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18-1783-CHI
Friday, December 21, 2018

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Technical information:
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Business Employment Dynamics in North Dakota — First Quarter 2018

From December 2017 to March 2018, gross job gains in North Dakota totaled 24,123, while gross job losses numbered 21,767, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Assistant Commissioner for Regional Operations Charlene Peiffer noted that gross job gains exceeded gross job losses by 2,356. During the previous quarter, gross job gains exceeded gross job losses by 271.

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses in the economy. Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track these changes in employment at private business establishments from the third month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing establishments and the addition of new jobs at opening establishments. Gross job losses are the result of contractions in employment at existing establishments and the loss of jobs at closing establishments. The difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of gross job losses is the net change in employment. (See the Technical Note for more information.)

The 24,123 gross job gains in the first quarter of 2018 followed the 23,364 gross job gains in the fourth quarter of 2017. North Dakota’s gross job losses numbered 21,767 in the first quarter of 2018, lower than the 23,093 in the fourth quarter of 2017. (See chart 1.)

Gross job gains represented 7.0 percent of private sector employment in North Dakota in the first quarter of 2018, while nationally gross job gains accounted for 6.0 percent of private sector employment. (See chart 2.) Gross job losses represented 6.3 percent of private sector employment in North Dakota in the first quarter of 2018, while the U.S. rate of gross job losses was 5.4 percent of private sector employment.

During the first quarter of 2018, gross job gains exceeded gross job losses by 662 in North Dakota’s retail trade industry sector. While almost 3,000 jobs were gained in opening and expanding establishments, more than 2,300 jobs were lost in closing and contracting establishments. In each of the remaining four industry sectors for the state, net employment changes were less than 225. (See table 1.)

North Dakota was among the seven states in the West North Central Census division. Six of the seven states in the division had gross job gains that exceeded gross job losses. (See table A.) North Dakota and South Dakota had rates of gross job gains that were higher than the 6.0-percent national rate. Five states (Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, and Nebraska) had rates of gross job gains that were lower than the national rate. Iowa, Minnesota, and Missouri had rates of gross job losses that were below the 5.4-percent national rate. The four remaining states had rates of gross job losses that were higher than the national rate.

Table A. Private sector gross job gains and losses for the United States, West North Central Division, and West North Central states, March 2018, seasonally adjusted
Area Gross job gains Gross job losses Net change Net change as
a percent of
total
employment
Total As a
percent of
total
employment
Total As a
percent of
total
employment

United States

7,406,000 6.0 6,666,000 5.4 740,000 0.6

West North Central (1)

486,748 465,132 21,616

Iowa

72,763 5.5 68,476 5.3 4,287 0.2

Kansas

59,291 5.2 62,541 5.5 -3,250 -0.3

Minnesota

133,031 5.3 124,520 5.0 8,511 0.3

Missouri

128,761 5.4 122,569 5.2 6,192 0.2

Nebraska

46,119 5.6 44,422 5.5 1,697 0.1

North Dakota

24,123 7.0 21,767 6.3 2,356 0.7

South Dakota

22,660 6.4 20,837 5.9 1,823 0.5

Footnotes:
(1) Data were calculated for this release using published gross job gains and gross job losses for states located in the West North Central Census Division.

Note: Dash indicates data not available.

Additional statistics and other information

BED data for the states have been included in table 2 of this release. For more information on the Business Employment Dynamics data, visit the BED web site at www.bls.gov/bdm/.

The Business Employment Dynamics release for second quarter 2018 is scheduled to be released on Wednesday, January 30, 2019.

Revisions to Business Employment Dynamics (BED) Data

Data in this release incorporate annual revisions to the BED series. Annual revisions are published each year with the release of first quarter data. These revisions cover the last four quarters of not seasonally adjusted data and five years of seasonally adjusted data.


Technical Note

The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW). The BED data are compiled by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) from existing QCEW records. Most employers in the U.S. are required to file quarterly reports on the employment and wages of workers covered by unemployment insurance (UI) laws, and to pay quarterly UI taxes. The QCEW is based largely on quarterly UI reports which are sent by businesses to the State Workforce Agencies (SWAs). These UI reports are supplemented by two additional BLS data collections to render administrative data into economic statistics. Together these data comprise the QCEW and form the basis of the Bureau’s establishment universe sampling frame.

