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News Release Information

17-460-PHI
Thursday, April 20, 2017

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Technical information:
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Fatal Work Injuries in Pennsylvania — 2015

Fatal work injuries totaled 173 in 2015 for Pennsylvania, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Sheila Watkins, the Bureau’s regional commissioner, noted that the number of work-related fatalities in Pennsylvania decreased from 179 in the previous year. Fatal occupational injuries in the state have ranged from a high of 354 in 1994 to a low of 168 in 2009. (See chart 1.)

Nationwide, a total of 4,836 fatal work injuries were recorded in 2015, a slight increase from the 4,821 fatal injuries in 2014, according to the results from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) program.

Type of incident

In Pennsylvania, transportation incidents resulted in 70 fatal work injuries and falls, slips, or trips accounted for 36 fatalities. These two major categories accounted for 61 percent of all workplace fatalities in the Commonwealth. (See table 1.) The number of worker deaths from transportation incidents decreased from 78 over the year while worker fatalities due to falls, slips, or trips increased from 25 in 2014.

Contact with objects and equipment was the third-most frequent fatal work event with 25 fatalities, down from 29 in the prior year. Violence and other injuries by persons or animals resulted in 22 work-related deaths, little changed from 2014.

Nationally, transportation incidents was the most frequent fatal workplace event in 2015, accounting for approximately 42 percent of fatal work injuries. (See chart 2.) Falls, slips, or trips was the second-most frequent type of event, with 17 percent of work-related fatalities, followed by contact with objects and equipment (15 percent) and violence and other injuries by persons or animals (15 percent).

Industry

The private construction industry sector had the largest number of fatalities in Pennsylvania with 35, down from 40 in the previous year. (See table 2.) Falls, slips, or trips was the most frequent fatal event in the construction sector with 17 worker deaths, followed by transportation incidents with 8 fatalities. Forty-six percent of those fatally injured in this sector worked in specialty trade contracting.

The private transportation and warehousing sector had 28 workplace fatalities, down from 36 in 2014. Long-distance general freight trucking accounted for 16, or 57 percent, of the fatal injuries in this industry.

Occupation

Transportation and material moving occupations and construction and extraction occupations had the highest number of workplace fatalities with 50 and 42, respectively. (See table 3.) The majority of the fatalities within the transportation and material moving group were heavy and tractor-trailer truck drivers, with 28 worker deaths. Construction trades workers accounted for 32 of the 42 fatalities among construction and extraction workers.

Contracted Workers

A contracted worker is defined as a worker employed by one firm but working at the behest of another firm that exercises overall responsibility for the operations at the site of the fatal injury. In 2015, Pennsylvania had 33 fatally-injured workers identified as fitting the contracted worker criteria; of those, 14 were the result of falls, slips, or trips.

Additional highlights:

  • Men accounted for 92 percent of the work-related fatalities in Pennsylvania, similar to the 93-percent national share. (See table 4.) Transportation incidents made up 42 percent of the fatalities for men in Pennsylvania.
  • White, non-Hispanic workers accounted for 80 percent of those who died from a workplace injury. Nationwide, this group accounted for 67 percent of work-related deaths.
  • Workers 25-54 years old accounted for 60 percent of the state’s work-related fatalities in 2015, compared to 57 percent of on-the-job fatalities nationally.
  • Of the 173 fatally-injured workers in Pennsylvania, 84 percent worked for wages and salaries; the remainder were self-employed. The most frequent fatal event for both wage and salary and self-employed workers was transportation incidents.

Change in the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) News Release Schedule

Beginning with the 2015 reference year, CFOI will publish a single, annual release with no revisions. A similar schedule will be followed in subsequent years. Preliminary releases, which normally appeared in August or September in past years, will no longer be produced.


Technical Note

Background of the program. The Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI), part of the BLS Occupational Safety and Health Statistics (OSHS) program, compiles a count of all fatal work injuries occurring in the U.S. during the calendar year. The CFOI program uses diverse state, federal, and independent data sources to identify, verify, and describe fatal work injuries. This ensures counts are as complete and accurate as possible. For the 2015 data, over 21,400 unique source documents were reviewed as part of the data collection process. For technical information and definitions for CFOI, please go to the BLS Handbook of Methods on the BLS web site at www.bls.gov/opub/hom/pdf/homch9.pdf.

