2010 Standard Occupational Classification System

NOTE: The information on this page relates to the 2010 SOC, please see the 2018 SOC System for information on the current version of the SOC.

Each occupation in the 2010 SOC is placed within one of these 23 major groups:

[Expand All]


11-0000 Management Occupations

  • 11-1000  Top Executives
    • 11-1010  Chief Executives
      • 11-1011  Chief Executives

        Determine and formulate policies and provide overall direction of companies or private and public sector organizations within guidelines set up by a board of directors or similar governing body. Plan, direct, or coordinate operational activities at the highest level of management with the help of subordinate executives and staff managers.

        Illustrative examples: Governor

    • 11-1020  General and Operations Managers
      • 11-1021  General and Operations Managers

        Plan, direct, or coordinate the operations of public or private sector organizations. Duties and responsibilities include formulating policies, managing daily operations, and planning the use of materials and human resources, but are too diverse and general in nature to be classified in any one functional area of management or administration, such as personnel, purchasing, or administrative services. Excludes First-Line Supervisors.

        Illustrative examples: General Superintendent , Radio Station Manager , Television Station Manager

    • 11-1030  Legislators
      • 11-1031  Legislators

        Develop, introduce or enact laws and statutes at the local, tribal, State, or Federal level. Includes only workers in elected positions.

        Illustrative examples: City Council Member , Senator , Tribal Council Member

  • 11-2000  Advertising, Marketing, Promotions, Public Relations, and Sales Managers
    • 11-2010  Advertising and Promotions Managers
      • 11-2011  Advertising and Promotions Managers

        Plan, direct, or coordinate advertising policies and programs or produce collateral materials, such as posters, contests, coupons, or give-aways, to create extra interest in the purchase of a product or service for a department, an entire organization, or on an account basis.

        Illustrative examples: Advertising Director , Advertising Executive , Promotions Director

    • 11-2020  Marketing and Sales Managers
      • 11-2021  Marketing Managers

        Plan, direct, or coordinate marketing policies and programs, such as determining the demand for products and services offered by a firm and its competitors, and identify potential customers. Develop pricing strategies with the goal of maximizing the firm's profits or share of the market while ensuring the firm's customers are satisfied. Oversee product development or monitor trends that indicate the need for new products and services.

        Illustrative examples: Internet Marketing Manager , Marketing Administrator , Marketing Director

      • 11-2022  Sales Managers

        Plan, direct, or coordinate the actual distribution or movement of a product or service to the customer. Coordinate sales distribution by establishing sales territories, quotas, and goals and establish training programs for sales representatives. Analyze sales statistics gathered by staff to determine sales potential and inventory requirements and monitor the preferences of customers.

        Illustrative examples: District Sales Manager , Export Manager , Regional Sales Manager , Sales Director

    • 11-2030  Public Relations and Fundraising Managers
      • 11-2031  Public Relations and Fundraising Managers

        Plan, direct, or coordinate activities designed to create or maintain a favorable public image or raise issue awareness for their organization or client; or if engaged in fundraising, plan, direct, or coordinate activities to solicit and maintain funds for special projects or nonprofit organizations.

        Illustrative examples: Fundraising Director , Public Affairs Director , Publicity Director

  • 11-3000  Operations Specialties Managers
    • 11-3010  Administrative Services Managers
      • 11-3011  Administrative Services Managers

        Plan, direct, or coordinate one or more administrative services of an organization, such as records and information management, mail distribution, facilities planning and maintenance, custodial operations, and other office support services. Medical records administrators are included in "Medical and Health Services Managers" (11-9111). Excludes "Purchasing Managers" (11-3061).

        Illustrative examples: Facilities Manager , Records Management Director , Records and Information Manager

    • 11-3020  Computer and Information Systems Managers
      • 11-3021  Computer and Information Systems Managers

        Plan, direct, or coordinate activities in such fields as electronic data processing, information systems, systems analysis, and computer programming. Excludes "Computer Occupations" (15-1111 through 15-1199).

        Illustrative examples: Chief Technology Officer , Information Technology Systems Director , Management Information Systems Director

    • 11-3030  Financial Managers
      • 11-3031  Financial Managers

        Plan, direct, or coordinate accounting, investing, banking, insurance, securities, and other financial activities of a branch, office, or department of an establishment.

        Illustrative examples: Comptroller , Financial Director

    • 11-3050  Industrial Production Managers
      • 11-3051  Industrial Production Managers

        Plan, direct, or coordinate the work activities and resources necessary for manufacturing products in accordance with cost, quality, and quantity specifications.