In the BED program, the QCEW records are linked across quarters to provide a longitudinal history for each establishment. The linkage process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and expanding establishments and jobs lost at closing and contracting establishments.

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses in the economy. BED statistics track these changes in employment at private business establishments from the third month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing establishments and the addition of new jobs at opening establishments. Gross job losses are the result of contractions in employment at existing establishments and the loss of jobs at closing establishments. The difference between the number of gross jobs gained and the number of gross jobs lost is the net change in employment.

Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quarters. The rates are calculated for the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to form their respective totals. These rates can be added and subtracted just as their levels can. For instance, the difference between the gross job gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:

Openings.  These are either establishments with positive third month employment for the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or with positive third month employment in the current quarter following zero employment in the previous quarter.

Expansions.  These are establishments with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment over this period.

Closings.  These are either establishments with positive third month employment in the previous quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the current quarter.

Contractions.  These are establishments with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment over this period.

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, North Dakota, seasonally adjusted
Category Gross job gains and job losses
(3 months ended)
Gross job gains and job losses
as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Mar.
2017
June
2017
Sept
2017
Dec.
2017
Mar.
2018
Mar.
2017
June
2017
Sept
2017
Dec.
2017
Mar.
2018

Total private (1)

Gross job gains

26,055 23,247 23,228 23,364 24,123 7.6 6.8 6.7 6.8 7.0

At expanding establishments

21,030 19,447 18,977 18,586 19,957 6.1 5.7 5.5 5.4 5.8

At opening establishments

5,025 3,800 4,251 4,778 4,166 1.5 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.2

Gross job losses

23,084 23,818 23,107 23,093 21,767 6.8 6.9 6.7 6.8 6.3

At contracting establishments

19,064 19,569 18,553 19,480 18,167 5.6 5.7 5.4 5.7 5.3

At closing establishments

4,020 4,249 4,554 3,613 3,600 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.1 1.0

Net employment change (2)

2,971 -571 121 271 2,356 0.8 -0.1 0.0 0.0 0.7

Construction

Gross job gains

5,784 3,916 3,714 3,820 4,197 20.1 14.3 14.3 14.7 16.0

At expanding establishments

4,144 3,012 3,096 2,772 3,203 14.4 11.0 11.9 10.7 12.2

At opening establishments

1,640 904 618 1,048 994 5.7 3.3 2.4 4.0 3.8

Gross job losses

5,645 5,548 4,233 4,188 4,203 19.6 20.2 16.3 16.1 16.0

At contracting establishments

4,605 4,425 3,373 3,322 3,274 16.0 16.1 13.0 12.8 12.5

At closing establishments

1,040 1,123 860 866 929 3.6 4.1 3.3 3.3 3.5

Net employment change (2)

139 -1,632 -519 -368 -6 0.5 -5.9 -2.0 -1.4 0.0

Wholesale trade

Gross job gains

1,176 1,088 1,000 1,199 1,206 4.9 4.5 4.2 5.0 5.0

At expanding establishments

1,071 966 894 1,024 1,007 4.5 4.0 3.8 4.3 4.2

At opening establishments

105 122 106 175 199 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.7 0.8

Gross job losses

1,004 1,169 1,117 1,184 1,123 4.2 4.9 4.7 4.9 4.7

At contracting establishments

871 1,026 942 962 924 3.6 4.3 4.0 4.0 3.9

At closing establishments

133 143 175 222 199 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.9 0.8

Net employment change (2)

172 -81 -117 15 83 0.7 -0.4 -0.5 0.1 0.3

Retail trade

Gross job gains

2,644 2,324 2,559 2,425 2,985 5.5 4.9 5.4 5.2 6.3

At expanding establishments

2,202 2,105 2,288 2,160 2,639 4.6 4.4 4.8 4.6 5.6

At opening establishments

442 219 271 265 346 0.9 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.7

Gross job losses

2,643 2,936 2,682 2,793 2,323 5.5 6.1 5.7 5.9 5.0

At contracting establishments

2,322 2,577 2,363 2,528 2,157 4.8 5.4 5.0 5.3 4.6

At closing establishments

321 359 319 265 166 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.4

Net employment change (2)