Federal/State agency coverage. The Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries includes data for all fatal work injuries, whether the decedent was working in a job covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) or other federal or state agencies or was outside the scope of regulatory coverage. Thus, any comparison between the BLS fatality census counts and those released by other agencies should take into account the different coverage requirements and definitions being used by each agency.

Acknowledgments. BLS thanks the Pennsylvania Department of Health for their efforts in collecting accurate, comprehensive, and useful data on fatal work injuries. BLS also appreciates the efforts of all federal, state, local, and private sector entities that provided source documents used to identify fatal work injuries. Among these agencies are the Occupational Safety and Health Administration; the National Transportation Safety Board; the U.S. Coast Guard; the Mine Safety and Health Administration; the Office of Workers’ Compensation Programs (Federal Employees' Compensation and Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation divisions); the Federal Railroad Administration; the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration; state vital statistics registrars, coroners, and medical examiners; state departments of health, labor, and industrial relations and workers' compensation agencies; state and local police departments; and state farm bureaus.

Information in this release is available to sensory-impaired individuals. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Fatal occupational injuries by event or exposure, Pennsylvania, 2014-15
Event or exposure (1)20142015
NumberNumberPercent

Total

179173100

Violence and other injuries by persons or animals

232213

Intentional injury by person

212112

Homicides

8148

Shooting by other person—intentional

7138

Stabbing, cutting, slashing, piercing

-11

Suicides

1374

Shooting—intentional self-harm

732

Jumping from building or other structure intentional—self-harm

-11

Injury by person—unintentional or intent unknown

211

Injury by other person—unintentional or intent unknown

211

Injured by physical contact with person while restraining, subduing—unintentional

