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News Release Information

15-1812-CHI
Friday, September 25, 2015

Contacts

Technical information:
Media contact:
  • (312) 353-1138

Business Employment Dynamics in Iowa — Fourth Quarter 2014

From September 2014 to December 2014 gross job gains in Iowa totaled 77,791, while gross job losses numbered 71,592, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Regional Commissioner Charlene Peiffer noted that gross job gains exceeded gross job losses by 6,199. During the previous quarter, gross job losses exceeded gross job gains by 1,098.

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses in the economy. Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track these changes in employment at private business establishments from the third month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing establishments and the addition of new jobs at opening establishments. Gross job losses are the result of contractions in employment at existing establishments and the loss of jobs at closing establishments. The difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of gross job losses is the net change in employment. (See the Technical Note for more information.).

Gross job gains in Iowa have trended upward since reaching the series low of 64,466 in March 2009. Although Iowa’s gross job gains have been above 65,000 in each quarter since this low point, the state’s 77,791 gross job gains in December 2014 were down 904 from their recent peak of 78,695 reached in June 2014. Gross job losses in December 2014 totaled 71,592 in the state, 8,391 more than the recent low of 63,201 in March 2012. (See chart 1.) Iowa’s gross job losses were highest in June 2001 when 96,693 jobs were lost.

Gross job gains represented 6.1 percent of private sector employment in Iowa in the fourth quarter of 2014, while nationally gross job gains accounted for 6.6 percent of private sector employment. (See chart 2.) The rate of gross job gains in Iowa has been below the U.S. rate in all but a few quarters since the series began in September 1992. The state’s rate of gross job losses as a percent of private sector employment matched the national rate of 5.6 percent in the fourth quarter of 2014. Iowa’s rate of gross job losses has been below the U.S. rate in all but three instances since the quarterly series began.

During the fourth quarter 2014, gross job gains exceeded gross job losses in eight industry sectors in Iowa. For example, within retail trade, gross job gains exceeded gross jobs losses by 1,289. While almost 9,000 jobs were lost in closing and contracting establishments in the industry, more than 10,000 jobs were created by opening and expanding establishments in the three months ended in December 2014. In transportation and warehousing, approximately 3,800 jobs were created in opening and expanding establishments and more than 2,500 jobs were lost in closing and contracting establishments resulting in a net employment gain of 1,286 jobs. (See table 1.)

In contrast, gross job losses exceeded gross job gains in two industry sectors. Within professional and business services, gross job losses exceeded gross job gains by 506. The other services sector had a net job loss of 244.

Iowa was among the seven states in the West North Central Census division. All seven states in the division had gross job gains that exceeded gross job losses. (See table A.) Six states, including Iowa, had rates of gross job gains that were lower than the 6.6-percent national rate. Only North Dakota had a rate of gross job gains that was higher than the national rate. Three states (Kansas, Minnesota, and Missouri) had rates of gross job losses that were below the 5.6-percent national rate. Two states (North Dakota and South Dakota) had rates of gross job losses that were higher than the national rate and two states (Iowa and Nebraska) had rates of gross job losses that were equal to the national rate.

Table A. Private sector job gains and losses for the United States, West North Central Division, and West North Central states, December 2014, seasonally adjusted
AreaGross job gainsGross job lossesNet changeNet change as
a percent of
total
employment
TotalAs a
percent of
total
employment
TotalAs a
percent of
total
employment

United States

7,635,0006.66,526,0005.61,109,0001.0

West North Central(1)

532,052466,91865,134

Iowa

77,7916.171,5925.66,1990.5

Kansas

70,0166.259,2445.310,7720.9

Minnesota

137,5985.8129,7875.47,8110.4

Missouri

142,8366.3116,2445.126,5921.2

Nebraska

49,4666.244,4875.64,9790.6

North Dakota

32,9898.725,7216.77,2682.0

South Dakota

21,3566.319,8435.81,5130.5

Footnotes:
(1) Data were calculated for this release using published gross job gains and gross job losses for the states located in the West North Central Census Division.
 

Note: Dash indicates data not available.
 

Additional statistics and other information

BED data for the states have been included in table 2 of this release. For more information on the Business Employment Dynamics data, visit the BED web site at www.bls.gov/bdm/.