1 -612 -123 -368 662 0.0 -1.2 -0.3 -0.7 1.3

Professional and business services

Gross job gains

2,935 3,345 2,675 2,826 2,913 8.7 9.7 7.7 8.2 8.5

At expanding establishments

2,200 2,724 1,731 2,060 2,123 6.5 7.9 5.0 6.0 6.2

At opening establishments

735 621 944 766 790 2.2 1.8 2.7 2.2 2.3

Gross job losses

2,939 3,018 3,069 3,253 2,691 8.6 8.8 8.9 9.5 7.8

At contracting establishments

2,290 2,057 2,379 2,623 2,033 6.7 6.0 6.9 7.7 5.9

At closing establishments

649 961 690 630 658 1.9 2.8 2.0 1.8 1.9

Net employment change (2)

-4 327 -394 -427 222 0.1 0.9 -1.2 -1.3 0.7

Leisure and hospitality

Gross job gains

3,734 3,455 3,806 3,767 3,572 9.4 8.8 9.7 9.6 8.7

At expanding establishments

2,902 2,831 2,634 2,829 2,790 7.3 7.2 6.7 7.2 6.8

At opening establishments

832 624 1,172 938 782 2.1 1.6 3.0 2.4 1.9

Gross job losses

3,219 3,682 3,834 3,535 3,499 8.2 9.4 9.8 8.9 8.6

At contracting establishments

2,718 3,178 3,068 3,051 2,944 6.9 8.1 7.8 7.7 7.2

At closing establishments

501 504 766 484 555 1.3 1.3 2.0 1.2 1.4

Net employment change (2)

515 -227 -28 232 73 1.2 -0.6 -0.1 0.7 0.1

Footnotes:
(1) Includes unclassified sector not shown separately.
(2) The net employment change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses. See the Technical Note for further information.

Table 2. Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted
Category Gross job gains as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Gross job losses as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Mar.
2017
June
2017
Sept.
2017
Dec.
2017
Mar.
2018
Mar.
2017
June
2017
Sept.
2017
Dec.
2017
Mar.
2018

United States(1)