111

Transportation incidents

787040

Aircraft incidents

111

Aircraft crash during takeoff or landing

111

Aircraft crash during takeoff or landing—due to mechanical failure

-11

Rail vehicle incidents

332

Derailment

-32

Pedestrian vehicular incident

121710

Pedestrian struck by vehicle in work zone

342

Pedestrian struck by forward-moving vehicle in work zone

321

Pedestrian struck by vehicle in roadway

563

Pedestrian struck by forward-moving vehicle in roadway

542

Pedestrian struck by vehicle backing up in roadway

-21

Pedestrian struck by vehicle on side of road

-32

Pedestrian struck by forward-moving vehicle on side of road

-32

Pedestrian struck by vehicle in nonroadway area

242

Pedestrian struck by forward-moving vehicle in nonroadway area

121

Pedestrian struck by vehicle backing up in nonroadway area

121

Roadway incident involving motorized land vehicle

473520

Roadway collision with other vehicle

291911

Roadway collision moving in same direction

921

Roadway collision moving in opposite directions, oncoming

763

Roadway collision moving and standing vehicle in roadway

563

Roadway collision moving and standing vehicle on side of roadway

-32

Roadway collision with object other than vehicle

16148

Vehicle struck object or animal on side of roadway

14148

Roadway noncollision incident

221

Jack-knifed or overturned, roadway

221

Nonroadway incident involving motorized land vehicle

13148

Nonroadway collision with object other than vehicle

342

Nonroadway noncollision incident

1095

Jack-knifed or overturned, nonroadway

753

Fall or jump from and struck by same vehicle in normal operation, nonroadway

-42

Fire or explosion

842

Fire

311

Collapsing building, structure, or structural element during fire

-11

Explosion

532

Explosion of pressure vessel, piping, or tire

332

Fall, slip, trip

253621

Fall on same level

495

Fall to lower level

212514

Fall from collapsing structure or equipment

311

Fall through surface or existing opening

453

Fall through surface or existing opening more than 30 feet

-32

Other fall to lower level

141710

Other fall to lower level 16 to 20 feet

111

Other fall to lower level 26 to 30 feet

-11

Other fall to lower level more than 30 feet

342

Jump to lower level

-11

Other jump to lower level

-11

Other jump to lower level 11 to 15 feet

-11

Exposure to harmful substances or environments

16169

Exposure to electricity

832

Indirect exposure to electricity

511

Indirect exposure to electricity, greater than 220 volts

411

Exposure to other harmful substances

7138

Nonmedical use of drugs or alcohol unintentional overdose

5127

Contact with objects and equipment

292514

Struck by object or equipment

231710

Struck by powered vehicle nontransport

1063

Caught between rolling powered vehicle and other object

121

Struck by swinging part of powered vehicle

-11

Struck by falling part of powered vehicle still attached

111

Struck by other falling powered vehicle

411

Struck by falling object or equipment

1195

Struck, caught, or crushed in collapsing structure, equipment, or material

263

Excavation or trenching cave-in

-21

Struck, caught, or crushed in other collapsing structure or equipment

-32

Engulfment in other collapsing material

111

Footnotes:
(1) Based on the BLS Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System (OIICS) 2.01 implemented for 2011 data forward.

Note: Data for all years are revised and final. Totals for major categories may include subcategories not shown separately. Percentages may not add to totals because of rounding. CFOI fatal injury counts exclude illness-related deaths unless precipitated by an injury event. Dashes indicate no data reported or data that do not meet publication criteria.

Table 2. Fatal occupational injuries by industry, Pennsylvania, 2014-15
Industry (1)20142015
NumberNumberPercent

Total

179173100

Private industry

16316193

Goods producing

807242

Natural resources and mining

251810

Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting

22116

Crop production

721

Greenhouse, nursery, and floriculture production

-11

Nursery and floriculture production

-11

Nursery and tree production

-11

Other crop farming

611

All other crop farming

511

Animal production and aquaculture

1163

Cattle ranching and farming

763

Dairy cattle and milk production

663

Forestry and logging

432

Logging

432

Logging

432

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction (2)

374

Mining (except oil and gas)

163

Coal mining

-32

Coal mining

-32

Bituminous coal underground mining

-32

Nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying

132

Stone mining and quarrying

132

Dimension stone mining and quarrying

132

Construction

403520

Construction of buildings

15106

Residential building construction

9--

Residential building construction

9--

Residential remodelers

711

Nonresidential building construction

653

Industrial building construction

232

Heavy and civil engineering construction

595

Utility system construction

432

Water and sewer line and related structures construction

211

Oil and gas pipeline and related structures construction

-21

Highway, street, and bridge construction

163

Highway, street, and bridge construction

163

Specialty trade contractors

20169

Foundation, structure, and building exterior contractors

985

Poured concrete foundation and structure contractors

-11

Nonresidential poured concrete foundation and structure contractors

-11

Masonry contractors

532

Residential masonry contractors

511

Nonresidential masonry contractors

-11

Roofing contractors

311

Residential roofing contractors

211

Building equipment contractors

353

Electrical contractors and other wiring installation contractors

332

Building finishing contractors

411

Finish carpentry contractors

-11

Residential finish carpentry contractors

-11

Other specialty trade contractors

421

Site preparation contractors

321

Residential site preparation contractors

211

Nonresidential site preparation contractors

111

Manufacturing

151911

Food manufacturing

232

Animal slaughtering and processing

---

Animal slaughtering and processing

---

Rendering and meat byproduct processing

-11

Beverage and tobacco product manufacturing

-11

Beverage manufacturing

-11

Wineries

-11

Chemical manufacturing

-32

Soap, cleaning compound, and toilet preparation manufacturing

-21

Soap and cleaning compound manufacturing

-21

Polish and other sanitation good manufacturing

-21

Fabricated metal product manufacturing

-53

Architectural and structural metals manufacturing

---

Plate work and fabricated structural product manufacturing

-11

Prefabricated metal building and component manufacturing

-11

Spring and wire product manufacturing

-21

Spring and wire product manufacturing

-21

Spring manufacturing

-11

Machinery manufacturing

311

Ventilation, heating, air-conditioning, and commercial refrigeration equipment manufacturing