The Business Employment Dynamics release for first quarter 2015 is scheduled to be released on Wednesday, November 18, 2015.


Technical Note

The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), or the ES-202 program. The BED data are compiled from existing QCEW records. The QCEW reports are sent by the State Employment Security Agencies (SESAs) to BLS and form the basis of the Bureau’s QCEW program and establishment universe sampling frame. These reports are also used to produce the QCEW data on total employment and wages. Other important Bureau uses of the QCEW reports are in the Current Employment Statistics (CES) program. The CES program produces monthly estimates of employment, net changes, and earnings by detailed industry.

In the BED program, the QCEW records are linked across quarters to provide a longitudinal history for each establishment. The linkage process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and expanding establishments and jobs lost at closing and contracting establishments.

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses in the economy. BED statistics track these changes in employment at private business establishments from the third month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing establishments and the addition of new jobs at opening establishments. Gross job losses are the result of contractions in employment at existing establishments and the loss of jobs at closing establishments. The difference between the number of gross jobs gained and the number of gross jobs lost is the net change in employment.

Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quarters. The rates are calculated for the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to form their respective totals. These rates can be added and subtracted just as their levels can. For instance, the difference between the gross job gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:

Openings.  These are either establishments with positive third month employment for the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or with positive third month employment in the current quarter following zero employment in the previous quarter.

Expansions.  These are establishments with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment over this period.

Closings.  These are either establishments with positive third month employment in the previous quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the current quarter.

Contractions.  These are establishments with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment over this period.

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, Iowa, seasonally adjusted
CategoryGross job gains and job losses
(3 months ended)
Gross job gains and job losses
as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Dec.
2013
Mar.
2014
June
2014
Sept.
2014
Dec.
2014
Dec.
2013
Mar.
2014
June
2014
Sept.
2014
Dec.
2014

Total private (1)

 

Gross job gains

75,84873,26578,69572,20677,7916.05.86.25.76.1

At expanding establishments

62,55061,68465,30160,83465,4364.94.95.14.85.1

At opening establishments

13,29811,58113,39411,37212,3551.10.91.10.91.0

Gross job losses

69,85869,12372,09073,30471,5925.55.55.75.75.6

At contracting establishments

58,42557,84359,48161,69060,0134.64.64.74.84.7

At closing establishments

11,43311,28012,60911,61411,5790.90.91.00.90.9

Net employment change (2)

5,9904,1426,605-1,0986,1990.50.30.50.00.5

Construction

 

Gross job gains

10,03010,85210,11610,25810,16214.515.213.813.813.4

At expanding establishments

7,7789,0978,1108,5628,70111.212.711.111.511.5

At opening establishments

2,2521,7552,0061,6961,4613.32.52.72.31.9

Gross job losses

8,8038,1408,1558,2728,95312.811.411.111.111.7

At contracting establishments

7,1066,4796,6676,5257,32910.39.19.18.89.6

At closing establishments

1,6971,6611,4881,7471,6242.52.32.02.32.1

Net employment change (2)

1,2272,7121,9611,9861,2091.73.82.72.71.7

Manufacturing

 

Gross job gains

6,3845,4946,1065,3736,6822.92.52.82.43.1

At expanding establishments

6,0615,2155,7715,0836,3232.82.42.62.32.9

At opening establishments

3232793352903590.10.10.20.10.2

Gross job losses

4,8394,9595,2586,7946,2182.22.32.43.12.9

At contracting establishments

4,6184,6334,9526,3445,8762.12.12.32.92.7

At closing establishments

2213263064503420.10.20.10.20.2

Net employment change (2)

1,545535848-1,4214640.70.20.4-0.70.2

Wholesale trade

 

Gross job gains

3,8333,2343,7172,6903,6625.54.75.43.95.3

At expanding establishments

3,4152,8363,3552,1283,2354.94.14.93.14.7

At opening establishments

4183983625624270.60.60.50.80.6

Gross job losses

2,6573,3123,0733,7812,7863.94.84.45.54.0

At contracting establishments

1,9922,8122,7023,2892,2772.94.13.94.83.3

At closing establishments

6655003714925091.00.70.50.70.7

Net employment change (2)

1,176-78644-1,0918761.6-0.11.0-1.61.3

Retail trade

 