6.1 6.2 6.0 6.4 6.0 5.6 5.8 6.1 5.6 5.4

Alabama

6.1 5.6 6.0 6.0 6.0 5.2 5.6 5.8 5.4 5.3

Alaska

9.4 10.9 8.7 9.7 9.8 10.1 9.9 10.8 10.2 8.8

Arizona

6.0 6.2 6.6 6.3 6.0 5.5 5.7 5.2 5.3 5.3

Arkansas

5.7 5.4 5.8 6.1 5.4 5.2 5.7 5.5 5.1 5.0

California

6.8 6.9 6.5 6.9 6.4 6.2 6.5 6.3 6.0 5.9

Colorado

6.9 7.0 6.7 6.8 6.8 6.0 6.3 6.5 6.1 6.0

Connecticut

5.8 5.7 5.4 5.3 5.1 5.4 5.2 5.8 5.2 5.2

Delaware

6.6 6.7 6.4 7.0 7.1 5.9 6.6 6.6 6.4 5.9

District of Columbia

5.8 5.7 5.4 5.8 6.0 4.8 5.4 5.2 5.0 4.7

Florida

6.1 6.6 5.8 8.2 6.1 5.6 6.1 7.5 5.3 5.5

Georgia

6.3 6.2 6.2 6.9 6.5 5.9 6.1 6.1 5.6 5.6

Hawaii

5.4 5.2 5.4 5.1 5.0 4.8 5.3 5.1 4.7 4.8

Idaho

7.8 7.3 6.7 7.4 7.9 6.4 6.6 6.8 6.6 5.9

Illinois

5.9 5.7 5.6 6.0 5.7 5.5 5.6 6.0 5.3 5.1

Indiana

5.7 5.7 5.4 5.7 5.6 5.1 5.5 5.6 5.0 5.1

Iowa

6.1 5.7 5.5 5.9 5.5 5.6 5.8 5.7 5.3 5.3

Kansas

5.9 5.5 6.3 5.9 5.2 5.6 6.5 5.7 5.2 5.5

Kentucky

5.9 6.1 6.0 6.1 6.2 5.6 6.0 6.0 5.6 5.9

Louisiana

6.5 6.3 6.2 6.2 6.5 5.9 6.6 6.1 6.0 5.8

Maine

7.2 7.7 6.5 7.2 7.2 6.6 6.8 7.5 6.6 7.0

Maryland

6.1 6.4 6.3 6.2 6.3 5.9 6.1 6.2 6.3 5.7

Massachusetts

5.6 6.1 5.4 5.7 5.4 5.2 5.3 5.6 5.4 5.2

Michigan

5.6 5.8 5.3 5.7 5.7 5.0 5.3 6.0 5.4 4.6

Minnesota

5.9 5.7 5.3 5.8 5.3 4.9 5.3 5.7 5.5 5.0

Mississippi

5.9 5.9 5.9 6.3 5.5 5.9 6.0 5.9 5.4 5.8

Missouri

5.9 5.6 5.9 5.7 5.4 5.0 5.6 5.9 5.5 5.2

Montana

8.1 7.9 7.2 8.5 7.8 7.2 7.7 7.9 7.4 7.1

Nebraska

6.0 5.5 5.9 6.2 5.6 5.1 6.1 5.9 5.5 5.5

Nevada

6.6 6.2 6.2 6.6 6.5 5.2 5.9 5.8 5.2 5.4

New Hampshire

5.8 6.6 5.5 6.7 6.1 5.7 6.0 6.6 5.9 5.9

New Jersey

5.6 6.7 6.0 6.4 5.6 5.9 5.6 6.3 5.8 5.8

New Mexico

6.5 6.8 6.6 6.5 6.3 6.2 6.4 6.3 6.1 5.5

New York

6.2 6.4 6.3 6.2 6.2 5.7 5.8 6.1 5.8 5.6

North Carolina

6.4 6.3 6.0 6.3 6.2 5.7 6.2 6.0 5.5 5.2

North Dakota

7.6 6.8 6.7 6.8 7.0 6.8 6.9 6.7 6.8 6.3

Ohio

5.8 5.8 5.3 5.7 5.5 5.2 5.5 5.7 5.2 5.0

Oklahoma

6.3 6.6 6.6 6.4 6.1 6.2 6.0 6.0 5.8 5.5

Oregon

7.0 6.7 6.6 6.8 7.8 5.9 6.1 6.4 6.0 5.6

Pennsylvania

5.3 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.2 5.0 5.2 5.2 5.0 4.9

Rhode Island

6.4 6.5 6.0 6.6 6.3 6.0 5.9 6.3 6.0 6.1

South Carolina

6.2 6.1 5.8 7.0 5.9 5.7 6.1 6.2 5.3 4.7

South Dakota

6.4 6.2 5.8 6.4 6.4 5.9 6.2 5.9 5.7 5.9

Tennessee

5.2 5.5 5.4 5.9 5.0 5.0 5.2 5.2 4.9 4.8

Texas

5.9 5.9 5.9 6.4 5.8 5.2 5.4 5.8 5.3 5.1

Utah

7.7 6.8 7.0 7.0 7.4 6.1 6.3 6.3 5.9 6.0

Vermont

6.6 7.9 6.5 7.4 6.4 6.8 6.8 7.8 6.5 7.0

Virginia

6.1 6.4 5.9 6.3 5.8 5.6 5.9 6.2 5.5 5.2

Washington

6.9 7.1 6.4 6.9 7.2 6.0 6.2 6.4 6.0 5.7

West Virginia

6.3 6.4 6.7 6.3 6.8 6.3 6.5 6.3 6.1 5.8

Wisconsin

5.9 5.6 5.0 5.6 5.6 4.8 5.5 5.7 5.0 4.7

Wyoming

8.9 8.6 8.7 8.7 8.4 8.1 9.1 7.9 8.4 8.0

Puerto Rico

5.1 5.4 4.5 7.1 8.4 5.7 5.4 6.8 11.8 6.8

Virgin Islands

5.6 6.7 4.2 9.2 12.0 5.5 5.3 11.6 28.2 16.8

Footnotes
(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

 

Last Modified Date: Friday, December 21, 2018