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News Release Information

17-929-CHI
Tuesday, August 29, 2017

Contacts

Technical information:
Media contact:
  • (312) 353-1138

Business Employment Dynamics in Iowa — Fourth Quarter 2016

From September 2016 to December 2016 gross job losses in Iowa totaled 76,129, while gross job gains numbered 73,751, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Assistant Commissioner for Regional Operations Charlene Peiffer noted that gross job losses exceeded gross job gains by 2,378. During the previous quarter, gross job gains exceeded gross job losses by 4,081.

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses in the economy. Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track these changes in employment at private business establishments from the third month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing establishments and the addition of new jobs at opening establishments. Gross job losses are the result of contractions in employment at existing establishments and the loss of jobs at closing establishments. The difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of gross job losses is the net change in employment. (See the Technical Note for more information.).

The 76,129 gross job losses in the three-month period ended in December 2016 were more than the 74,162 gross job losses in the previous three-month period. Iowa’s gross job losses have trended up since March 2012, when losses were 63,514. Gross job gains in December 2016 totaled 73,751 in the state, a decrease from 78,243 in the previous quarter. Iowa’s gross job gains have been above 70,000 since June 2011. (See chart 1.)

Gross job losses accounted for 5.9 percent of private sector employment in Iowa in the quarter ended December 2016 compared to the national gross job losses rate of 5.8 percent. Since the series began in 1992, Iowa’s rate of gross job losses has been generally below the national rate. Gross job gains represented 5.7 percent of private sector employment in Iowa in the quarter ended December 2016, while nationally gross job gains accounted for 6.2 percent of private sector employment. (See chart 2.) Since the series inception, the rate of gross job gains in Iowa has been generally below the U.S. rate each quarter.

During the fourth quarter of 2016, gross job losses exceeded gross job gains in 5 of the 10 industry sectors in Iowa. For example, within construction, gross job losses exceeded gross jobs gains by 2,111. While more than 9,000 jobs were created by opening and expanding establishments in the industry, more than 11,000 jobs were lost in closing and contracting establishments in the three-months ended in December 2016. Professional and business services and other services were the only other industry sectors that had net employment losses of more than 1,000 jobs. (See table 1.)

Gross job gains exceeded gross job losses in five industry sectors. Within transportation and warehousing, gross job gains exceeded gross job losses by 1,330. Two other industries—leisure and hospitality and financial activities—each had net employment gains of more than 500 jobs.

Iowa was among the seven states in the West North Central Division. Five states in the division, including Iowa, had gross job losses that exceeded gross job gains. (See table A.) Iowa was among the five states in the division that had rates of gross job losses above the 5.8-percent national rate. Minnesota had a rate of gross job losses that was equal to the national rate and Kansas had a rate of gross job losses that was lower than the national rate. Five states in the division, including Iowa, had rates of gross job gains that were lower than the national rate. Missouri and North Dakota had rates of gross job gains that were greater than the 6.2-percent national rate.

Table A. Private sector gross job gains and losses for the United States, West North Central Division, and West North Central states, December 2016, seasonally adjusted
AreaGross job gainsGross job lossesNet changeNet change as
a percent of
total
employment
TotalAs a
percent of
total
employment
TotalAs a
percent of
total
employment

United States

7,465,0006.27,089,0005.8376,0000.4

West North Central (1)

553,559565,496-11,937

Iowa

73,7515.776,1295.9-2,378-0.2

Kansas

66,9165.964,6205.72,2960.2

Minnesota

141,5885.8140,8565.87320.0

Missouri

181,0507.7186,3218.0-5,271-0.3

Nebraska

46,1865.749,7586.2-3,572-0.5

North Dakota

23,0406.726,5867.8-3,546-1.1

South Dakota

21,0286.021,2266.1-198-0.1

Footnotes:
(1) Data were calculated for this release using published gross job gains and gross job losses for states located in the West North Central Census Division.
 

Note: Dash indicates data not available.
 

Additional statistics and other information

BED data for the states have been included in table 2 of this release. For more information on the Business Employment Dynamics data, visit the BED web site at www.bls.gov/bdm.

The Business Employment Dynamics release for first quarter 2017 is scheduled to be released on Wednesday, November 8, 2017.