Gross job gains

9,5569,39810,2949,13910,2725.45.25.75.15.8

At expanding establishments

8,4828,4999,0418,1669,2724.84.75.04.65.2

At opening establishments

1,0748991,2539731,0000.60.50.70.50.6

Gross job losses

9,8289,20110,0619,7588,9835.55.25.65.55.0

At contracting establishments

8,8708,1808,9118,7188,0295.04.65.04.94.5

At closing establishments

9581,0211,1501,0409540.50.60.60.60.5

Net employment change (2)

-272197233-6191,289-0.10.00.1-0.40.8

Transportation and warehousing

 

Gross job gains

3,4012,4502,6352,4823,8396.34.54.94.66.9

At expanding establishments

3,1002,0832,2072,2043,4345.73.84.14.16.2

At opening establishments

3013674282784050.60.70.80.50.7

Gross job losses

2,4073,1742,0942,6322,5534.45.83.94.94.6

At contracting establishments

2,0212,7331,7632,1982,1573.75.03.34.13.9

At closing establishments

3864413314343960.70.80.60.80.7

Net employment change (2)

994-724541-1501,2861.9-1.31.0-0.32.3

Financial activities

 

Gross job gains

3,8793,4413,9483,3823,4663.73.33.83.23.3

At expanding establishments

3,2532,7743,1082,8382,8263.12.73.02.72.7

At opening establishments

6266678405446400.60.60.80.50.6

Gross job losses

3,2333,6753,7553,4843,1543.13.53.63.43.0

At contracting establishments

2,6633,1142,9532,7772,4512.63.02.82.72.3

At closing establishments

5705618027077030.50.50.80.70.7

Net employment change (2)

646-234193-1023120.6-0.20.2-0.20.3

Professional and business services

 

Gross job gains

11,6709,25312,81010,80810,2248.76.99.57.97.5

At expanding establishments

9,2287,29810,6388,9428,0966.95.47.96.55.9

At opening establishments

2,4421,9552,1721,8662,1281.81.51.61.41.6

Gross job losses

10,23410,5749,77910,25010,7307.67.97.37.47.8

At contracting establishments

8,3008,6957,7538,2678,9326.26.55.86.06.5

At closing establishments

1,9341,8792,0261,9831,7981.41.41.51.41.3

Net employment change (2)

1,436-1,3213,031558-5061.1-1.02.20.5-0.3

Education and health services

 

Gross job gains

8,3608,8388,8298,3058,9614.04.24.23.94.2

At expanding establishments

7,0577,6077,1907,2777,4063.43.63.43.43.5

At opening establishments

1,3031,2311,6391,0281,5550.60.60.80.50.7

Gross job losses

8,2618,2629,2658,4438,2243.93.94.44.03.9

At contracting establishments

6,9386,9778,2186,8957,1323.33.33.93.33.4

At closing establishments

1,3231,2851,0471,5481,0920.60.60.50.70.5

Net employment change (2)

99576-436-1387370.10.3-0.2-0.10.3

Leisure and hospitality

 

Gross job gains

12,45614,05913,44013,07413,9599.110.39.79.510.1

At expanding establishments

9,15611,06510,26410,35410,8686.78.17.47.57.9

At opening establishments

3,3002,9943,1762,7203,0912.42.22.32.02.2

Gross job losses

12,93211,84514,51613,57113,2609.58.610.59.99.6

At contracting establishments

10,5959,33510,58811,41910,8027.86.87.78.37.8

At closing establishments

2,3372,5103,9282,1522,4581.71.82.81.61.8

Net employment change (2)

-4762,214-1,076-497699-0.41.7-0.8-0.40.5

Other services (3)

 

Gross job gains

2,6542,8703,1162,9502,7726.77.27.77.36.9

At expanding establishments

2,2742,4212,5752,5752,2985.76.16.46.45.7

At opening establishments

3804495413754741.01.11.30.91.2

Gross job losses

2,6872,3792,6442,9393,0166.76.06.67.37.5

At contracting establishments

2,1971,9502,1942,4172,3175.54.95.56.05.8

At closing establishments

4904294505226991.21.11.11.31.7

Net employment change (2)

-3349147211-2440.01.21.10.0-0.6

Footnotes:
(1) Includes unclassified sector not shown separately.
(2) The net employment change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses. See the Technical Note for further information.
(3) Except public administration.
 

