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News Release Information

16-1571-CHI
Friday, September 30, 2016

Contacts

Technical information:
Media contact:
  • (312) 353-1138

Business Employment Dynamics in Iowa — Fourth Quarter 2015

From September 2015 to December 2015 gross job gains in Iowa totaled 77,425, while gross job losses numbered 72,893, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Assistant Commissioner for Regional Operations Charlene Peiffer noted that gross job gains exceeded gross job losses by 4,532. During the previous quarter, gross job losses exceeded gross job gains by 4,285.

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses in the economy. Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track these changes in employment at private business establishments from the third month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing establishments and the addition of new jobs at opening establishments. Gross job losses are the result of contractions in employment at existing establishments and the loss of jobs at closing establishments. The difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of gross job losses is the net change in employment. (See the Technical Note for more information.).

Gross job gains in Iowa have trended upward since reaching the series low of 64,475 in March 2009. Iowa’s gross job gains were 77,425 in December 2015, down from the recent peak of 78,802 reached in June 2014. Gross job losses declined in the three-months ended in December 2015, down from last quarter’s recent high of 77,479. (See chart 1.) Job losses peaked in June 2001, when more than 96,000 jobs were lost within a three-month period.

Gross job gains represented 6.0 percent of private sector employment in Iowa in the quarter ended December 2015, while nationally gross job gains accounted for 6.6 percent of private sector employment. (See chart 2.) The rate of gross job gains in Iowa has been at or below the U.S. rate in all but four quarters since the series began in September 1992. The state’s rate of gross job losses as a percent of private sector employment was 5.6 percent compared to the national rate of 5.8 percent in the fourth quarter of 2015. With few exceptions, Iowa’s rate of gross job losses has been below the U.S. rate since the series inception.

During the fourth quarter of 2015, gross job gains exceeded gross job losses in eight industry sectors in Iowa. For example, within construction, gross job gains exceeded gross jobs losses by 1,970. While almost 7,700 jobs were lost in closing and contracting establishments in the industry, more than 9,600 jobs were created by opening and expanding establishments in the three-months ended in December 2015. In transportation and warehousing, approximately 3,700 jobs were created in opening and expanding establishments and almost 2,700 jobs were lost in closing and contracting establishments. (See table 1.)

Gross job losses exceeded gross job gains in two industry sectors. Within professional and business services, gross job losses exceeded gross job gains by 1,973. The manufacturing sector had a net job loss of 45 jobs.

Iowa was among the seven states in the West North Central Division. Six states in the division, including Iowa, had gross job gains that exceeded gross job losses. (See table A.) Five states (Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, and Nebraska) had rates of gross job gains that were lower than the 6.6-percent national rate. South Dakota had a rate of gross job gains that was equal to the national rate, while North Dakota had a rate of gross job gains that was higher than the national rate. Four states (Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Nebraska) had rates of gross job losses that were below the 5.8-percent national rate. One state (Minnesota) had a rate of gross job losses that was equal to the national rate and two states (North Dakota and South Dakota) had rates of gross job losses that were higher than the national rate.

Table A. Private sector gross job gains and losses for the United States, West North Central Division, and West North Central states, December 2015, seasonally adjusted
AreaGross job gainsGross job lossesNet changeNet change as
a percent of
total
employment
TotalAs a
percent of
total
employment
TotalAs a
percent of
total
employment

United States

7,822,0006.66,822,0005.81,000,0000.8

West North Central (1)

535,673487,91647,757

Iowa

77,4256.072,8935.64,5320.4

Kansas

70,6546.262,6825.67,9720.6

Minnesota

146,5586.1139,1125.87,4460.3

Missouri

144,9126.3119,6405.125,2721.2

Nebraska

49,0756.144,2785.54,7970.6

North Dakota

24,0976.728,9438.1-4,846-1.4

South Dakota

22,9526.620,3685.92,5840.7

Footnotes:
(1) Data were calculated for this release using published gross job gains and gross job losses for states located in the West North Central Census Division.
 

Note: Dash indicates data not available.
 

Additional statistics and other information

BED data for the states have been included in table 2 of this release. For more information on the Business Employment Dynamics data, visit the BED web site at www.bls.gov/bdm/.