Technical Note

The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), or the ES-202 program. The BED data are compiled from existing QCEW records. The QCEW reports are sent by the State Employment Security Agencies (SESAs) to BLS and form the basis of the Bureau’s QCEW program and establishment universe sampling frame. These reports are also used to produce the QCEW data on total employment and wages. Other important Bureau uses of the QCEW reports are in the Current Employment Statistics (CES) program. The CES program produces monthly estimates of employment, net changes, and earnings by detailed industry.

In the BED program, the QCEW records are linked across quarters to provide a longitudinal history for each establishment. The linkage process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and expanding establishments and jobs lost at closing and contracting establishments.

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses in the economy. BED statistics track these changes in employment at private business establishments from the third month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing establishments and the addition of new jobs at opening establishments. Gross job losses are the result of contractions in employment at existing establishments and the loss of jobs at closing establishments. The difference between the number of gross jobs gained and the number of gross jobs lost is the net change in employment.

Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quarters. The rates are calculated for the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to form their respective totals. These rates can be added and subtracted just as their levels can. For instance, the difference between the gross job gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:

Openings.  These are either establishments with positive third month employment for the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or with positive third month employment in the current quarter following zero employment in the previous quarter.

Expansions.  These are establishments with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment over this period.

Closings.  These are either establishments with positive third month employment in the previous quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the current quarter.

Contractions.  These are establishments with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment over this period.

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, Iowa, seasonally adjusted
CategoryGross job gains and job losses
(3 months ended)
Gross job gains and job losses
as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Dec.
2015
Mar.
2016
June
2016
Sept
2016
Dec.
2016
Dec.
2015
Mar.
2016
June
2016
Sept
2016
Dec.
2016

Total private (1)

 

Gross job gains

77,64877,79572,90378,24373,7516.06.05.66.05.7

At expanding establishments

64,23965,12860,90465,31160,5815.05.04.75.04.7

At opening establishments

13,40912,66711,99912,93213,1701.01.00.91.01.0

Gross job losses

73,12169,14079,61474,16276,1295.75.36.15.85.9

At contracting establishments

61,41158,76467,90263,03165,9114.84.55.24.95.1

At closing establishments

11,71010,37611,71211,13110,2180.90.80.90.90.8

Net employment change (2)

4,5278,655-6,7114,081-2,3780.30.7-0.50.2-0.2

Construction

 

Gross job gains

9,70813,0518,04912,8669,02412.415.79.816.111.3

At expanding establishments

7,92510,9526,75010,7787,34110.113.28.213.59.2

At opening establishments

1,7832,0991,2992,0881,6832.32.51.62.62.1

Gross job losses

7,7128,37511,78810,01911,1359.910.214.412.613.9

At contracting establishments

6,2527,07310,2538,8529,6598.08.612.511.112.1

At closing establishments

1,4601,3021,5351,1671,4761.91.61.91.51.8

Net employment change (2)

1,9964,676-3,7392,847-2,1112.55.5-4.63.5-2.6

Manufacturing

 

Gross job gains

6,4645,6235,7435,1826,2963.02.62.62.53.0

At expanding establishments

5,6265,1265,4684,8305,7352.62.42.52.32.7

At opening establishments

8384972753525610.40.20.10.20.3

Gross job losses

6,3675,6446,4206,5445,9832.92.63.03.02.8

At contracting establishments

6,0785,3286,0146,0215,6382.82.52.82.82.6

At closing establishments

2893164065233450.10.10.20.20.2

Net employment change (2)

97-21-677-1,3623130.10.0-0.4-0.50.2

Wholesale trade

 

Gross job gains

3,2673,3632,9242,8053,1244.95.04.44.24.7

At expanding establishments

2,7882,9032,5192,3782,6314.24.33.83.64.0

At opening establishments

4794604054274930.70.70.60.60.7

Gross job losses

2,8652,9983,6293,1852,8334.34.55.44.84.3

At contracting establishments

2,2512,5963,1602,7442,3563.43.94.74.13.6

At closing establishments

6144024694414770.90.60.70.70.7

Net employment change (2)

402365-705-3802910.60.5-1.0-0.60.4

Retail trade

 

