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19-1215-DAL
Thursday, August 01, 2019

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Technical information:
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Business Employment Dynamics in Oklahoma – Fourth Quarter 2018

From September 2018 to December 2018, gross job gains in Oklahoma totaled 83,749, while gross job losses numbered 77,698, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. (See chart 1.) The difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of gross job losses yielded a net employment gain of 6,051 in the private sector during the fourth quarter of 2018. Assistant Commissions for Regional Operations Stanley W. Suchman noted that in the previous quarter, the net employment gain was 7,004.

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses in the economy. Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track these changes in employment at private business establishments from the third month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing establishments and the addition of new jobs at opening establishments. Gross job losses are the result of contractions in employment at existing establishments and the loss of jobs at closing establishments. The difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of gross job losses is the net change in employment. (See the Technical Note for more information.)

The number of gross job gains in Oklahoma decreased by 1,231 in the fourth quarter of 2018 after increasing by 3,795 in the previous quarter. (See chart 1.) Oklahoma’s gross job losses dipped by 278 in the fourth quarter of 2018, after falling by 4,946 in the previous quarter. The gain of 6,051 jobs in the current quarter was the state’s second consecutive net job gain after experiencing a net job loss in the second quarter of  2018.

Gross job gains represented 6.4 percent of private sector employment in Oklahoma in the fourth quarter of 2018, compared to the national gross job gain of 6.1 percent. (See chart 2.) The rate of gross job gains in Oklahoma has equaled or exceeded the national rate since the fourth quarter of 2016. Oklahoma’s rate of gross job losses as a percent of private sector employment was 6.0 percent compared to the national rate of 5.6 percent in the fourth quarter of 2018. Oklahoma’s rate of gross job losses has exceeded the U.S. rate since the first quarter of 2015, with one exception.

During the fourth quarter of 2018, gross job gains exceeded gross job losses in 8 of the 11 industry sectors in Oklahoma. For example, within transportation and warehousing, opening and expanding establishments added 5,068 jobs, while closing and contracting establishments lost 2,322 jobs. The resulting net gain of 2,746 jobs in the transportation and warehousing sector was the largest of any sector in Oklahoma in the fourth quarter of 2018. In leisure and hospitality, 14,567 jobs were created in opening and expanding establishments and 13,161 were lost in closing and contracting establishments, resulting in a net gain of 1,406, the second largest among the state’s sectors. (See table 1.)

Three industry sectors in Oklahoma registered net job losses during the latest quarter. Retail trade saw a net loss of 1,868 jobs, as opening and expanding establishments added 9,213 jobs while closing and contracting establishments lost 11,081 jobs. Information had a net loss of 359 jobs during the quarter, as 1,311 gross job losses offset 952 gross job gains. The financial activities sector had a net job loss of 103.

Additional statistics and other information

BED data for the states have been included in table 2 of this release. For more information on the Business Employment Dynamics data, visit the BED website at www.bls.gov/bdm/.

The Business Employment Dynamics release for First Quarter 2019 is scheduled to be released on Wednesday, October 30, 2019.


Technical Note

The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), or the ES-202 program. The BED data are compiled by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) from existing QCEW records. Most employers in the U.S. are required to file quarterly reports on the employment and wages of workers covered by unemployment insurance (UI) laws, and to pay quarterly UI taxes. The QCEW is based largely on quarterly UI reports which are sent by businesses to the State Workforce Agencies (SWAs). These UI reports are supplemented by two additional BLS data collections to render administrative data into economic statistics. Together these data comprise the QCEW and form the basis of the Bureau’s establishment universe sampling frame.

In the BED program, the quarterly QCEW records are linked across quarters to provide a longitudinal history for each establishment. The linkage process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and expanding establishments and jobs lost at closing and contracting establishments.

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses in the economy. BED statistics track these changes in employment at private business establishments from the third month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing establishments and the addition of new jobs at opening establishments. Gross job losses are the result of contractions in employment at existing establishments and the loss of jobs at closing establishments. The difference between the number of gross jobs gained and the number of gross jobs lost is the net change in employment.

Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quarters. The rates are calculated for the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to form their respective totals. These rates can be added and subtracted just as their levels can. For instance, the difference between the gross job gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:

Openings. These are either establishments with positive third month employment for the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or with positive third month employment in the current quarter following zero employment in the previous quarter.

Expansions. These are establishments with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment over this period.

Closings. These are either establishments with positive third month employment in the previous quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the current quarter.

Contractions. These are establishments with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment over this period.

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request: voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, Oklahoma, seasonally adjusted
Category Gross job gains and job losses
(3 months ended)
Gross job gains and job losses
as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Dec. 2017 Mar. 2018 June 2018 Sept. 2018 Dec. 2018 Dec. 2017 Mar. 2018 June 2018 Sept. 2018 Dec. 2018

Total private (1)

Gross job gains

82,246 78,771 81,185 84,980 83,749 6.4 6.1 6.3 6.6 6.4

At expanding establishments

66,487 62,852 64,459 68,231 66,571 5.2 4.9 5.0 5.3 5.1

At opening establishments

15,759 15,919 16,726 16,749 17,178 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.3

Gross job losses

74,837 70,899 82,922 77,976 77,698 5.8 5.5 6.5 6.1 6.0

At contracting establishments

58,962 58,040 66,297 63,121 61,675 4.6 4.5 5.2 4.9 4.8

At closing establishments

15,875 12,859 16,625 14,855 16,023 1.2 1.0 1.3 1.2 1.2

Net employment change (2)

7,409 7,872 -1,737 7,004 6,051 0.6 0.6 -0.2 0.5 0.4

Construction

Gross job gains

7,927 8,059 8,025 9,416 8,333 10.1 10.2 10.1 11.6 10.1

At expanding establishments

6,270 6,503 6,392 7,854 6,763 8.0 8.2 8.0 9.7 8.2

At opening establishments

1,657 1,556 1,633 1,562 1,570 2.1 2.0 2.1 1.9 1.9

Gross job losses

8,305 7,253 8,552 7,017 8,097 10.6 9.1 10.7 8.7 9.8

At contracting establishments

6,824 5,801 6,927 5,842 6,519 8.7 7.3 8.7 7.2 7.9

At closing establishments

1,481 1,452 1,625 1,175 1,578 1.9 1.8 2.0 1.5 1.9

Net employment change (2)

-378 806 -527 2,399 236 -0.5 1.1 -0.6 2.9 0.3

Manufacturing

Gross job gains

5,143 5,027 5,803 4,974 4,947 4.0 3.7 4.2 3.6 3.5

At expanding establishments

4,396 4,344 5,116 4,485 4,186 3.4 3.2 3.7 3.2 3.0

At opening establishments

747 683 687 489 761 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5

Gross job losses

4,126 3,842 4,460 5,200 4,865 3.2 2.8 3.3 3.7 3.5

At contracting establishments

3,405 3,039 3,556 4,443 3,712 2.6 2.2 2.6 3.2 2.7

At closing establishments

721 803 904 757 1,153 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.5 0.8

Net employment change (2)

1,017 1,185 1,343 -226 82 0.8 0.9 0.9 -0.1 0.0

Wholesale trade

Gross job gains

3,833 2,975 3,073 3,651 4,193 6.5 5.1 5.3 6.3 7.1

At expanding establishments

3,208 2,329 2,370 2,892 3,407 5.4 4.0 4.1 5.0 5.8

At opening establishments

625 646 703 759 786 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.3

Gross job losses

2,898 3,093 3,159 3,141 3,089 4.9 5.3 5.5 5.4 5.3

At contracting establishments

1,974 2,602 2,241 2,268 1,965 3.3 4.5 3.9 3.9 3.4

At closing establishments

924 491 918 873 1,124 1.6 0.8 1.6 1.5 1.9

Net employment change (2)

935 -118 -86 510 1,104 1.6 -0.2 -0.2 0.9 1.8

Retail trade

Gross job gains

9,875 10,345 9,865 11,459 9,213 5.5 5.8 5.5 6.4 5.2

At expanding establishments

8,745 8,692 8,292 9,195 7,881 4.9 4.9 4.6 5.1 4.4

At opening establishments

1,130 1,653 1,573 2,264 1,332 0.6 0.9 0.9 1.3 0.8

Gross job losses

9,832 9,780 11,945 10,413 11,081 5.5 5.5 6.7 5.9 6.3

At contracting establishments

8,452 8,547 9,702 9,237 9,678 4.7 4.8 5.4 5.2 5.5

At closing establishments

1,380 1,233 2,243 1,176 1,403 0.8 0.7 1.3 0.7 0.8

Net employment change (2)

