - 26 - - -

Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers

9 - - 4 - - 5 - - -

Other entertainment attendants and related workers

92 686 33 46 - - 46 - - -

Embalmers, crematory operators, and funeral attendants

19 - - 4 - - 15 - - -

Morticians, undertakers, and funeral arrangers

20 - - 11 - - 9 - - -

Barbers

48 - - 19 - - 29 - - -

Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists

274 679 34 253 664 31 21 - - -

Manicurists and pedicurists

178 677 29 151 641 29 27 - - -

Skincare specialists

33 - - 33 - - 0 - - -

Other personal appearance workers

13 - - 9 - - 3 - - -

Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges

66 702 67 21 - - 45 - - -

Tour and travel guides

16 - - 6 - - 11 - - -

Childcare workers

413 606 11 388 608 11 25 - - -

Exercise trainers and group fitness instructors

57 815 91 26 - - 31 - - -

Recreation workers

111 726 41 62 662 39 50 930 26 71.2

Residential advisors

16 - - 7 - - 9 - - -

Personal care and service workers, all other

54 788 57 27 - - 28 - - -

Sales and office occupations

21,978 880 4 13,236 810 4 8,741 1,019 8 79.5

Sales and related occupations

9,170 941 8 4,122 783 9 5,048 1,139 10 68.7

First-line supervisors of retail sales workers

2,174 948 17 967 844 13 1,207 1,078 28 78.3

First-line supervisors of non-retail sales workers

869 1,299 54 329 1,127 52 541 1,388 49 81.2

Cashiers

1,243 587 5 876 580 6 367 605 11 95.9

Counter and rental clerks

60 751 41 21 - - 39 - - -

Parts salespersons

102 855 66 15 - - 88 821 67 -

Retail salespersons

1,535 802 15 616 689 12 919 901 17 76.5

Advertising sales agents

105 1,323 170 55 1,142 47 50 1,537 63 74.3

Insurance sales agents

438 1,049 49 228 891 41 210 1,377 147 64.7

Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents

154 1,710 97 54 1,396 950 100 1,754 77 79.6

Travel agents

45 - - 34 - - 11 - - -

Sales representatives of services, except advertising, insurance, financial services, and travel

