Department of Labor Logo United States Department of Labor
Dot gov

The .gov means it's official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you're on a federal government site.


The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Bureau of Labor Statistics > Office of Survey Methods and Research > Publications > Browse Research Papers

The Effects of Item and Unit Nonresponse on Estimates of Labor Force Participation

John S. Dixon


Previous studies have examined item nonresponse as a predictor of household nonresponse. The usefulness of item nonresponse and unit nonresponse in examining potential nonresponse bias in surveys is explored. Models of item nonresponse and household nonresponse will be related to survey estimates. The theory that households vary on a continuum of cooperation will be examined through a scale from their unwillingness to respond to the survey at all to their unwillingness to respond to certain items.