43 565 -2,080 1,046 -1,868 0.0 0.3 -1.2 0.5 -1.1

Transportation and warehousing

Gross job gains

4,118 2,333 2,994 4,125 5,068 7.5 4.6 6.1 8.1 9.5

At expanding establishments

3,633 1,961 2,312 3,695 4,352 6.6 3.9 4.7 7.3 8.2

At opening establishments

485 372 682 430 716 0.9 0.7 1.4 0.8 1.3

Gross job losses

1,866 3,441 2,185 2,423 2,322 3.4 6.8 4.4 4.8 4.3

At contracting establishments

1,481 3,188 1,687 1,785 1,823 2.7 6.3 3.4 3.5 3.4

At closing establishments

385 253 498 638 499 0.7 0.5 1.0 1.3 0.9

Net employment change (2)

2,252 -1,108 809 1,702 2,746 4.1 -2.2 1.7 3.3 5.2

Information

Gross job gains

883 729 1,115 931 952 4.4 3.6 5.6 4.7 4.8

At expanding establishments

626 645 854 789 651 3.1 3.2 4.3 4.0 3.3

At opening establishments

257 84 261 142 301 1.3 0.4 1.3 0.7 1.5

Gross job losses

961 930 1,158 1,139 1,311 4.8 4.7 5.7 5.7 6.7

At contracting establishments

774 729 928 857 1,151 3.9 3.7 4.6 4.3 5.9

At closing establishments

187 201 230 282 160 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.4 0.8

Net employment change (2)

-78 -201 -43 -208 -359 -0.4 -1.1 -0.1 -1.0 -1.9

Financial activities

Gross job gains

3,917 3,647 3,840 3,831 3,952 5.1 4.7 5.0 4.9 5.1

At expanding establishments

3,075 2,833 2,857 2,876 2,881 4.0 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7

At opening establishments

842 814 983 955 1,071 1.1 1.0 1.3 1.2 1.4

Gross job losses

3,585 3,700 3,859 3,659 4,055 4.6 4.8 5.0 4.7 5.3

At contracting establishments

2,725 2,854 2,787 2,711 3,129 3.5 3.7 3.6 3.5 4.1

At closing establishments

860 846 1,072 948 926 1.1 1.1 1.4 1.2 1.2

Net employment change (2)

332 -53 -19 172 -103 0.5 -0.1 0.0 0.2 -0.2

Professional and business services

Gross job gains

14,204 14,960 15,306 15,394 15,701 7.5 7.9 8.0 8.0 8.1

At expanding establishments

10,935 11,798 12,049 12,078 12,177 5.8 6.2 6.3 6.3 6.3

At opening establishments

3,269 3,162 3,257 3,316 3,524 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8

Gross job losses

13,923 12,666 14,565 14,914 14,812 7.4 6.7 7.6 7.8 7.7

At contracting establishments

10,844 10,042 11,685 11,434 11,325 5.8 5.3 6.1 6.0 5.9

At closing establishments

3,079 2,624 2,880 3,480 3,487 1.6 1.4 1.5 1.8 1.8

Net employment change (2)

281 2,294 741 480 889 0.1 1.2 0.4 0.2 0.4

Education and health services

Gross job gains

9,626 9,396 9,046 9,579 9,744 4.6 4.5 4.3 4.6 4.7

At expanding establishments

7,554 7,277 7,382 7,558 7,516 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.6

At opening establishments

2,072 2,119 1,664 2,021 2,228 1.0 1.0 0.8 1.0 1.1

Gross job losses

9,670 8,726 10,321 9,280 8,744 4.6 4.1 4.9 4.5 4.1

At contracting establishments

7,065 6,815 7,973 7,447 6,590 3.4 3.2 3.8 3.6 3.1

At closing establishments

2,605 1,911 2,348 1,833 2,154 1.2 0.9 1.1 0.9 1.0

Net employment change (2)

