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19-1584-SAN
Wednesday, September 04, 2019

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Technical information:
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Business Employment Dynamics in Alaska – Fourth Quarter 2018

From September 2018 to December 2018, gross job gains from opening and expanding private-sector establishments in Alaska totaled 26,655, while gross job losses from closing and contracting private-sector establishments numbered 23,854, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Richard Holden, the Bureau’s Assistant Commissioner for Regional Operations, noted the difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of gross job losses yielded a net employment gain of 2,801. During the previous quarter, gross job losses exceeded gross job gains by 4,231.

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses in the economy. Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track these changes in employment at private business establishments from the third month of one quarter to the third month of the next. The difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of gross job losses is the net change in employment. (See the Technical Note for more information.)

Alaska’s number of gross job gains increased by 4,833 during the fourth quarter of 2018, following a decline of 5,135 in the previous quarter. Gross job losses fell by 2,199 in the fourth quarter of 2018, after decreasing by 274 in the previous quarter. The net gain of 2,801 jobs in the fourth quarter of 2018 was the largest gain since the first quarter of 2013. (See chart 1.)

Gross job gains represented 10.9 percent of private-sector employment in Alaska in the fourth quarter of 2018, while gross job losses accounted for 9.7 percent of private-sector employment. Nationally, gross job gains and gross job losses accounted for 6.1 and 5.6 percent of private-sector employment, respectively. (See chart 2.)

During the fourth quarter of 2018, gross job gains exceeded gross job losses in four industry sectors in Alaska. For example, within construction, gross job gains exceeded gross job losses by 923. While 3,538 jobs were gained in opening and expanding establishments in the industry, 2,615 jobs were lost by closing and contracting establishments in the fourth quarter of 2018. In education and health services, 2,264 jobs were created in opening and expanding establishments, while 1,689 jobs were lost in closing and contracting establishments. (See table 1.)

In contrast, gross job losses exceeded gross job gains in three industry sectors, led by leisure and hospitality, where gross job losses exceeded gross job gains by 758.

Additional statistics and other information

BED data for the states have been included in table 2 of this release. For more information on the Business Employment Dynamics data, visit the BED web site at www.bls.gov/bdm/.

The Business Employment Dynamics for the First Quarter 2019 are scheduled to be released on Wednesday, October 30, 2019.


Technical Note

The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), or the ES-202 program. The BED data are compiled by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) from existing QCEW records. Most employers in the U.S. are required to file quarterly reports on the employment and wages of workers covered by unemployment insurance (UI) laws, and to pay quarterly UI taxes. The QCEW is based largely on quarterly UI reports which are sent by businesses to the State Workforce Agencies (SWAs). These UI reports are supplemented by two additional BLS data collections to render administrative data into economic statistics. Together these data comprise the QCEW and form the basis of the Bureau’s establishment universe sampling frame.

In the BED program, the quarterly QCEW records are linked across quarters to provide a longitudinal history for each establishment. The linkage process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and expanding establishments and jobs lost at closing and contracting establishments.

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses in the economy. BED statistics track these changes in employment at private business establishments from the third month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing establishments and the addition of new jobs at opening establishments. Gross job losses are the result of contractions in employment at existing establishments and the loss of jobs at closing establishments. The difference between the number of gross jobs gained and the number of gross jobs lost is the net change in employment.

Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quarters. The rates are calculated for the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to form their respective totals. These rates can be added and subtracted just as their levels can. For instance, the difference between the gross job gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:

Openings. These are either establishments with positive third month employment for the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or with positive third month employment in the current quarter following zero employment in the previous quarter.

Expansions. These are establishments with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment over this period.

Closings. These are either establishments with positive third month employment in the previous quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the current quarter.

Contractions. These are establishments with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment over this period.