Table 2. Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted
CategoryGross job gains as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Gross job losses as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Dec.
2013
Mar.
2014
June
2014
Sept.
2014
Dec.
2014
Dec.
2013
Mar.
2014
June
2014
Sept.
2014
Dec.
2014

United States (1)

6.46.06.56.26.65.85.75.65.85.6

Alabama

6.05.65.95.96.05.35.75.55.45.2

Alaska

10.110.810.99.410.510.49.610.910.410.3

Arizona

6.75.76.06.47.05.46.06.05.45.2

Arkansas

6.05.85.65.96.55.55.04.95.34.9

California

7.36.87.07.07.36.36.16.46.06.5

Colorado

6.96.77.37.37.06.15.96.16.26.1

Connecticut

5.35.15.65.25.45.45.04.85.35.1

Delaware

6.66.36.56.07.05.85.95.26.15.4

District of Columbia

5.85.96.45.75.35.45.55.75.55.5

Florida

7.06.57.27.27.16.05.86.25.96.0

Georgia

6.86.56.86.87.05.85.65.95.95.6

Hawaii

5.44.84.95.25.24.55.15.14.74.4

Idaho

8.38.47.77.57.97.37.28.07.36.5

Illinois

5.85.86.15.76.25.35.55.55.85.5

Indiana

6.15.35.95.36.35.15.55.05.35.0

Iowa

6.05.86.25.76.15.55.55.75.75.6

Kansas

6.25.76.15.76.25.35.55.75.85.3

Kentucky

6.56.16.26.16.65.45.95.55.45.3

Louisiana

6.76.76.66.66.86.15.86.45.85.8

Maine

7.06.77.86.77.17.57.06.57.17.2

Maryland

6.45.96.66.56.66.35.85.86.26.2

Massachusetts

5.45.36.35.66.05.35.05.35.55.3

Michigan

6.05.56.45.56.25.65.15.45.85.2

Minnesota

5.65.36.55.55.85.65.75.15.95.4

Mississippi

6.65.76.16.26.85.65.96.76.05.2

Missouri

6.05.66.05.66.35.55.55.35.65.1

Montana

8.27.28.28.08.57.57.97.78.18.0

Nebraska

6.35.96.06.06.25.75.66.05.75.6

Nevada

6.36.66.76.66.65.35.25.65.55.3

New Hampshire

6.85.76.75.96.95.85.96.16.36.0

New Jersey

6.45.96.96.36.96.46.25.86.36.1

New Mexico

6.96.36.66.57.06.46.46.16.16.0

New York

6.66.26.66.46.56.06.05.76.05.8

North Carolina

6.45.96.46.16.55.75.65.55.85.4

North Dakota

8.28.67.68.28.76.96.87.06.76.7

Ohio

6.05.66.15.56.15.35.65.35.55.1

Oklahoma

6.26.16.26.16.76.26.06.15.55.5

Oregon

6.97.06.97.07.16.66.16.46.06.3

Pennsylvania

5.45.25.65.25.65.24.94.85.14.8

Rhode Island

6.25.76.55.96.45.75.75.55.85.6

South Carolina

6.76.26.56.16.85.55.85.75.85.0

South Dakota

6.96.36.46.26.36.06.16.06.05.8

Tennessee

6.35.45.65.76.34.75.35.05.04.7

Texas

6.15.96.06.06.45.35.14.95.14.9

Utah

7.46.57.07.17.16.16.06.66.05.8

Vermont

7.66.77.46.87.56.66.86.97.26.7

Virginia

5.75.36.25.65.85.65.55.55.85.5

Washington

6.96.67.37.07.16.35.95.56.05.9

West Virginia

6.56.36.66.16.66.46.76.46.66.0

Wisconsin

5.75.35.95.35.75.25.15.05.65.1

Wyoming

9.48.48.78.39.28.18.08.28.48.1

Puerto Rico

6.65.15.65.66.55.26.46.35.95.0

Virgin Islands

5.54.96.16.36.26.06.16.45.55.5

Footnotes
(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.
 

 

Last Modified Date: Friday, September 25, 2015