539 1,489 39 151 1,161 258 388 1,555 34 74.7

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing

1,005 1,282 33 298 1,090 58 707 1,399 52 77.9

Models, demonstrators, and product promoters

15 - - 12 - - 3 - - -

Real estate brokers and sales agents

512 1,219 62 276 960 40 236 1,536 84 62.5

Sales engineers

46 - - 4 - - 42 - - -

Telemarketers

29 - - 20 - - 9 - - -

Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers

24 - - 13 - - 12 - - -

Sales and related workers, all other

275 940 43 154 815 33 120 1,084 77 75.2

Office and administrative support occupations

12,808 847 5 9,115 818 4 3,693 933 10 87.7

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

1,090 1,037 19 714 1,007 16 376 1,130 51 89.1

Switchboard operators, including answering service

12 - - 6 - - 6 - - -

Telephone operators

28 - - 25 - - 3 - - -

Communications equipment operators, all other

2 - - 1 - - 1 - - -

Bill and account collectors

92 821 31 66 820 32 27 - - -

Billing and posting clerks

442 854 25 393 852 23 50 901 120 94.6

Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks

818 893 14 668 881 14 150 947 26 93.0

Gambling cage workers

17 - - 12 - - 5 - - -

Payroll and timekeeping clerks

113 983 37 108 986 39 5 - - -

Procurement clerks

24 - - 18 - - 7 - - -

Tellers

164 708 13 140 704 12 24 - - -

Financial clerks, all other

124 1,034 56 61 888 44 63 1,142 135 77.8

Brokerage clerks

6 - - 5 - - 2 - - -

Correspondence clerks

6 - - 5 - - 1 - - -

Court, municipal, and license clerks

73 816 36 64 792 33 9 - - -

Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks

43 - - 28 - - 15 - - -

Customer service representatives

2,097 808 7 1,357 769 9 739 909 13 84.6

Eligibility interviewers, government programs

74 958 29 56 940 25 18 - - -

File clerks

106 779 28 77 782 33 29 - - -

Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks

81 633 33 50 625 31 31 - - -

Interviewers, except eligibility and loan

117 808 34 96 825 28 21 - - -

Library assistants, clerical

32 - - 23 - - 9 - - -

Loan interviewers and clerks

158 965 57 108 948 50 50 1,012 80 93.7

New accounts clerks

14 - - 12 - - 2 - - -

Order clerks

84 782 45 44 - - 40 - - -

Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping

80 1,168 41 68 1,130 189 11 - - -

Receptionists and information clerks

838 713 7 751 704 7 87 895 47 78.7

Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks

79 991 24 22 - - 57 1,018 29 -

Information and record clerks, all other

71 822 75 58 783 42 13 - - -

Cargo and freight agents

25 - - 6 - - 19 - - -

Couriers and messengers

523 807 14 80 697 26 443 818 14 85.2

Public safety telecommunicators

76 802 47 68 782 43 9 - - -

Dispatchers, except police, fire, and ambulance

161 861 41 84 801 22 77 1,023 39 78.3

Meter readers, utilities

21 - - 0 - - 21 - - -

Postal service clerks

85 946 26 43 - - 42 - - -

Postal service mail carriers

275 1,067 37 115 951 32 160 1,164 31 81.7

Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators

63 911 47 38 - - 25 - - -

Production, planning, and expediting clerks

204 1,167 35 100 1,127 161 104 1,252 65 90.0

Shipping, receiving, and inventory clerks

576 772 11 204 737 15 372 792 12 93.1

Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping

41 - - 17 - - 24 - - -

Executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants

210 1,088 44 201 1,082 42 9 - - -

Legal secretaries and administrative assistants

41 - - 41 - - 0 - - -

Medical secretaries and administrative assistants

64 853 54 63 864 52 2 - - -

Secretaries and administrative assistants, except legal, medical, and executive

1,518 836 11 1,384 820 9 134 1,011 47 81.1

Data entry keyers

192 798 24 133 764 17 59 926 34 82.5

Word processors and typists

32 - - 31 - - 2 - - -

Desktop publishers

1 - - 0 - - 1 - - -

Insurance claims and policy processing clerks

285 809 31 234 766 13 51 1,036 80 73.9

Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service

41 - - 14 - - 26 - - -

Office clerks, general

959 776 11 833 770 9 127 804 18 95.8

Office machine operators, except computer

17 - - 12 - - 6 - - -

Proofreaders and copy markers

5 - - 5 - - 0 - - -

Statistical assistants

13 - - 9 - - 4 - - -

Office and administrative support workers, all other

494 925 18 366 904 19 128 988 39 91.5

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

11,386 965 7 562 700 14 10,823 979 5 71.5

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

762 645 9 180 611 11 582 661 11 92.4

First-line supervisors of farming, fishing, and forestry workers

38 - - 6 - - 32 - - -

Agricultural inspectors

16 - - 4 - - 12 - - -

Animal breeders

3 - - 1 - - 2 - - -

Graders and sorters, agricultural products

36 - - 25 - - 11 - - -

Miscellaneous agricultural workers

604 634 9 137 601 10 467 652 11 92.2

Fishing and hunting workers

10 - - 1 - - 9 - - -

Forest and conservation workers

12 - - 2 - - 10 - - -

Logging workers

43 - - 3 - - 40 - - -

Construction and extraction occupations

6,406 943 11 211 796 33 6,195 951 11 83.7

First-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workers

521 1,227 36 21 - - 500 1,238 36 -

Boilermakers

10 - - 0 - - 10 - - -

Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons

71 1,009 42 0 - - 71 1,009 42 -

Carpenters

866 884 13 24 - - 842 887 13 -

Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers

99 786 42 5 - - 94 805 41 -

Cement masons, concrete finishers, and terrazzo workers

59 876 57 1 - - 59 880 46 -

Construction laborers

1,636 826 14 58 669 114 1,578 830 16 80.6

Construction equipment operators

351 1,038 41 5 - - 346 1,031 38 -

Drywall installers, ceiling tile installers, and tapers

120 829 34 3 - - 118 835 34 -

Electricians

784 1,116 22 15 - - 770 1,114 20 -

Glaziers

28 - - 1 - - 27 - - -

Insulation workers

51 748 69 3 - - 49 - - -

Painters and paperhangers

402 747 16 41 - - 361 758 16 -

Pipelayers

44 - - 1 - - 43 - - -

Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters

485 1,078 30 5 - - 480 1,082 22 -

Plasterers and stucco masons

23 - - 0 - - 23 - - -

Reinforcing iron and rebar workers

6 - - 0 - - 6 - - -

Roofers

127 786 31 4 - - 122 794 35 -

Sheet metal workers

123 992 30 2 - - 121 998 30 -

Structural iron and steel workers

59 1,170 179 1 - - 58 1,176 101 -

Solar photovoltaic installers

25 - - 0 - - 25 - - -

Helpers, construction trades

42 - - 0 - - 42 - - -

Construction and building inspectors

88 1,316 141 7 - - 81 1,274 176 -

Elevator and escalator installers and repairers

49 - - 2 - - 47 - - -

Fence erectors

40 - - 3 - - 37 - - -

Hazardous materials removal workers

22 - - 2 - - 20 - - -

Highway maintenance workers

94 892 21 1 - - 93 889 21 -

Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators

16 - - 0 - - 16 - - -

Septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners

8 - - 1 - - 7 - - -

Miscellaneous construction and related workers

24 - - 0 - - 24 - - -

Derrick, rotary drill, and service unit operators, oil and gas

32 - - 0 - - 32 - - -

Excavating and loading machine and dragline operators, surface mining

3 - - 0 - - 3 - - -

Earth drillers, except oil and gas

19 - - 0 - - 19 - - -

Explosives workers, ordnance handling experts, and blasters

9 - - 5 - - 4 - - -

Underground mining machine operators

24 - - 0 - - 24 - - -

Roustabouts, oil and gas

8 - - 0 - - 8 - - -

Other extraction workers

38 - - 1 - - 37 - - -

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

4,218 1,043 12 171 861 55 4,047 1,051 11 81.9

First-line supervisors of mechanics, installers, and repairers

234 1,355 63 11 - - 223 1,351 62 -

Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers

154 1,139 45 18 - - 136 1,157 51 -

Radio and telecommunications equipment installers and repairers

104 1,184 39 14 - - 90 1,193 37 -

Avionics technicians

6 - - 0 - - 6 - - -

Electric motor, power tool, and related repairers

22 - - 0 - - 22 - - -

Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment

2 - - 2 - - 0 - - -

Electrical and electronics repairers, industrial and utility

17 - - 0 - - 17 - - -

Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles

6 - - 0 - - 6 - - -

Audiovisual equipment installers and repairers

23 - - 0 - - 23 - - -

Security and fire alarm systems installers

57 968 51 4 - - 54 994 57 -

Aircraft mechanics and service technicians

163 1,253 64 8 - - 156 1,282 50 -

Automotive body and related repairers

121 999 54 3 - - 118 1,013 53 -

Automotive glass installers and repairers

25 - - 1 - - 24 - - -

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

733 917 20 19 - - 714 921 22 -

Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists

312 1,025 29 4 - - 308 1,024 27 -

Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics

205 1,281 37 1 - - 204 1,282 37 -

Small engine mechanics

36 - - 1 - - 35 - - -

Miscellaneous vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers

57 871 71 2 - - 55 882 33 -

Control and valve installers and repairers

16 - - 0 - - 16 - - -

Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers

408 1,029 29 11 - - 397 1,037 29 -

Home appliance repairers

29 - - 2 - - 28 - - -

Industrial and refractory machinery mechanics

380 1,105 49 8 - - 372 1,110 47 -

Maintenance and repair workers, general

556 991 17 24 - - 531 991 17 -

Maintenance workers, machinery

19 - - 1 - - 18 - - -

Millwrights

44 - - 2 - - 42 - - -

Electrical power-line installers and repairers

111 1,372 44 1 - - 109 1,367 40 -

Telecommunications line installers and repairers

121 1,257 59 9 - - 112 1,263 57 -

Precision instrument and equipment repairers

47 - - 8 - - 39 - - -

Wind turbine service technicians

9 - - 0 - - 9 - - -

Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers

29 - - 2 - - 27 - - -

Commercial divers

1 - - 0 - - 1 - - -

Locksmiths and safe repairers

8 - - 1 - - 6 - - -

Manufactured building and mobile home installers

3 - - 0 - - 3 - - -

Riggers

11 - - 0 - - 11 - - -

Helpers--installation, maintenance, and repair workers

10 - - 0 - - 10 - - -

Other installation, maintenance, and repair workers

139 910 59 13 - - 126 947 35 -

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

16,076 821 4 3,778 694 4 12,298 891 4 77.9

Production occupations

7,352 862 8 2,038 700 5 5,314 943 9 74.2

First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

753 1,090 21 158 888 30 596 1,157 28 76.8

Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging, and systems assemblers