        Illustrative examples: Manufacturing Director , Plant Manager , Production Control Manager

    • 11-3060  Purchasing Managers
      • 11-3061  Purchasing Managers

        Plan, direct, or coordinate the activities of buyers, purchasing officers, and related workers involved in purchasing materials, products, and services. Includes wholesale or retail trade merchandising managers and procurement managers.

        Illustrative examples: Contracting Manager , Procurement Manager , Purchasing Director

    • 11-3070  Transportation, Storage, and Distribution Managers
      • 11-3071  Transportation, Storage, and Distribution Managers

        Plan, direct, or coordinate transportation, storage, or distribution activities in accordance with organizational policies and applicable government laws or regulations. Includes logistics managers.

        Illustrative examples: Distribution Center Manager , Traffic Safety Administrator , Warehouse Manager

    • 11-3110  Compensation and Benefits Managers
      • 11-3111  Compensation and Benefits Managers

        Plan, direct, or coordinate compensation and benefits activities of an organization. Job analysis and position description managers are included in "Human Resource Managers" (11-3121).

        Illustrative examples: Compensation Director , Employee Benefits Director , Wage and Salary Administrator

    • 11-3120  Human Resources Managers
      • 11-3121  Human Resources Managers

        Plan, direct, or coordinate human resources activities and staff of an organization. Excludes managers who primarily focus on compensation and benefits (11-3111) and training and development (11-3131).

        Illustrative examples: Job Analysis Manager , Labor Relations Director , Personnel Manager , Position Description Manager

    • 11-3130  Training and Development Managers
      • 11-3131  Training and Development Managers

        Plan, direct, or coordinate the training and development activities and staff of an organization.

        Illustrative examples: E-Learning Manager , Employee Development Director , Labor Training Manager

  • 11-9000  Other Management Occupations
    • 11-9010  Farmers, Ranchers, and Other Agricultural Managers
      • 11-9013  Farmers, Ranchers, and Other Agricultural Managers

        Plan, direct, or coordinate the management or operation of farms, ranches, greenhouses, aquacultural operations, nurseries, timber tracts, or other agricultural establishments. May hire, train, and supervise farm workers or contract for services to carry out the day-to-day activities of the managed operation. May engage in or supervise planting, cultivating, harvesting, and financial and marketing activities. Excludes "First-Line Supervisors of Farming, Fishing, and Forestry Workers" (45-1011).

        Illustrative examples: Animal Husbandry Manager , Dairy Farm Manager , Fish Hatchery Manager , Orchard Manager

    • 11-9020  Construction Managers
      • 11-9021  Construction Managers

        Plan, direct, or coordinate, usually through subordinate supervisory personnel, activities concerned with the construction and maintenance of structures, facilities, and systems. Participate in the conceptual development of a construction project and oversee its organization, scheduling, budgeting, and implementation. Includes managers in specialized construction fields, such as carpentry or plumbing.

        Illustrative examples: Construction Coordinator , Construction Superintendent , General Contractor

    • 11-9030  Education Administrators
      • 11-9031  Education Administrators, Preschool and Childcare Center/Program

        Plan, direct, or coordinate the academic and nonacademic activities of preschool and childcare centers or programs. Excludes "Preschool Teachers" (25-2011).

        Illustrative examples: Childcare Center Administrator , Head Start Director , Preschool Director

      • 11-9032  Education Administrators, Elementary and Secondary School

        Plan, direct, or coordinate the academic, administrative, or auxiliary activities of public or private elementary or secondary level schools.

        Illustrative examples: Elementary School Principal , High School Principal , Middle School Principal

      • 11-9033  Education Administrators, Postsecondary

        Plan, direct, or coordinate research, instructional, student administration and services, and other educational activities at postsecondary institutions, including universities, colleges, and junior and community colleges.

        Illustrative examples: Provost , University Administrator

      • 11-9039  Education Administrators, All Other

        All education administrators not listed separately.

    • 11-9040  Architectural and Engineering Managers
      • 11-9041  Architectural and Engineering Managers

        Plan, direct, or coordinate activities in such fields as architecture and engineering or research and development in these fields. Excludes "Natural Sciences Managers" (11-9121).