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request: voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, Alaska, seasonally adjusted
Category Gross job gains and job losses
(3 months ended)
Gross job gains and job losses
as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Dec.
2017
Mar.
2018
June
2018
Sept
2018
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2017
Mar.
2018
June
2018
Sept
2018
Dec.
2018

Total private (1)

Gross job gains

23,753 24,212 26,957 21,822 26,655 9.7 9.8 10.9 8.9 10.9

At expanding establishments

18,931 19,674 22,490 17,706 22,464 7.7 8.0 9.1 7.2 9.2

At opening establishments

4,822 4,538 4,467 4,116 4,191 2.0 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.7

Gross job losses

25,045 21,672 26,327 26,053 23,854 10.2 8.8 10.7 10.6 9.7

At contracting establishments

20,822 18,370 22,452 22,504 19,611 8.5 7.5 9.1 9.2 8.0

At closing establishments

4,223 3,302 3,875 3,549 4,243 1.7 1.3 1.6 1.4 1.7

Net employment change (2)

-1,292 2,540 630 -4,231 2,801 -0.5 1.0 0.2 -1.7 1.2

Construction

Gross job gains

2,526 3,430 2,901 2,441 3,538 16.9 21.6 18.0 15.7 21.8

At expanding establishments

2,098 2,769 2,386 1,957 3,028 14.0 17.4 14.8 12.6 18.7

At opening establishments

428 661 515 484 510 2.9 4.2 3.2 3.1 3.1

Gross job losses

2,757 2,434 2,924 2,646 2,615 18.4 15.3 18.2 17.0 16.1

At contracting establishments

2,273 1,984 2,264 2,191 2,177 15.2 12.5 14.1 14.1 13.4

At closing establishments

484 450 660 455 438 3.2 2.8 4.1 2.9 2.7

Net employment change (2)

-231 996 -23 -205 923 -1.5 6.3 -0.2 -1.3 5.7

Retail trade

Gross job gains

2,121 2,170 2,380 2,139 2,141 5.9 6.0 6.6 6.0 6.0

At expanding establishments

1,623 1,928 1,896 1,706 1,895 4.5 5.3 5.3 4.8 5.3

At opening establishments

498 242 484 433 246 1.4 0.7 1.3 1.2 0.7

Gross job losses

2,448 2,103 2,882 2,328 2,342 6.8 5.9 8.0 6.5 6.5

At contracting establishments

2,054 1,720 2,676 2,036 1,978 5.7 4.8 7.4 5.7 5.5

At closing establishments

394 383 206 292 364 1.1 1.1 0.6 0.8 1.0

Net employment change (2)

-327 67 -502 -189 -201 -0.9 0.1 -1.4 -0.5 -0.5

Transportation and warehousing

Gross job gains

2,668 2,286 2,636 2,164 2,445 13.4 11.6 13.1 10.5 12.3

At expanding establishments

2,221 1,927 2,201 1,769 1,810 11.2 9.8 10.9 8.6 9.1

At opening establishments

447 359 435 395 635 2.2 1.8 2.2 1.9 3.2

Gross job losses

2,486 2,444 1,996 2,629 2,509 12.5 12.4 9.9 12.8 12.6

At contracting establishments

2,087 2,150 1,784 2,294 2,052 10.5 10.9 8.8 11.2 10.3

At closing establishments

399 294 212 335 457 2.0 1.5 1.1 1.6 2.3

Net employment change (2)

182 -158 640 -465 -64 0.9 -0.8 3.2 -2.3 -0.3

Professional and business services

Gross job gains

2,549 2,763 2,607 2,794 3,091 9.2 10.0 9.6 10.3 11.3

At expanding establishments

1,793 2,257 1,934 2,113 2,294 6.5 8.2 7.1 7.8 8.4

At opening establishments

756 506 673 681 797 2.7 1.8 2.5 2.5 2.9

Gross job losses

2,854 2,540 3,294 2,547 2,793 10.3 9.2 12.0 9.3 10.2

At contracting establishments

2,103 2,152 2,490 2,019 2,049 7.6 7.8 9.1 7.4 7.5

At closing establishments

751 388 804 528 744 2.7 1.4 2.9 1.9 2.7

Net employment change (2)

-305 223 -687 247 298 -1.1 0.8 -2.4 1.0 1.1

Education and health services

Gross job gains

2,171 2,159 2,183 1,996 2,264 4.5 4.4 4.4 4.1 4.5

At expanding establishments

1,896 1,852 1,901 1,769 2,011 3.9 3.8 3.8 3.6 4.0

At opening establishments

275 307 282 227 253 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5

Gross job losses

1,855 1,841 2,324 1,959 1,689 3.7 3.7 4.7 4.0 3.4

At contracting establishments

1,545 1,551 1,974 1,717 1,494 3.1 3.1 4.0 3.5 3.0

At closing establishments

310 290 350 242 195 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.5 0.4

Net employment change (2)

