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News Release Information

18-1156-CHI
Thursday, August 30, 2018

Contacts

Technical information:
Media contact:
  • (312) 353-1138

Business Employment Dynamics in Iowa — Fourth Quarter 2017

From September 2017 to December 2017, gross job gains in Iowa totaled 76,283, while gross job losses numbered 68,723, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Assistant Commissioner for Regional Operations Charlene Peiffer noted that gross job gains exceeded gross job losses by 7,560. During the previous quarter, gross job losses exceeded gross job gains by 3,254.

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses in the economy. Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track these changes in employment at private business establishments from the third month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing establishments and the addition of new jobs at opening establishments. Gross job losses are the result of contractions in employment at existing establishments and the loss of jobs at closing establishments. The difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of gross job losses is the net change in employment. (See the Technical Note for more information.)

The 76,283 gross job gains in the three-month period ended in December 2017 were more than the 70,162 gross job gains in the previous three-month period. Iowa’s gross job gains have been above 70,000 since June 2011. Gross job losses in December 2017 totaled 68,723 in the state, a decrease from 73,416 in the previous quarter. Iowa’s gross job losses have trended downwards since June 2016, when losses were 81,142. (See chart 1.)

Gross job gains accounted for 5.9 percent of private sector employment in Iowa in the quarter ended December 2017, compared to the national gross job gains rate of 6.4 percent. Since the series began in 1992, Iowa’s rate of gross job gains has generally been below the national rate. Gross job losses represented 5.3 percent of private sector employment in Iowa in the quarter ended December 2017, while nationally gross job losses accounted for 5.5 percent of private sector employment. (See chart 2.) Since the series inception, the rate of gross job losses in Iowa has generally been below the U.S. rate.

During the fourth quarter of 2017, gross job gains exceeded gross job losses in 8 of the 10 industry sectors in Iowa. For example, within manufacturing, gross job gains exceeded gross jobs losses by 2,961. While more than 4,800 jobs were lost by closing and contracting establishments in the industry, almost 7,800 jobs were created in opening and expanding establishments in the three-months ended in December 2017. Two other industry sectors—transportation and warehousing and education and health services— had net employment gains of more than 1,500 jobs. (See table 1.)

Gross job losses exceeded gross job gains in two industry sectors. Within professional and business services, gross job losses exceeded gross job gains by 1,181. Retail trade had net employment losses of less than 400 jobs from the previous year.

Iowa was among the seven states in the West North Central Division. All seven states in the division had gross job gains that exceeded gross job losses. (See table A.) Iowa was among the five states in the division that had rates of gross job gains below the 6.4-percent national rate. South Dakota had a rate of gross job gains that was equal to the national rate, and North Dakota had a rate of gross job gains that was higher than the national rate. Three states, including Iowa, had rates of gross job losses that were lower than the 5.5-percent national rate. Nebraska had a rate of gross job losses that was equal to the national rate, while three states had rates of gross job losses that were greater than the national rate.

Table A. Private sector gross job gains and losses for the United States, West North Central Division, and West North Central states, December 2017, seasonally adjusted
AreaGross job gainsGross job lossesNet changeNet change as
a percent of
total
employment
TotalAs a
percent of
total
employment
TotalAs a
percent of
total
employment

United States

7,793,0006.46,794,0005.5999,0000.9

West North Central (1)

517,830479,78738,043

Iowa

76,2835.968,7235.37,5600.6

Kansas

68,3996.159,3485.29,0510.9

Minnesota

143,1265.8137,1735.65,9530.2

Missouri

133,8615.6126,7365.47,1250.2

Nebraska

50,4176.244,5725.55,8450.7

North Dakota

23,3606.823,1066.72540.1

South Dakota

22,3846.420,1295.72,2550.7

Footnotes:
(1) Data were calculated for this release using published gross job gains and gross job losses for states located in the West North Central Census Division.

Note: Dash indicates data not available.

Additional statistics and other information

BED data for the states have been included in table 2 of this release. For more information on the Business Employment Dynamics data, visit the BED web site at www.bls.gov/bdm.

The Business Employment Dynamics release for first quarter 2018 is scheduled to be released on Wednesday, November 7, 2018.