        Illustrative examples: Engineering Design Manager , Global Engineering Manager , Mechanical Engineering Director

    • 11-9050  Food Service Managers
      • 11-9051  Food Service Managers

        Plan, direct, or coordinate activities of an organization or department that serves food and beverages. Excludes "Chefs and Head Cooks" (35-1011).

        Illustrative examples: Banquet Director , Food Service Director , Tavern Operator

    • 11-9060  Funeral Service Managers
      • 11-9061  Funeral Service Managers

        Plan, direct, or coordinate the services or resources of funeral homes. Includes activities such as determining prices for services or merchandise and managing the facilities of funeral homes. Excludes "Morticians, Undertakers, and Funeral Directors" (39-4031).

        Illustrative examples: Funeral Home Director , Funeral Home Manager

    • 11-9070  Gaming Managers
      • 11-9071  Gaming Managers

        Plan, direct, or coordinate gaming operations in a casino. May formulate house rules.

        Illustrative examples: Casino Manager , Slot Operations Director , Table Games Manager

    • 11-9080  Lodging Managers
      • 11-9081  Lodging Managers

        Plan, direct, or coordinate activities of an organization or department that provides lodging and other accommodations. Excludes "Food Service Managers" (11-9051) in lodging establishments.

        Illustrative examples: Bed and Breakfast Innkeeper , Hotel Manager , Innkeeper

    • 11-9110  Medical and Health Services Managers
      • 11-9111  Medical and Health Services Managers

        Plan, direct, or coordinate medical and health services in hospitals, clinics, managed care organizations, public health agencies, or similar organizations.

        Illustrative examples: Clinic Director , Hospital Administrator , Medical Records Administrator , Mental Health Program Manager

    • 11-9120  Natural Sciences Managers
      • 11-9121  Natural Sciences Managers

        Plan, direct, or coordinate activities in such fields as life sciences, physical sciences, mathematics, statistics, and research and development in these fields. Excludes "Architecture and Engineering Managers" (11-9041) and "Computer and Information Systems Managers" (11-3021).

        Illustrative examples: Agricultural Research Director , Geophysical Manager , Ocean Program Administrator

    • 11-9130  Postmasters and Mail Superintendents
      • 11-9131  Postmasters and Mail Superintendents

        Plan, direct, or coordinate operational, administrative, management, and supportive services of a U.S. post office; or coordinate activities of workers engaged in postal and related work in assigned post office.

        Illustrative examples: Postal Supervisor , Postmaster

    • 11-9140  Property, Real Estate, and Community Association Managers
      • 11-9141  Property, Real Estate, and Community Association Managers

        Plan, direct, or coordinate the selling, buying, leasing, or governance activities of commercial, industrial, or residential real estate properties. Includes managers of homeowner and condominium associations, rented or leased housing units, buildings, or land (including rights-of-way).

        Illustrative examples: Apartment Manager , Building Rental Manager , Leasing Property Manager

    • 11-9150  Social and Community Service Managers
      • 11-9151  Social and Community Service Managers

        Plan, direct, or coordinate the activities of a social service program or community outreach organization. Oversee the program or organization's budget and policies regarding participant involvement, program requirements, and benefits. Work may involve directing social workers, counselors, or probation officers.

        Illustrative examples: Child Welfare Director , Family Service Center Director , Youth Program Director

    • 11-9160  Emergency Management Directors
      • 11-9161  Emergency Management Directors

        Plan and direct disaster response or crisis management activities, provide disaster preparedness training, and prepare emergency plans and procedures for natural (e.g., hurricanes, floods, earthquakes), wartime, or technological (e.g., nuclear power plant emergencies or hazardous materials spills) disasters or hostage situations.

        Illustrative examples: Disaster Response Director , Emergency Preparedness Coordinator , Public Safety Director

    • 11-9190  Miscellaneous Managers
      • 11-9199  Managers, All Other

        All managers not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Clerk of Court , Social Science Manager , Utilities Manager

13-0000 Business and Financial Operations Occupations

  • 13-1000  Business Operations Specialists
    • 13-1010  Agents and Business Managers of Artists, Performers, and Athletes
    • 13-1020  Buyers and Purchasing Agents
      • 13-1021  Buyers and Purchasing Agents, Farm Products

        Purchase farm products either for further processing or resale. Includes tree farm contractors, grain brokers and market operators, grain buyers, and tobacco buyers.