-11

Ventilation, heating, air-conditioning, and commercial refrigeration equipment manufacturing

-11

Air-conditioning and warm air heating equipment and commercial and industrial refrigeration equipment manufacturing

-11

Transportation equipment manufacturing

-11

Motor vehicle parts manufacturing

-11

Other motor vehicle parts manufacturing

-11

Service providing

838951

Trade, transportation, and utilities

444124

Wholesale trade

253

Merchant wholesalers, durable goods

132

Lumber and other construction materials merchant wholesalers

-11

Brick, stone, and related construction material merchant wholesalers

-11

Miscellaneous durable goods merchant wholesalers

-11

Recyclable material merchant wholesalers

-11

Merchant wholesalers, nondurable goods

121

Grocery and related product merchant wholesalers

-21

Dairy product (except dried or canned) merchant wholesalers

-11

Poultry and poultry product merchant wholesalers

-11

Retail trade

674

Motor vehicle and parts dealers

---

Automotive parts, accessories, and tire stores

-11

Automotive parts and accessories stores

-11

Miscellaneous store retailers

-11

Office supplies, stationery, and gift stores

-11

Gift, novelty, and souvenir stores

-11

Transportation and warehousing

362816

Truck transportation

282313

General freight trucking

211911

General freight trucking, local

-32

General freight trucking, long-distance

20169

General freight trucking, long-distance, truckload

13106

General freight trucking, long-distance, less than truckload

442

Specialized freight trucking

742

Specialized freight (except used goods) trucking, local

332

Specialized freight (except used goods) trucking, long-distance

411

Transit and ground passenger transportation

342

Interurban and rural bus transportation

-11

Interurban and rural bus transportation

-11

Taxi and limousine service

221

Limousine service

-21

School and employee bus transportation

111

School and employee bus transportation

111

Support activities for transportation

111

Support activities for road transportation

-11

Information

111

Other information services

-11

Other information services

-11

News syndicates

-11

Financial activities

611

Real estate and rental and leasing

511

Real estate

411

Lessors of real estate

411

Lessors of nonresidential buildings (except miniwarehouses)

-11

Professional and business services

151911

Professional, scientific, and technical services

1--

Professional, scientific, and technical services

1--

Architectural, engineering, and related services

-11

Engineering services

-11

Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services

141710

Administrative and support services

11127

Employment services

-11

Temporary help services

-11

Services to buildings and dwellings

10116

Landscaping services

7106

Waste management and remediation services

353

Waste collection

321

Waste collection

321

Solid waste collection

-21

Remediation and other waste management services

-32

All other waste management services

-32

Septic tank and related services

-11

Educational and health services

495

Educational services

---

Educational services

---

Technical and trade schools

-11

Technical and trade schools

-11

Flight training

-11

Health care and social assistance

474

Ambulatory health care services

---

Other ambulatory health care services

-11

Ambulance services

-11

Nursing and residential care facilities

-42

Residential intellectual and developmental disability, mental health and substance abuse facilities

-32

Social assistance

311

Individual and family services

-11

Child and youth services

-11

Leisure and hospitality

9127

Arts, entertainment, and recreation

563

Performing arts, spectator sports, and related industries

-53

Performing arts companies

-11

Spectator sports

-32

Spectator sports

-32

Promoters of performing arts, sports, and similar events

-11

Promoters of performing arts, sports, and similar events with facilities

-11

Amusement, gambling, and recreation industries

311

Other amusement and recreation industries

311

Accommodation and food services

463

Food services and drinking places

463

Drinking places (alcoholic beverages)

121

Drinking places (alcoholic beverages)

121

Restaurants and other eating places

132

Restaurants and other eating places

132

Other services, except public administration

463

Repair and maintenance

-42

Electronic and precision equipment repair and maintenance

-11

Electronic and precision equipment repair and maintenance

-11

Communication equipment repair and maintenance

-11

Personal and laundry services

-21

Personal care services

-11

Hair, nail, and skin care services

-11

Beauty salons

-11

Death care services

-11

Funeral homes and funeral services

-11

Government (3)