Technical Note

The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), or the ES-202 program. The BED data are compiled from existing QCEW records. The QCEW reports are sent by the State Employment Security Agencies (SESAs) to BLS and form the basis of the Bureau’s QCEW program and establishment universe sampling frame. These reports are also used to produce the QCEW data on total employment and wages. Other important Bureau uses of the QCEW reports are in the Current Employment Statistics (CES) program. The CES program produces monthly estimates of employment, net changes, and earnings by detailed industry.

In the BED program, the QCEW records are linked across quarters to provide a longitudinal history for each establishment. The linkage process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and expanding establishments and jobs lost at closing and contracting establishments.

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses in the economy. BED statistics track these changes in employment at private business establishments from the third month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing establishments and the addition of new jobs at opening establishments. Gross job losses are the result of contractions in employment at existing establishments and the loss of jobs at closing establishments. The difference between the number of gross jobs gained and the number of gross jobs lost is the net change in employment.

Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quarters. The rates are calculated for the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to form their respective totals. These rates can be added and subtracted just as their levels can. For instance, the difference between the gross job gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:

Openings.  These are either establishments with positive third month employment for the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or with positive third month employment in the current quarter following zero employment in the previous quarter.

Expansions.  These are establishments with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment over this period.

Closings.  These are either establishments with positive third month employment in the previous quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the current quarter.

Contractions.  These are establishments with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment over this period.

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, Iowa, seasonally adjusted
CategoryGross job gains and job losses
(3 months ended)
Gross job gains and job losses
as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Dec.
2016
Mar.
2017
June
2017
Sept
2017
Dec.
2017
Dec.
2016
Mar.
2017
June
2017
Sept
2017
Dec.
2017

Total private (1)

Gross job gains

73,95578,76473,44870,16276,2835.76.15.65.45.9

At expanding establishments

60,82366,16461,70457,85264,4794.75.14.74.55.0

At opening establishments

13,13212,60011,74412,31011,8041.01.00.90.90.9

Gross job losses

76,99371,32473,95973,41668,7235.95.55.75.75.3

At contracting establishments

66,44060,56763,78063,50958,4965.14.74.94.94.5

At closing establishments

10,55310,75710,1799,90710,2270.80.80.80.80.8

Net employment change (2)

-3,0387,440-511-3,2547,560-0.20.6-0.1-0.30.6

Construction

Gross job gains

9,06210,6177,9957,9478,57011.313.310.210.711.4

At expanding establishments

7,3688,6076,4906,4526,8559.210.88.38.79.1

At opening establishments

1,6942,0101,5051,4951,7152.12.51.92.02.3

Gross job losses

11,1909,92811,1779,0018,01914.012.414.412.110.7

At contracting establishments

9,6858,4889,4827,3646,60912.110.612.29.98.8

At closing establishments

1,5051,4401,6951,6371,4101.91.82.22.21.9

Net employment change (2)

-2,128689-3,182-1,054551-2.70.9-4.2-1.40.7

Manufacturing

Gross job gains

6,2916,5786,6396,5797,7953.03.13.13.03.6

At expanding establishments

5,7386,2036,0106,3077,5612.72.92.82.93.5

At opening establishments

5533756292722340.30.20.30.10.1

Gross job losses

5,9725,9774,9265,5314,8342.82.82.32.52.3

At contracting establishments

5,6235,5784,5745,0754,4752.62.62.12.32.1

At closing establishments

3493993524563590.20.20.20.20.2

Net employment change (2)

3196011,7131,0482,9610.20.30.80.51.3

Wholesale trade

Gross job gains

3,1323,3583,0302,6083,4194.75.04.64.05.1

At expanding establishments

2,6372,9552,6562,0933,0774.04.44.03.24.6

At opening establishments

4954033745153420.70.60.60.80.5

Gross job losses

2,8562,7943,2413,3332,6114.34.24.95.04.0

At contracting establishments

2,3672,4212,7912,9051,9663.63.64.24.43.0

At closing establishments

4893734504286450.70.60.70.61.0

Net employment change (2)