        Illustrative examples: Cotton Broker , Fruit Buyer , Livestock Buyer

      • 13-1022  Wholesale and Retail Buyers, Except Farm Products

        Buy merchandise or commodities, other than farm products, for resale to consumers at the wholesale or retail level, including both durable and nondurable goods. Analyze past buying trends, sales records, price, and quality of merchandise to determine value and yield. Select, order, and authorize payment for merchandise according to contractual agreements. May conduct meetings with sales personnel and introduce new products. Includes assistant wholesale and retail buyers of nonfarm products.

        Illustrative examples: Gold Buyer , Merchandise Buyer

      • 13-1023  Purchasing Agents, Except Wholesale, Retail, and Farm Products

        Purchase machinery, equipment, tools, parts, supplies, or services necessary for the operation of an establishment. Purchase raw or semi-finished materials for manufacturing. Excludes "Buyers and Purchasing Agents, Farm Products" (13-1021) and "Wholesale and Retail Buyers, Except Farm Products" (13-1022).

        Illustrative examples: Equipment, Supplies, and Tools Purchasing Agent , Radio Time Buyer

    • 13-1030  Claims Adjusters, Appraisers, Examiners, and Investigators
      • 13-1031  Claims Adjusters, Examiners, and Investigators

        Review settled claims to determine that payments and settlements are made in accordance with company practices and procedures. Confer with legal counsel on claims requiring litigation. May also settle insurance claims. Excludes "Fire Inspectors and Investigators" (33-2021).

        Illustrative examples: Fire Claims Adjuster , Health Insurance Adjuster , Property and Casualty Insurance Claims Examiner

      • 13-1032  Insurance Appraisers, Auto Damage

        Appraise automobile or other vehicle damage to determine repair costs for insurance claim settlement. Prepare insurance forms to indicate repair cost or cost estimates and recommendations. May seek agreement with automotive repair shop on repair costs.

        Illustrative examples: Automobile Damage Appraiser , Vehicle Damage Appraiser

    • 13-1040  Compliance Officers
      • 13-1041  Compliance Officers

        Examine, evaluate, and investigate eligibility for or conformity with laws and regulations governing contract compliance of licenses and permits, and perform other compliance and enforcement inspection and analysis activities not classified elsewhere. Excludes "Financial Examiners" (13-2061), "Tax Examiners and Collectors, and Revenue Agents" (13-2081), "Occupational Health and Safety Specialists" (29-9011), "Occupational Health and Safety Technicians" (29-9012), "Transportation Security Screeners" (33-9093), "Agricultural Inspectors" (45-2011), "Construction and Building Inspectors" (47-4011), and "Transportation Inspectors" (53-6051).

        Illustrative examples: Driver's License Examiner , Environmental Compliance Inspector , Equal Employment Opportunity Officer

    • 13-1050  Cost Estimators
      • 13-1051  Cost Estimators

        Prepare cost estimates for product manufacturing, construction projects, or services to aid management in bidding on or determining price of product or service. May specialize according to particular service performed or type of product manufactured.

        Illustrative examples: Construction Job Cost Estimator , Crating and Moving Estimator , Production Cost Estimator

    • 13-1070  Human Resources Workers
      • 13-1071  Human Resources Specialists

        Perform activities in the human resource area. Includes employment specialists who screen, recruit, interview, and place workers. Excludes "Compensation, Benefits, and Job Analysis Specialists" (13-1141) and "Training and Development Specialists" (13-1151).

        Illustrative examples: Human Resources Generalist , Personnel Recruiter , Staffing Coordinator

      • 13-1074  Farm Labor Contractors

        Recruit and hire seasonal or temporary agricultural laborers. May transport, house, and provide meals for workers.

        Illustrative examples: Harvesting Contractor

      • 13-1075  Labor Relations Specialists

        Resolve disputes between workers and managers, negotiate collective bargaining agreements, or coordinate grievance procedures to handle employee complaints. Excludes equal employment opportunity (EEO) officers who are included in "Compliance Officers" (13-1041).

        Illustrative examples: Employee Relations Specialist , Labor Relations Consultant , Union Representative

    • 13-1080  Logisticians
      • 13-1081  Logisticians

        Analyze and coordinate the logistical functions of a firm or organization. Responsible for the entire life cycle of a product, including acquisition, distribution, internal allocation, delivery, and final disposal of resources. Excludes "Transportation, Storage, and Distribution Managers" (11-3071).