16127

Local government

9116

Service providing

895

Professional and business services

111

Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services

111

Waste management and remediation services

111

Waste collection

111

Waste collection

111

Solid waste collection

111

Other services, except public administration

-11

Personal and laundry services

-11

Other personal services

-11

Parking lots and garages

-11

Public administration

663

Justice, public order, and safety activities

663

Justice, public order, and safety activities

663

Police protection

442

Parole offices and probation offices

-11

Fire protection

211

Footnotes:
(1) Industry data are based on the North American Industry Classification System, 2012.
(2) Includes fatal injuries at all establishments categorized as Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction (Sector 21) in the North American Industry Classification System, including establishments not governed by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) rules and reporting, such as those in Oil and Gas Extraction.
(3) Includes fatal injuries to workers employed by governmental organizations regardless of industry.

Note: Data for all years are revised and final. Totals for major categories may include subcategories not shown separately. Percentages may not add to totals because of rounding. CFOI fatal injury counts exclude illness-related deaths unless precipitated by an injury event. Dashes indicate no data reported or data that do not meet publication criteria.

Table 3. Fatal occupational injuries by occupation, Pennsylvania, 2014-15
Occupation (1)20142015
NumberNumberPercent

Total

179173100

Management, business, science, and arts occupations

272414

Management, business, and financial occupations

20127

Management occupations

2085

Top executives

-11

Chief executives

-11

Chief executives

-11

Advertising, marketing, promotions, public relations, and sales managers

1--

Marketing and sales managers

1--

Sales managers

111

Other management occupations

1953

Agricultural managers

1521

Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers

1521

Food service managers

-11

Food service managers

-11

Social and community service managers

-11

Social and community service managers

-11

Business and financial operations occupations

-42

Business operations specialists

-42

Buyers and purchasing agents

---

Buyers and purchasing agents, farm products

-11

Compliance officers, except agriculture, construction, health and safety, and transportation

-11

Compliance officers

-11

Meeting and convention planners

-11

Meeting, convention, and event planners

-11

Professional and related occupations

7127

Computer, engineering, and science occupations

253

Computer and mathematical occupations

---

Computer specialists

---

Software developers and programmers

-11

Software developers, applications

-11

Architecture and engineering occupations

132

Education, legal, community service, arts, and media occupations

563

Community and social services occupations

232

Counselors, social workers, and other community and social service specialists

232

Miscellaneous community and social service specialists

111

Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists

-11

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

-32

Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers

132

Athletes, coaches, umpires, and related workers

132

Athletes and sports competitors

132

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

-11

Health technologists and technicians

-11

Emergency medical technicians and paramedics

-11

Emergency medical technicians and paramedics

-11

Service occupations

292917

Protective service occupations

1185

First-line supervisors/managers, protective service workers

211

First-line supervisors/managers, law enforcement workers

211

First-line supervisors of police and detectives

211

Fire fighting and prevention workers

211

Firefighters

211

Firefighters

211

Law enforcement workers

532

Police officers

532

Police and sheriff's patrol officers

532

Other protective service workers

232

Security guards and gaming surveillance officers

232

Security guards

232

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

13159

Supervisors, building and grounds cleaning and maintenance workers

132

First-line supervisors/managers, building and grounds cleaning and maintenance workers

132

First-line supervisors of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers

132

Grounds maintenance workers

7106

Grounds maintenance workers

7106

Landscaping and groundskeeping workers

342

Tree trimmers and pruners

453

Personal care and service occupations

-32

Personal appearance workers

-11

Barbers and cosmetologists

-11

Barbers

-11

Sales and office occupations

742

Sales and related occupations

342

Supervisors, sales workers

-32

First-line supervisors/managers, sales workers

-32

First-line supervisors of retail sales workers

-32

Retail sales workers

-11

Counter and rental clerks and parts salespersons

-11

Parts salespersons

-11

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

555834

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

785

Agricultural workers

353

Miscellaneous agricultural workers

353

Agricultural equipment operators

-21

Farmworkers, farm, ranch, and aquacultural animals

332

Forest, conservation, and logging workers

432

Logging workers

432

Fallers

432

Construction and extraction occupations

404224

Supervisors of construction and extraction workers

863

First-line supervisors/managers of construction trades and extraction workers

863

First-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workers

863

Construction trades workers

293218

Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons

542

Brickmasons and blockmasons

-32

Stonemasons

311

Carpenters

453

Carpenters

453

Construction laborers

895

Construction laborers

895

Construction equipment operators

153

Operating engineers and other construction equipment operators

153

Electricians

432

Electricians

432

Pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters

132

Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters

-32

Roofers

411

Roofers

411

Extraction workers

-21

Mining machine operators

-11

Continuous mining machine operators

-11

Helpers--extraction workers

-11

Helpers--extraction workers

-11

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

885

Supervisors of installation, maintenance, and repair workers

-11

First-line supervisors/managers of mechanics, installers, and repairers

-11

First-line supervisors of mechanics, installers, and repairers

-11

Electrical and electronic equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers

---

Radio and telecommunications equipment installers and repairers

-11

Radio, cellular, and tower equipment, installers and repairers

-11

Vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers

421

Automotive technicians and repairers

-21

Automotive body and related repairers

-11

Automotive service technicians and mechanics

-11

Other installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

332

Industrial machinery installation, repair, and maintenance workers

---

Maintenance workers, machinery

-11

Miscellaneous installation, maintenance, and repair workers

-11

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

615834

Production occupations

885

Metal workers and plastic workers

542

Tool and die makers

-11

Tool and die makers

-11

Other production occupations

1--

Miscellaneous production workers

111

Transportation and material moving occupations

535029

Air transportation workers

111

Aircraft pilots and flight engineers

111

Commercial pilots

111

Motor vehicle operators

464023

Bus drivers

111

Bus drivers, transit and intercity

-11

Driver/sales workers and truck drivers

413420

Driver/sales workers

432

Heavy and tractor-trailer truck drivers

332816

Light truck or delivery services drivers

432

Taxi drivers and chauffeurs

432

Taxi drivers and chauffeurs

432

Other transportation workers

-11

Parking lot attendants

-11

Parking lot attendants

-11

Material moving workers

685

Dredge, excavating, and loading machine operators

111

Loading machine operators, underground mining

-11

Industrial truck and tractor operators

-11

Industrial truck and tractor operators

-11

Laborers and material movers, hand

-32

Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

-32

Refuse and recyclable material collectors

132

Refuse and recyclable material collectors

132

Footnotes:
(1) Occupation data are based on the Standard Occupational Classification system, 2010.

Note: Data for all years are revised and final. Totals for major categories may include subcategories not shown separately. Percentages may not add to totals because of rounding. CFOI fatal injury counts exclude illness-related deaths unless precipitated by an injury event. Dashes indicate no data reported or data that do not meet publication criteria.

Table 4. Fatal occupational injuries by worker characteristics, Pennsylvania, 2014-15
Worker characteristics20142015
NumberNumberPercent

Total

179173100

Employee status

 

Wage and salary workers (1)

13714684

Self-employed (2)

422716

Gender

 

Women

12148

Men

16715992

Age

 

18 to 19 years

111

20 to 24 years

11116

25 to 34 years

232615

35 to 44 years

273118

45 to 54 years

424627

55 to 64 years

433420

65 years and over

292414

Race or ethnic origin (3)

 

White (non-Hispanic)

14713980

Black or African-American (non-Hispanic)

15169

Hispanic or Latino

131710

Footnotes:
(1) May include volunteers and workers receiving other types of compensation.
(2) Includes self-employed workers, owners of unincorporated businesses and farms, paid and unpaid family workers, and may include some owners of incorporated businesses or members of partnerships.
(3) Persons identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. The race categories shown exclude data for Hispanics and Latinos.

Note: Data for all years are revised and final. Totals for major categories may include subcategories not shown separately. Percentages may not add to totals because of rounding. CFOI fatal injury counts exclude illness-related deaths unless precipitated by an injury event.

 

Last Modified Date: Thursday, April 20, 2017