-44 670 -1,275 299 1,000 0.0 0.4 -0.6 0.1 0.6

Leisure and hospitality

Gross job gains

15,497 14,046 14,778 14,423 14,567 9.2 8.2 8.6 8.4 8.4

At expanding establishments

11,966 10,438 11,091 11,260 11,120 7.1 6.1 6.5 6.6 6.4

At opening establishments

3,531 3,608 3,687 3,163 3,447 2.1 2.1 2.1 1.8 2.0

Gross job losses

13,192 12,293 15,690 14,632 13,161 7.8 7.1 9.2 8.5 7.6

At contracting establishments

10,674 10,169 13,469 12,237 10,871 6.3 5.9 7.9 7.1 6.3

At closing establishments

2,518 2,124 2,221 2,395 2,290 1.5 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.3

Net employment change (2)

2,305 1,753 -912 -209 1,406 1.4 1.1 -0.6 -0.1 0.8

Other services (3)

Gross job gains

2,632 2,693 2,790 2,943 2,869 7.6 7.7 7.9 8.3 8.0

At expanding establishments

2,086 2,138 2,073 2,238 2,297 6.0 6.1 5.9 6.3 6.4

At opening establishments

546 555 717 705 572 1.6 1.6 2.0 2.0 1.6

Gross job losses

2,720 2,514 2,751 2,611 2,803 7.8 7.1 7.8 7.4 7.8

At contracting establishments

1,950 1,985 2,154 2,054 2,227 5.6 5.6 6.1 5.8 6.2

At closing establishments

770 529 597 557 576 2.2 1.5 1.7 1.6 1.6

Net employment change (2)

-88 179 39 332 66 -0.2 0.6 0.1 0.9 0.2

Footnotes:
(1) Includes unclassified sector not shown separately.
(2) The net employment change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses. See the Technical Note for further information.
(3) Except public administration.

Table 2. Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted
State Gross job gains as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Gross job losses as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Dec.
2017
Mar.
2018
June
2018
Sept.
2018
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2017
Mar.
2018
June
2018
Sept.
2018
Dec.
2018

United States(1)