The Business Employment Dynamics release for first quarter 2016 is scheduled to be released on Wednesday, November 9, 2016.


Technical Note

The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), or the ES-202 program. The BED data are compiled from existing QCEW records. The QCEW reports are sent by the State Employment Security Agencies (SESAs) to BLS and form the basis of the Bureau’s QCEW program and establishment universe sampling frame. These reports are also used to produce the QCEW data on total employment and wages. Other important Bureau uses of the QCEW reports are in the Current Employment Statistics (CES) program. The CES program produces monthly estimates of employment, net changes, and earnings by detailed industry.

In the BED program, the QCEW records are linked across quarters to provide a longitudinal history for each establishment. The linkage process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and expanding establishments and jobs lost at closing and contracting establishments.

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses in the economy. BED statistics track these changes in employment at private business establishments from the third month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing establishments and the addition of new jobs at opening establishments. Gross job losses are the result of contractions in employment at existing establishments and the loss of jobs at closing establishments. The difference between the number of gross jobs gained and the number of gross jobs lost is the net change in employment.

Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quarters. The rates are calculated for the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to form their respective totals. These rates can be added and subtracted just as their levels can. For instance, the difference between the gross job gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:

Openings.  These are either establishments with positive third month employment for the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or with positive third month employment in the current quarter following zero employment in the previous quarter.

Expansions.  These are establishments with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment over this period.

Closings.  These are either establishments with positive third month employment in the previous quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the current quarter.

Contractions.  These are establishments with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment over this period.

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, Iowa, seasonally adjusted
CategoryGross job gains and job losses
(3 months ended)
Gross job gains and job losses
as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Dec.
2014
Mar.
2015
June
2015
Sept.
2015
Dec.
2015
Dec.
2014
Mar.
2015
June
2015
Sept.
2015
Dec.
2015

Total private (1)

 

Gross job gains

78,19975,99077,63073,19477,4256.15.96.15.66.0

At expanding establishments

65,56063,19965,27859,90964,0785.14.95.14.65.0

At opening establishments

12,63912,79112,35213,28513,3471.01.01.01.01.0

Gross job losses

72,22468,78776,47477,47972,8935.65.45.96.05.6

At contracting establishments

60,50258,65066,32265,66261,1124.74.65.15.14.7

At closing establishments

11,72210,13710,15211,81711,7810.90.80.80.90.9

Net employment change (2)

5,9757,2031,156-4,2854,5320.50.50.2-0.40.4

Construction

 

Gross job gains

10,14110,2499,18310,0829,65313.413.111.713.312.3

At expanding establishments

8,6398,3107,6328,2877,90211.410.69.710.910.1

At opening establishments

1,5021,9391,5511,7951,7512.02.52.02.42.2

Gross job losses

8,9448,18513,4239,5807,68311.710.417.112.69.8

At contracting establishments

7,3326,78711,9067,8336,2859.68.615.210.38.0

At closing establishments

1,6121,3981,5171,7471,3982.11.81.92.31.8

Net employment change (2)

1,1972,064-4,2405021,9701.72.7-5.40.72.5

Manufacturing

 

Gross job gains

6,7365,6455,9825,8366,4233.12.62.72.73.0

At expanding establishments

6,3555,3495,6735,2035,5862.92.52.62.42.6

At opening establishments

3812963096338370.20.10.10.30.4

Gross job losses

6,2255,4296,5507,5816,4682.92.43.13.53.0

At contracting establishments

5,8935,1125,9987,2176,1812.72.32.83.32.9

At closing establishments

3323175523642870.20.10.30.20.1

Net employment change (2)

511216-568-1,745-450.20.2-0.4-0.80.0

Wholesale trade

 

Gross job gains

3,6693,5553,4322,4373,2785.35.15.03.64.9

At expanding establishments

3,2393,1842,9232,0242,7984.74.64.33.04.2

At opening establishments

4303715094134800.60.50.70.60.7

Gross job losses

2,8283,4343,5373,6022,8814.15.05.25.44.3

At contracting establishments

2,3223,0743,0993,0282,2633.44.54.64.53.4

At closing establishments

5063604385746180.70.50.60.90.9

Net employment change (2)