Gross job gains

9,66210,47810,0479,8969,1595.35.85.55.45.0

At expanding establishments

8,7029,2708,9838,8058,0804.85.14.94.84.4

At opening establishments

9601,2081,0641,0911,0790.50.70.60.60.6

Gross job losses

9,2838,48110,32010,2389,1655.24.75.75.75.1

At contracting establishments

8,3937,4099,3089,2318,2924.74.15.15.14.6

At closing establishments

8901,0721,0121,0078730.50.60.60.60.5

Net employment change (2)

3791,997-273-342-60.11.1-0.2-0.3-0.1

Transportation and warehousing

 

Gross job gains

3,6302,2512,2402,9544,1166.33.94.05.37.1

At expanding establishments

3,0681,8871,9532,6263,5205.33.33.54.76.1

At opening establishments

5623642873285961.00.60.50.61.0

Gross job losses

2,6833,4302,5142,5012,7864.76.04.54.44.8

At contracting establishments

2,2813,0152,1982,2152,4384.05.33.93.94.2

At closing establishments

4024153162863480.70.70.60.50.6

Net employment change (2)

947-1,179-2744531,3301.6-2.1-0.50.92.3

Financial activities

 

Gross job gains

4,3743,7434,7914,0793,5364.13.54.53.83.3

At expanding establishments

3,4693,1783,3323,4822,9073.33.03.13.22.7

At opening establishments

9055651,4595976290.80.51.40.60.6

Gross job losses

3,5783,3534,0523,6612,9753.33.13.83.42.7

At contracting establishments

3,0312,6213,1272,8242,5972.82.42.92.62.4

At closing establishments

5477329258373780.50.70.90.80.3

Net employment change (2)

7963907394185610.80.40.70.40.6

Professional and business services

 

Gross job gains

10,76510,38111,10812,23310,1487.87.68.18.87.3

At expanding establishments

8,4578,3499,2339,5558,1226.16.16.76.95.8

At opening establishments

2,3082,0321,8752,6782,0261.71.51.41.91.5

Gross job losses

12,70110,61010,54310,47111,5779.27.77.67.68.3

At contracting establishments

9,5108,9418,2898,1389,6326.96.56.05.96.9

At closing establishments

3,1911,6692,2542,3331,9452.31.21.61.71.4

Net employment change (2)

-1,936-2295651,762-1,429-1.4-0.10.51.2-1.0

Education and health services

 

Gross job gains

9,5728,5468,61710,0439,1224.43.94.04.64.1

At expanding establishments

8,0027,3987,2058,9427,9213.73.43.34.13.6

At opening establishments

1,5701,1481,4121,1011,2010.70.50.70.50.5

Gross job losses

9,0367,9499,6878,2909,1314.23.74.53.84.2

At contracting establishments

7,6696,8098,6027,2127,7733.63.24.03.33.6

At closing establishments

1,3671,1401,0851,0781,3580.60.50.50.50.6

Net employment change (2)

536597-1,0701,753-90.20.2-0.50.8-0.1

Leisure and hospitality

 

Gross job gains

13,51014,16513,44511,90713,6839.79.99.48.49.6

At expanding establishments

10,84810,90110,5598,8369,9737.87.67.46.27.0

At opening establishments

2,6623,2642,8863,0713,7101.92.32.02.22.6

Gross job losses

12,51712,07614,59513,85812,9219.08.510.29.89.2

At contracting establishments

10,4859,81011,95511,42710,8587.56.98.48.17.7

At closing establishments

2,0322,2662,6402,4312,0631.51.61.81.71.5

Net employment change (2)

9932,089-1,150-1,9517620.71.4-0.8-1.40.4

Other services (3)

 

Gross job gains

3,1622,8852,7892,7542,5357.67.26.96.96.4

At expanding establishments

2,6562,4922,3122,3712,0916.46.25.75.95.3

At opening establishments

5063934773834441.21.01.21.01.1

Gross job losses

2,6412,7592,9502,6583,7636.36.87.36.69.4

At contracting establishments

2,2102,2012,4372,1793,3205.35.46.05.48.3

At closing establishments

4315585134794431.01.41.31.21.1

Net employment change (2)

521126-16196-1,2281.30.4-0.40.3-3.0

Footnotes:
(1) Includes unclassified sector not shown separately.
(2) The net employment change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses. See the Technical Note for further information.
(3) Except public administration.
 