8 - - 2 - - 6 - - -

Electrical, electronics, and electromechanical assemblers

98 729 27 52 691 15 46 - - -

Engine and other machine assemblers

9 - - 0 - - 9 - - -

Structural metal fabricators and fitters

21 - - 5 - - 16 - - -

Other assemblers and fabricators

1,014 774 11 376 707 9 639 819 11 86.3

Bakers

147 646 17 81 618 20 66 737 87 83.9

Butchers and other meat, poultry, and fish processing workers

217 769 28 51 695 183 166 789 19 88.1

Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders

3 - - 1 - - 2 - - -

Food batchmakers

58 722 18 24 - - 34 - - -

Food cooking machine operators and tenders

11 - - 3 - - 8 - - -

Food processing workers, all other

141 816 18 46 - - 95 879 61 -

Computer numerically controlled tool operators and programmers

69 1,088 37 7 - - 61 1,085 47 -

Forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

27 - - 4 - - 23 - - -

Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

57 815 38 5 - - 52 816 36 -

Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

25 - - 3 - - 23 - - -

Other machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

10 - - 1 - - 9 - - -

Machinists

283 1,036 29 16 - - 267 1,057 32 -

Metal furnace operators, tenders, pourers, and casters

16 - - 1 - - 14 - - -

Model makers and patternmakers, metal and plastic

0 - - 0 - - 0 - - -

Molders and molding machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

16 - - 3 - - 14 - - -

Tool and die makers

40 - - 2 - - 38 - - -

Welding, soldering, and brazing workers

501 996 19 26 - - 475 1,007 20 -

Other metal workers and plastic workers

393 862 15 88 707 19 305 905 19 78.1

Prepress technicians and workers

15 - - 7 - - 8 - - -

Printing press operators

123 798 73 36 - - 87 909 35 -

Print binding and finishing workers

6 - - 2 - - 5 - - -

Laundry and dry-cleaning workers

75 624 35 53 595 30 22 - - -

Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials

15 - - 0 - - 15 - - -

Sewing machine operators

87 631 21 60 611 15 27 - - -

Shoe and leather workers

9 - - 3 - - 6 - - -

Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers

16 - - 13 - - 3 - - -

Textile machine setters, operators, and tenders

16 - - 6 - - 9 - - -

Upholsterers

10 - - 1 - - 9 - - -

Other textile, apparel, and furnishings workers

15 - - 4 - - 11 - - -

Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters

50 833 39 8 - - 42 - - -

Furniture finishers

5 - - 2 - - 3 - - -

Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood

24 - - 1 - - 23 - - -

Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing

18 - - 1 - - 18 - - -

Other woodworkers

18 - - 7 - - 11 - - -

Power plant operators, distributors, and dispatchers

20 - - 1 - - 19 - - -

Stationary engineers and boiler operators

87 1,173 42 2 - - 85 1,181 37 -

Water and wastewater treatment plant and system operators

93 1,170 41 7 - - 86 1,169 33 -

Miscellaneous plant and system operators

43 - - 2 - - 41 - - -

Chemical processing machine setters, operators, and tenders

67 1,047 46 5 - - 62 1,061 45 -

Crushing, grinding, polishing, mixing, and blending workers

76 908 40 6 - - 70 916 41 -

Cutting workers

50 709 25 12 - - 38 - - -

Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders

12 - - 2 - - 10 - - -

Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders

9 - - 4 - - 5 - - -

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

726 908 23 292 719 11 435 1,033 32 69.6

Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers

22 - - 5 - - 17 - - -

Dental and ophthalmic laboratory technicians and medical appliance technicians

76 807 27 27 - - 48 - - -

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

287 701 14 145 673 18 142 726 37 92.7

Painting workers

142 886 23 22 - - 120 912 25 -

Photographic process workers and processing machine operators

9 - - 4 - - 5 - - -

Adhesive bonding machine operators and tenders

1 - - 0 - - 1 - - -

Etchers and engravers

3 - - 3 - - 0