316 318 -141 37 575 0.8 0.7 -0.3 0.1 1.1

Leisure and hospitality

Gross job gains

4,828 5,199 5,874 4,692 4,893 13.6 14.6 16.3 13.0 13.7

At expanding establishments

3,486 3,592 4,590 3,640 3,862 9.8 10.1 12.7 10.1 10.8

At opening establishments

1,342 1,607 1,284 1,052 1,031 3.8 4.5 3.6 2.9 2.9

Gross job losses

5,756 4,108 6,090 5,315 5,651 16.2 11.6 16.8 14.6 15.8

At contracting establishments

4,577 3,186 4,928 4,285 4,319 12.9 9.0 13.6 11.8 12.1

At closing establishments

1,179 922 1,162 1,030 1,332 3.3 2.6 3.2 2.8 3.7

Net employment change (2)

-928 1,091 -216 -623 -758 -2.6 3.0 -0.5 -1.6 -2.1

Other services (3)

Gross job gains

770 666 1,101 839 839 7.9 6.9 11.2 8.5 8.7

At expanding establishments

657 576 952 746 741 6.7 6.0 9.7 7.6 7.7

At opening establishments

113 90 149 93 98 1.2 0.9 1.5 0.9 1.0

Gross job losses

972 705 862 1,036 757 9.9 7.3 8.8 10.6 7.9

At contracting establishments

830 607 740 890 652 8.5 6.3 7.6 9.1 6.8

At closing establishments

142 98 122 146 105 1.4 1.0 1.2 1.5 1.1

Net employment change (2)

-202 -39 239 -197 82 -2.0 -0.4 2.4 -2.1 0.8

Footnotes:
(1) Includes unclassified sector not shown separately.
(2) The net employment change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses. See the Technical Note for further information.
(3) Except public administration.

Table 2. Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted
Category Gross job gains as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Gross job losses as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Dec.
2017
Mar.
2018
June
2018
Sept.
2018
Dec.
2018
Dec.
2017
Mar.
2018
June
2018
Sept.
2018
Dec.
2018

United States(1)