276564-211-7258080.40.8-0.3-1.01.1

Retail trade

Gross job gains

9,16910,0889,7329,0069,2335.15.55.35.05.1

At expanding establishments

8,0868,8268,6107,9648,1284.54.84.74.44.5

At opening establishments

1,0831,2621,1221,0421,1050.60.70.60.60.6

Gross job losses

9,3219,20810,20210,3919,5885.15.15.65.75.3

At contracting establishments

8,4408,5679,1779,4268,8504.64.75.05.24.9

At closing establishments

8816411,0259657380.50.40.60.50.4

Net employment change (2)

-152880-470-1,385-3550.00.4-0.3-0.7-0.2

Transportation and warehousing

Gross job gains

4,3503,3842,7662,4114,1707.55.84.84.27.2

At expanding establishments

3,7592,9122,4271,9453,8386.55.04.23.46.6

At opening establishments

5914723394663321.00.80.60.80.6

Gross job losses

2,7424,0332,7612,5502,2144.87.04.94.53.8

At contracting establishments

2,3933,3882,3852,2261,9014.25.94.23.93.3

At closing establishments

3496453763243130.61.10.70.60.5

Net employment change (2)

1,608-6495-1391,9562.7-1.2-0.1-0.33.4

Financial activities

Gross job gains

3,5593,6963,8003,4803,5823.33.43.53.23.3

At expanding establishments

2,9413,1383,1912,9472,8662.72.92.92.72.6

At opening establishments

6185586095337160.60.50.60.50.7

Gross job losses

3,0103,2713,3783,3103,4442.83.03.13.03.1

At contracting establishments

2,6272,6672,8492,8202,8672.42.42.62.62.6

At closing establishments

3836045294905770.40.60.50.40.5

Net employment change (2)

5494254221701380.50.40.40.20.2

Professional and business services

Gross job gains

9,91310,47611,82110,41310,2657.27.68.57.57.4

At expanding establishments

7,8638,1249,5928,0638,1485.75.96.95.85.9

At opening establishments

2,0502,3522,2292,3502,1171.51.71.61.71.5

Gross job losses

11,76010,8979,77010,53611,4468.58.07.07.58.2

At contracting establishments

9,7418,7567,9428,5209,3137.06.45.76.16.7

At closing establishments

2,0192,1411,8282,0162,1331.51.61.31.41.5

Net employment change (2)

-1,847-4212,051-123-1,181-1.3-0.41.50.0-0.8

Education and health services

Gross job gains

9,22110,2888,7909,5469,5434.34.74.04.44.3

At expanding establishments

7,9809,0037,4288,4588,2253.74.13.43.93.7

At opening establishments

1,2411,2851,3621,0881,3180.60.60.60.50.6

Gross job losses

9,5617,5688,9559,7977,8604.33.44.04.53.5

At contracting establishments

8,1736,4598,0258,7526,6773.72.93.64.03.0

At closing establishments

1,3881,1099301,0451,1830.60.50.40.50.5

Net employment change (2)

-3402,720-165-2511,6830.01.30.0-0.10.8

Leisure and hospitality

Gross job gains

13,73114,57312,97812,34713,5379.710.29.18.79.5

At expanding establishments

10,04111,61610,4448,75910,7367.18.17.36.27.5

At opening establishments

3,6902,9572,5343,5882,8012.62.11.82.52.0

Gross job losses

12,88211,92513,84913,49612,6819.18.39.79.48.9

At contracting establishments

10,7839,64111,85411,72710,6857.66.78.38.27.5

At closing establishments

2,0992,2841,9951,7691,9961.51.61.41.21.4

Net employment change (2)

8492,648-871-1,1498560.61.9-0.6-0.70.6

Other services (3)

Gross job gains

2,5482,6672,7672,5152,7866.46.87.16.47.2

At expanding establishments

2,1212,2762,3022,0752,3335.35.85.95.36.0

At opening establishments

4273914654404531.11.01.21.11.2

Gross job losses

3,8842,5392,4702,6452,6309.86.56.36.76.8

At contracting establishments

3,3772,0642,0912,2522,1778.55.35.35.75.6

At closing establishments

5074753793934531.31.21.01.01.2

Net employment change (2)

-1,336128297-130156-3.40.30.8-0.30.4

Footnotes:
(1) Includes unclassified sector not shown separately.
(2) The net employment change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses. See the Technical Note for further information.
(3) Except public administration.