6.4 6.0 6.1 6.0 6.1 5.6 5.4 5.8 6.0 5.6

Alabama

6.0 6.0 5.8 5.9 6.3 5.4 5.3 5.7 5.9 5.3

Alaska

9.7 9.8 10.9 8.9 10.9 10.2 8.8 10.7 10.6 9.7

Arizona

6.3 6.0 6.0 6.6 6.2 5.3 5.3 5.9 5.0 5.1

Arkansas

6.1 5.4 5.0 6.0 5.8 5.1 5.0 5.6 5.5 4.9

California

6.9 6.4 6.7 6.5 6.7 6.0 5.9 6.3 6.2 5.9

Colorado

6.8 6.8 6.8 6.6 6.8 6.1 6.0 6.1 6.8 6.0

Connecticut

5.3 5.1 5.8 5.2 5.3 5.2 5.2 5.0 5.6 4.9

Delaware

7.0 7.1 6.5 5.6 6.6 6.4 5.9 6.0 6.6 5.7

District of Columbia

5.8 6.0 5.6 5.3 5.6 5.0 4.7 5.5 5.5 5.1

Florida

8.2 6.1 6.5 6.7 6.3 5.3 5.5 6.1 5.7 5.9

Georgia

6.9 6.5 6.2 6.7 6.3 5.6 5.6 6.4 6.2 5.7

Hawaii

5.1 5.0 5.2 5.1 5.7 4.7 4.8 5.5 5.5 5.1

Idaho

7.4 7.9 7.3 6.8 7.4 6.6 5.9 6.7 6.9 6.3

Illinois

6.0 5.7 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.3 5.1 5.5 5.7 5.6

Indiana

5.7 5.6 5.4 5.2 5.6 5.0 5.1 5.5 5.4 4.9

Iowa

5.9 5.5 5.7 5.3 5.8 5.3 5.3 5.4 5.7 5.3

Kansas

5.9 5.2 5.7 5.9 6.1 5.2 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.4

Kentucky

6.1 6.2 5.9 5.7 6.1 5.6 5.9 5.6 6.0 5.5

Louisiana

6.2 6.5 6.1 6.2 6.2 6.0 5.8 6.5 6.2 5.7

Maine

7.2 7.2 8.1 6.0 7.3 6.6 7.0 7.1 7.5 6.3

Maryland

6.2 6.3 6.0 6.3 6.8 6.3 5.7 5.8 6.6 6.4

Massachusetts

5.7 5.4 6.1 5.5 5.8 5.4 5.2 5.4 6.2 5.3

Michigan

5.7 5.7 5.6 5.0 5.7 5.4 4.6 5.1 6.2 5.2

Minnesota

5.8 5.3 5.8 5.4 5.7 5.5 5.0 5.3 5.7 5.4

Mississippi

6.3 5.5 5.7 5.8 6.4 5.4 5.8 6.0 5.7 5.2

Missouri

5.7 5.4 5.7 5.9 5.8 5.5 5.2 5.7 6.0 5.4

Montana

8.5 7.8 8.0 7.2 9.0 7.4 7.1 7.8 7.9 7.2

Nebraska

6.2 5.6 5.9 5.8 5.9 5.5 5.5 5.8 6.0 5.8

Nevada

6.6 6.5 6.1 6.7 6.6 5.2 5.4 5.8 5.6 5.3

New Hampshire

6.7 6.1 6.7 5.6 6.7 5.9 5.9 6.3 6.8 5.7

New Jersey

6.4 5.6 6.5 6.0 6.3 5.8 5.8 5.7 6.3 5.6

New Mexico

6.5 6.3 6.5 6.4 6.7 6.1 5.5 6.2 6.4 6.0

New York

6.2 6.2 6.3 6.1 6.2 5.8 5.6 5.8 6.4 5.7

North Carolina

6.3 6.2 6.1 5.6 6.7 5.5 5.2 5.5 6.5 5.3

North Dakota

6.8 7.0 6.7 6.6 6.8 6.8 6.3 6.2 6.6 6.2

Ohio

5.7 5.5 5.6 5.3 5.6 5.2 5.0 5.4 5.7 5.2

Oklahoma

6.4 6.1 6.3 6.6 6.4 5.8 5.5 6.5 6.1 6.0

Oregon

6.8 7.8 6.2 6.2 6.7 6.0 5.6 6.2 6.3 5.9

Pennsylvania

5.5 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.3 5.0 4.9 5.1 5.2 4.7

Rhode Island

6.6 6.3 6.3 6.2 6.4 6.0 6.1 6.1 6.4 5.7

South Carolina

7.0 5.9 7.5 5.8 7.4 5.3 4.7 6.5 6.5 5.4

South Dakota

6.4 6.4 6.1 5.9 6.3 5.7 5.9 6.1 5.8 5.8

Tennessee

5.9 5.0 5.5 5.8 5.8 4.9 4.8 5.1 5.2 4.9

Texas

6.4 5.8 5.9 5.9 6.1 5.3 5.1 5.2 5.4 5.1

Utah

7.0 7.4 6.9 7.3 6.9 5.9 6.0 6.3 6.5 6.1

Vermont

7.4 6.4 7.2 6.9 7.4 6.5 7.0 7.3 7.4 6.8

Virginia

6.3 5.8 6.1 5.6 6.2 5.5 5.2 5.8 6.3 5.5

Washington

6.9 7.2 7.3 6.1 6.5 6.0 5.7 6.3 6.3 5.6

West Virginia

6.3 6.8 6.8 7.0 6.3 6.1 5.8 6.4 6.4 6.5

Wisconsin

5.6 5.6 5.4 5.1 5.4 5.0 4.7 5.5 5.9 4.9

Wyoming

8.7 8.4 8.2 8.2 10.0 8.4 8.0 8.3 8.3 7.8

Puerto Rico

7.1 8.4 8.0 7.2 6.0 11.8 6.8 6.2 5.8 6.7

Virgin Islands

9.2 12.0 12.5 10.9 8.3 28.2 16.8 8.6 6.3 7.8

Footnotes:
(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

 

Last Modified Date: Thursday, August 01, 2019