6.4 6.0 6.1 6.0 6.1 5.6 5.4 5.8 6.0 5.6

Alabama

6.0 6.0 5.8 5.9 6.3 5.4 5.3 5.7 5.9 5.3

Alaska

9.7 9.8 10.9 8.9 10.9 10.2 8.8 10.7 10.6 9.7

Arizona

6.3 6.0 6.0 6.6 6.2 5.3 5.3 5.9 5.0 5.1

Arkansas

6.1 5.4 5.0 6.0 5.8 5.1 5.0 5.6 5.5 4.9

California

6.9 6.4 6.7 6.5 6.7 6.0 5.9 6.3 6.2 5.9

Colorado

6.8 6.8 6.8 6.6 6.8 6.1 6.0 6.1 6.8 6.0

Connecticut

5.3 5.1 5.8 5.2 5.3 5.2 5.2 5.0 5.6 4.9

Delaware

7.0 7.1 6.5 5.6 6.6 6.4 5.9 6.0 6.6 5.7

District of Columbia

5.8 6.0 5.6 5.3 5.6 5.0 4.7 5.5 5.5 5.1

Florida

8.2 6.1 6.5 6.7 6.3 5.3 5.5 6.1 5.7 5.9

Georgia

6.9 6.5 6.2 6.7 6.3 5.6 5.6 6.4 6.2 5.7

Hawaii

5.1 5.0 5.2 5.1 5.7 4.7 4.8 5.5 5.5 5.1

Idaho

7.4 7.9 7.3 6.8 7.4 6.6 5.9 6.7 6.9 6.3

Illinois

6.0 5.7 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.3 5.1 5.5 5.7 5.6

Indiana

5.7 5.6 5.4 5.2 5.6 5.0 5.1 5.5 5.4 4.9

Iowa

5.9 5.5 5.7 5.3 5.8 5.3 5.3 5.4 5.7 5.3

Kansas

5.9 5.2 5.7 5.9 6.1 5.2 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.4

Kentucky

6.1 6.2 5.9 5.7 6.1 5.6 5.9 5.6 6.0 5.5

Louisiana

6.2 6.5 6.1 6.2 6.2 6.0 5.8 6.5 6.2 5.7

Maine

7.2 7.2 8.1 6.0 7.3 6.6 7.0 7.1 7.5 6.3

Maryland

6.2 6.3 6.0 6.3 6.8 6.3 5.7 5.8 6.6 6.4

Massachusetts

5.7 5.4 6.1 5.5 5.8 5.4 5.2 5.4 6.2 5.3

Michigan

5.7 5.7 5.6 5.0 5.7 5.4 4.6 5.1 6.2 5.2

Minnesota

5.8 5.3 5.8 5.4 5.7 5.5 5.0 5.3 5.7 5.4

Mississippi

6.3 5.5 5.7 5.8 6.4 5.4 5.8 6.0 5.7 5.2

Missouri

5.7 5.4 5.7 5.9 5.8 5.5 5.2 5.7 6.0 5.4

Montana

8.5 7.8 8.0 7.2 9.0 7.4 7.1 7.8 7.9 7.2

Nebraska

6.2 5.6 5.9 5.8 5.9 5.5 5.5 5.8 6.0 5.8

Nevada

6.6 6.5 6.1 6.7 6.6 5.2 5.4 5.8 5.6 5.3

New Hampshire

6.7 6.1 6.7 5.6 6.7 5.9 5.9 6.3 6.8 5.7

New Jersey

6.4 5.6 6.5 6.0 6.3 5.8 5.8 5.7 6.3 5.6

New Mexico

6.5 6.3 6.5 6.4 6.7 6.1 5.5 6.2 6.4 6.0

New York

6.2 6.2 6.3 6.1 6.2 5.8 5.6 5.8 6.4 5.7

North Carolina

6.3 6.2 6.1 5.6 6.7 5.5 5.2 5.5 6.5 5.3

North Dakota

6.8 7.0 6.7 6.6 6.8 6.8 6.3 6.2 6.6 6.2

Ohio

5.7 5.5 5.6 5.3 5.6 5.2 5.0 5.4 5.7 5.2

Oklahoma

6.4 6.1 6.3 6.6 6.4 5.8 5.5 6.5 6.1 6.0

Oregon

6.8 7.8 6.2 6.2 6.7 6.0 5.6 6.2 6.3 5.9

Pennsylvania

5.5 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.3 5.0 4.9 5.1 5.2 4.7

Rhode Island

6.6 6.3 6.3 6.2 6.4 6.0 6.1 6.1 6.4 5.7

South Carolina

7.0 5.9 7.5 5.8 7.4 5.3 4.7 6.5 6.5 5.4

South Dakota

6.4 6.4 6.1 5.9 6.3 5.7 5.9 6.1 5.8 5.8

Tennessee

5.9 5.0 5.5 5.8 5.8 4.9 4.8 5.1 5.2 4.9

Texas

6.4 5.8 5.9 5.9 6.1 5.3 5.1 5.2 5.4 5.1

Utah

7.0 7.4 6.9 7.3 6.9 5.9 6.0 6.3 6.5 6.1

Vermont

7.4 6.4 7.2 6.9 7.4 6.5 7.0 7.3 7.4 6.8

Virginia

6.3 5.8 6.1 5.6 6.2 5.5 5.2 5.8 6.3 5.5

Washington

6.9 7.2 7.3 6.1 6.5 6.0 5.7 6.3 6.3 5.6

West Virginia

6.3 6.8 6.8 7.0 6.3 6.1 5.8 6.4 6.4 6.5

Wisconsin

5.6 5.6 5.4 5.1 5.4 5.0 4.7 5.5 5.9 4.9

Wyoming

8.7 8.4 8.2 8.2 10.0 8.4 8.0 8.3 8.3 7.8

Puerto Rico

7.1 8.4 8.0 7.2 6.0 11.8 6.8 6.2 5.8 6.7

Virgin Islands

9.2 12.0 12.5 10.9 8.3 28.2 16.8 8.6 6.3 7.8

Footnotes
(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

 

Last Modified Date: Wednesday, September 04, 2019