Table 2. Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted
CategoryGross job gains as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Gross job losses as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Dec.
2016
Mar.
2017
June
2017
Sept.
2017
Dec.
2017
Dec.
2016
Mar.
2017
June
2017
Sept.
2017
Dec.
2017

United States(1)

6.26.06.26.06.45.95.45.86.15.5

Alabama

5.86.15.56.06.05.85.25.65.85.4

Alaska

9.89.411.08.59.410.09.89.910.510.2

Arizona

6.05.86.26.66.25.55.45.75.35.3

Arkansas

5.95.65.25.75.95.45.05.65.55.0

California

6.96.76.96.56.96.36.06.66.46.0

Colorado

6.66.87.16.66.86.56.26.36.46.1

Connecticut

5.15.55.75.25.35.25.15.15.75.1

Delaware

6.26.66.66.57.16.25.97.06.66.4

District of Columbia

5.65.75.75.45.75.64.75.65.35.0

Florida

6.76.16.65.68.16.15.56.17.55.2

Georgia

6.66.36.26.16.95.85.86.16.25.5

Hawaii

5.05.15.25.45.15.04.85.45.34.9

Idaho

7.57.97.36.77.46.76.36.66.66.4

Illinois

6.15.85.75.66.05.65.45.56.05.3

Indiana

5.45.75.75.55.75.25.15.55.55.1

Iowa

5.76.15.65.45.95.95.55.75.75.3

Kansas

5.95.85.56.36.15.75.66.65.75.2

Kentucky

6.15.76.15.96.05.85.45.95.85.4

Louisiana

5.96.46.26.16.26.55.96.56.16.0

Maine

7.47.27.76.57.17.16.47.77.56.7

Maryland

6.66.16.46.16.26.25.96.26.26.2

Massachusetts

5.65.56.15.55.75.45.15.25.65.6

Michigan

5.55.65.75.35.65.45.05.36.05.5

Minnesota

5.75.85.75.45.85.74.75.35.75.6

Mississippi

6.35.75.95.76.35.65.96.05.95.5

Missouri

5.75.95.65.95.65.64.95.65.95.4

Montana

7.88.17.97.28.57.57.17.78.07.4

Nebraska

5.75.95.65.96.26.25.26.15.95.5

Nevada

6.26.66.36.36.55.65.26.05.85.2

New Hampshire

6.35.76.65.66.65.95.65.96.55.9

New Jersey

6.45.56.76.06.55.95.85.56.25.6

New Mexico

6.66.46.76.56.36.56.26.36.36.0

New York

6.16.26.56.26.15.95.75.76.15.8

North Carolina

6.36.26.36.06.35.75.55.96.05.5

North Dakota

6.77.66.86.76.87.76.76.96.86.7

Ohio

5.75.75.85.15.65.45.15.45.65.2

Oklahoma

6.56.36.66.56.46.36.55.96.05.8

Oregon

6.66.96.56.56.86.35.75.96.36.0

Pennsylvania

5.45.25.55.45.55.15.05.25.24.9

Rhode Island

5.76.36.55.96.65.85.95.96.36.0

South Carolina

6.56.06.15.76.95.45.66.06.45.1

South Dakota

6.06.46.35.76.46.15.96.36.05.7

Tennessee

5.85.15.45.45.85.14.95.15.24.9

Texas

5.95.85.85.96.35.45.25.45.75.3

Utah

6.87.76.86.87.06.46.16.26.35.8

Vermont

7.06.67.96.77.27.06.86.87.86.4

Virginia

6.26.06.25.86.35.95.65.96.25.5

Washington

7.16.87.16.36.96.75.66.16.35.8

West Virginia

6.46.36.46.96.36.26.46.56.56.1

Wisconsin

5.55.95.65.05.65.34.85.55.75.0

Wyoming

8.88.88.58.78.88.78.19.07.98.3

Puerto Rico

5.85.15.24.17.15.45.75.26.211.7

Virgin Islands

6.05.36.24.28.46.05.54.78.324.1

Footnotes
(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

 

Last Modified Date: Thursday, August 30, 2018