841121-105-1,1653971.20.1-0.2-1.80.6

Retail trade

 

Gross job gains

10,34911,59611,2218,7739,6035.86.56.24.95.3

At expanding establishments

9,3279,9609,8467,9198,6505.25.65.44.44.8

At opening establishments

1,0221,6361,3758549530.60.90.80.50.5

Gross job losses

8,9398,6949,71910,7209,1345.04.85.35.95.1

At contracting establishments

7,9827,7348,4189,7588,2504.54.34.65.44.6

At closing establishments

9579601,3019628840.50.50.70.50.5

Net employment change (2)

1,4102,9021,502-1,9474690.81.70.9-1.00.2

Transportation and warehousing

 

Gross job gains

3,7652,5162,6292,7713,6596.94.44.74.86.4

At expanding establishments

3,3472,1802,3092,3613,1026.13.84.14.15.4

At opening establishments

4183363204105570.80.60.60.71.0

Gross job losses

2,6443,4562,4562,6252,6884.86.04.44.64.7

At contracting establishments

2,2393,1102,1332,2872,2434.15.43.84.03.9

At closing establishments

4053463233384450.70.60.60.60.8

Net employment change (2)

1,121-9401731469712.1-1.60.30.21.7

Financial activities

 

Gross job gains

3,5024,5283,9223,8804,3593.34.43.83.64.0

At expanding establishments

2,8653,9433,2293,3093,4552.73.83.13.13.2

At opening establishments

6375856935719040.60.60.70.50.8

Gross job losses

3,2893,7773,2683,4723,5313.23.63.13.23.3

At contracting establishments

2,5863,1342,8482,8042,9852.53.02.72.62.8

At closing establishments

7036434206685460.70.60.40.60.5

Net employment change (2)

2137516544088280.10.80.70.40.7

Professional and business services

 

Gross job gains

10,3529,12012,10311,02310,7287.66.78.88.07.8

At expanding establishments

8,1937,3609,9457,8838,4286.05.47.25.76.1

At opening establishments

2,1591,7602,1583,1402,3001.61.31.62.31.7

Gross job losses

10,91410,11510,00311,02112,7018.07.47.37.99.2

At contracting establishments

9,1348,4678,3778,9439,4816.76.26.16.46.9

At closing establishments

1,7801,6481,6262,0783,2201.31.21.21.52.3

Net employment change (2)

-562-9952,1002-1,973-0.4-0.71.50.1-1.4

Education and health services

 

Gross job gains

8,9879,0199,6949,5769,6434.24.34.64.54.5

At expanding establishments

7,4367,6188,0648,6838,0793.53.63.84.13.8

At opening establishments

1,5511,4011,6308931,5640.70.70.80.40.7

Gross job losses

8,3388,2578,8458,5579,0204.03.94.24.04.2

At contracting establishments

7,1327,0298,0217,4517,5853.43.33.83.53.5

At closing establishments

1,2061,2288241,1061,4350.60.60.40.50.7

Net employment change (2)

6497628491,0196230.20.40.40.50.3

Leisure and hospitality

 

Gross job gains

14,06613,49812,95612,37013,45110.29.79.28.99.6

At expanding establishments

10,88510,43110,2389,20310,7657.97.57.36.67.7

At opening establishments

3,1813,0672,7183,1672,6862.32.21.92.31.9

Gross job losses

13,19811,20812,54813,95612,5149.68.19.010.08.9

At contracting establishments

10,7389,10810,43911,08110,5057.86.67.57.97.5

At closing establishments

2,4602,1002,1092,8752,0091.81.51.52.11.4

Net employment change (2)

8682,290408-1,5869370.61.60.2-1.10.7

Other services (3)

 

Gross job gains

2,7713,1473,0573,2463,1406.97.97.68.07.6

At expanding establishments

2,2892,3182,5892,4822,6375.75.86.46.16.4

At opening establishments

4828294687645031.22.11.21.91.2

Gross job losses

3,0352,7692,5912,7912,6447.56.96.46.96.4

At contracting establishments

2,3722,2962,1592,2712,2005.95.75.35.65.3

At closing establishments

6634734325204441.61.21.11.31.1

Net employment change (2)

-264378466455496-0.61.01.21.11.2

Footnotes:
(1) Includes unclassified sector not shown separately.
(2) The net employment change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses. See the Technical Note for further information.
(3) Except public administration.
 