Table 2. Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted
CategoryGross job gains as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Gross job losses as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Dec.
2015
Mar.
2016
June
2016
Sept.
2016
Dec.
2016
Dec.
2015
Mar.
2016
June
2016
Sept.
2016
Dec.
2016

United States(1)

6.65.86.26.46.25.85.76.05.85.8

Alabama

6.25.85.86.25.85.35.45.85.75.7

Alaska

9.69.410.39.09.610.59.711.911.110.0

Arizona

6.96.06.17.16.05.45.76.15.25.5

Arkansas

6.35.45.46.25.75.35.35.85.45.2

California

7.66.56.86.96.76.76.36.76.16.3

Colorado

7.06.66.97.16.66.46.16.56.26.6

Connecticut

5.55.25.45.25.14.95.05.35.35.1

Delaware

7.36.56.76.36.26.26.46.66.56.2

District of Columbia

6.25.25.86.25.54.65.66.15.75.6

Florida

7.26.16.47.46.75.85.85.95.76.1

Georgia

6.96.17.06.76.55.75.66.65.95.8

Hawaii

5.84.95.45.85.24.44.96.05.05.1

Idaho

7.98.27.17.97.66.96.37.17.16.6

Illinois

6.45.35.95.76.15.65.45.95.75.7

Indiana

6.25.55.25.85.44.95.35.25.15.2

Iowa

6.06.05.66.05.75.75.36.15.85.9

Kansas

6.25.85.66.25.95.65.96.35.65.7

Kentucky

6.75.76.26.76.05.45.85.86.25.6

Louisiana

6.56.05.96.65.96.46.66.96.56.6

Maine

8.68.07.76.77.27.16.96.77.47.1

Maryland

6.86.26.36.56.65.96.06.36.06.3

Massachusetts

5.95.26.05.75.55.25.05.25.55.4

Michigan

6.15.45.95.65.65.34.95.35.65.4

Minnesota

6.15.45.96.15.85.75.25.65.65.8

Mississippi

7.15.75.76.36.35.46.16.55.65.7

Missouri

6.35.75.75.77.75.35.35.45.48.0

Montana

8.57.87.97.67.87.37.28.67.87.5

Nebraska

6.15.85.76.45.75.55.56.05.96.2

Nevada

6.86.36.56.76.75.35.75.65.55.6

New Hampshire

6.76.06.56.46.35.65.85.96.35.9

New Jersey

6.75.96.56.36.35.95.95.85.85.8

New Mexico

7.06.26.56.86.66.96.36.76.26.5

New York

6.46.16.26.36.05.75.75.85.95.9

North Carolina

6.76.06.36.16.35.55.65.85.85.6

North Dakota

6.76.66.88.16.78.18.99.07.17.8

Ohio

6.05.45.65.65.55.15.15.65.65.3

Oklahoma

6.35.75.86.36.36.56.46.86.06.1

Oregon

7.07.06.76.96.66.25.86.56.46.2

Pennsylvania

5.75.45.35.75.45.15.25.45.15.1

Rhode Island

6.65.86.25.65.75.75.96.26.05.8

South Carolina

7.16.16.36.36.65.35.85.85.75.4

South Dakota

6.76.26.46.46.05.96.16.26.26.1

Tennessee

6.35.25.75.95.74.85.15.35.25.0

Texas

6.14.76.36.25.95.55.55.45.45.4

Utah

7.27.36.77.46.76.05.96.46.56.3

Vermont

7.26.67.47.27.06.56.97.27.47.0

Virginia

6.45.96.46.06.25.65.96.06.15.9

Washington

6.87.17.26.77.26.25.65.86.46.7

West Virginia

6.65.95.86.66.46.36.96.96.66.2

Wisconsin

6.05.65.75.55.45.25.25.75.55.3

Wyoming

9.07.97.78.38.89.39.410.48.98.7

Puerto Rico

6.35.75.65.85.95.76.05.65.75.3

Virgin Islands

7.35.76.36.25.95.35.45.86.56.1

Footnotes
(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.
 

 

Last Modified Date: Tuesday, August 29, 2017