Table 2. Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted
CategoryGross job gains as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Gross job losses as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Dec.
2014
Mar.
2015
June
2015
Sept.
2015
Dec.
2015
Dec.
2014
Mar.
2015
June
2015
Sept.
2015
Dec.
2015

United States (1)

6.65.96.46.16.65.75.75.75.85.8

Alabama

6.05.65.95.86.25.25.45.35.65.3

Alaska

10.610.410.69.09.510.49.210.810.210.5

Arizona

7.06.05.96.86.95.35.75.75.45.4

Arkansas

6.65.45.96.16.35.15.75.35.25.1

California

7.46.86.86.97.66.46.26.55.86.7

Colorado

7.06.97.07.17.06.16.16.46.46.3

Connecticut

5.44.85.85.15.35.25.14.85.85.0

Delaware

7.05.77.66.17.25.47.35.66.16.2

District of Columbia

5.55.56.26.25.95.35.45.45.54.7

Florida

7.16.36.96.87.16.05.65.95.85.8

Georgia

6.96.26.76.56.95.55.65.75.95.7

Hawaii

5.24.94.95.15.74.44.85.04.84.6

Idaho

8.09.17.57.87.97.07.07.17.16.9

Illinois

6.25.86.25.46.45.55.75.25.75.6

Indiana

6.35.35.75.46.25.05.35.15.34.9

Iowa

6.15.96.15.66.05.65.45.96.05.6

Kansas

6.25.76.05.76.25.45.85.85.75.6

Kentucky

6.65.56.46.06.65.36.05.55.65.3

Louisiana

6.86.16.36.26.55.86.76.86.26.3

Maine

7.26.58.06.57.17.27.06.47.17.0

Maryland

6.75.97.06.56.76.26.25.96.35.9

Massachusetts

6.05.16.35.45.95.25.45.05.65.2

Michigan

6.25.26.15.46.15.25.15.25.75.3

Minnesota

5.85.66.15.46.15.45.25.25.95.8

Mississippi

6.95.56.36.27.15.46.45.95.85.4

Missouri

6.35.66.05.76.35.15.45.25.55.1

Montana

8.59.18.07.68.58.07.28.47.77.3

Nebraska

6.26.15.96.06.15.65.65.75.55.5

Nevada

6.66.36.26.26.85.35.35.75.35.2

New Hampshire

6.95.76.86.06.76.05.75.96.35.6

New Jersey

6.95.87.16.36.86.26.05.96.15.9

New Mexico

7.26.46.76.56.86.16.56.86.56.8

New York

6.65.96.76.36.55.85.95.86.05.9

North Carolina

6.55.96.46.16.65.45.75.45.65.5

North Dakota

8.77.16.77.16.76.78.711.38.58.1

Ohio

6.15.46.05.46.05.15.65.35.65.2

Oklahoma

6.75.76.06.06.35.56.16.56.16.5

Oregon

7.16.96.97.07.06.35.76.16.46.2

Pennsylvania

5.64.95.65.25.74.95.24.95.25.1

Rhode Island

6.45.36.65.86.65.65.85.85.75.7

South Carolina

6.85.76.56.27.15.05.55.65.85.3

South Dakota

6.36.36.35.96.65.85.75.96.15.9

Tennessee

6.25.25.95.86.34.85.24.85.14.6

Texas

6.45.86.05.96.05.05.75.55.55.5

Utah

7.27.36.97.07.25.85.96.15.96.0

Vermont

7.56.87.36.97.16.76.87.07.66.5

Virginia

5.86.06.46.96.45.55.65.45.95.5

Washington

6.96.77.26.56.76.15.65.86.76.0

West Virginia

6.66.06.35.86.66.06.76.66.86.4

Wisconsin

5.85.45.75.55.75.25.15.25.65.2

Wyoming

9.38.97.88.39.08.08.910.98.79.2

Puerto Rico

6.45.35.86.26.34.96.46.86.35.8

Virgin Islands

6.25.56.35.87.35.65.96.77.45.4

Footnotes
(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.
 

 

Last Modified Date: Friday, September 30, 2016