        Illustrative examples: Logistics Analyst , Logistics Planner , Logistics Specialist

    • 13-1110  Management Analysts
      • 13-1111  Management Analysts

        Conduct organizational studies and evaluations, design systems and procedures, conduct work simplification and measurement studies, and prepare operations and procedures manuals to assist management in operating more efficiently and effectively. Includes program analysts and management consultants. Excludes "Computer Systems Analysts" (15-1121) and "Operations Research Analysts" (15-2031).

        Illustrative examples: Business Management Analyst , Business Process Consultant , Industrial Analyst

    • 13-1120  Meeting, Convention, and Event Planners
      • 13-1121  Meeting, Convention, and Event Planners

        Coordinate activities of staff, convention personnel, or clients to make arrangements for group meetings, events, or conventions.

        Illustrative examples: Conference Planner , Corporate Meeting Planner , Wedding Planner

    • 13-1130  Fundraisers
      • 13-1131  Fundraisers

        Organize activities to raise funds or otherwise solicit and gather monetary donations or other gifts for an organization. May design and produce promotional materials. May also raise awareness of the organization's work, goals, and financial needs.

        Illustrative examples: Campaign Fundraiser , Donor Relations Officer , Fundraising Officer

    • 13-1140  Compensation, Benefits, and Job Analysis Specialists
      • 13-1141  Compensation, Benefits, and Job Analysis Specialists

        Conduct programs of compensation and benefits and job analysis for employer. May specialize in specific areas, such as position classification and pension programs.

        Illustrative examples: Employee Benefits Specialist , Job Analyst , Retirement Plan Specialist

    • 13-1150  Training and Development Specialists
      • 13-1151  Training and Development Specialists

        Design and conduct training and development programs to improve individual and organizational performance. May analyze training needs.

        Illustrative examples: Computer Training Specialist , Corporate Trainer , Workforce Development Specialist

    • 13-1160  Market Research Analysts and Marketing Specialists
      • 13-1161  Market Research Analysts and Marketing Specialists

        Research market conditions in local, regional, or national areas, or gather information to determine potential sales of a product or service, or create a marketing campaign. May gather information on competitors, prices, sales, and methods of marketing and distribution.

        Illustrative examples: Market Research Specialist , Marketing Consultant , Marketing Forecaster

    • 13-1190  Miscellaneous Business Operations Specialists
  • 13-2000  Financial Specialists
    • 13-2010  Accountants and Auditors
      • 13-2011  Accountants and Auditors

        Examine, analyze, and interpret accounting records to prepare financial statements, give advice, or audit and evaluate statements prepared by others. Install or advise on systems of recording costs or other financial and budgetary data. Excludes "Tax Examiners and Collectors, and Revenue Agents" (13-2081).

        Illustrative examples: Certified Public Accountant , Field Auditor , Internal Auditor

    • 13-2020  Appraisers and Assessors of Real Estate
      • 13-2021  Appraisers and Assessors of Real Estate

        Appraise real property and estimate its fair value. May assess taxes in accordance with prescribed schedules.

        Illustrative examples: Land Appraiser , Property Appraiser , Tax Assessor

    • 13-2030  Budget Analysts
      • 13-2031  Budget Analysts

        Examine budget estimates for completeness, accuracy, and conformance with procedures and regulations. Analyze budgeting and accounting reports.

        Illustrative examples: Budget Examiner , Budget Officer , Cost Analyst

    • 13-2040  Credit Analysts
      • 13-2041  Credit Analysts

        Analyze credit data and financial statements of individuals or firms to determine the degree of risk involved in extending credit or lending money. Prepare reports with credit information for use in decision making.

        Illustrative examples: Credit Assessment Analyst , Credit Risk Analyst

    • 13-2050  Financial Analysts and Advisors
      • 13-2051  Financial Analysts

        Conduct quantitative analyses of information affecting investment programs of public or private institutions.

        Illustrative examples: Corporate Financial Analyst , Corporate Securities Research Analyst , Institutional Commodity Analyst

      • 13-2052  Personal Financial Advisors

        Advise clients on financial plans using knowledge of tax and investment strategies, securities, insurance, pension plans, and real estate. Duties include assessing clients' assets, liabilities, cash flow, insurance coverage, tax status, and financial objectives.

        Illustrative examples: Estate Planner , Individual Pension Adviser , Personal Investment Adviser

      • 13-2053  Insurance Underwriters

        Review individual applications for insurance to evaluate degree of risk involved and determine acceptance of applications.

        Illustrative examples: Automobile and Property Underwriter , Bond Underwriter , Insurance Analyst

    • 13-2060  Financial Examiners
      • 13-2061  Financial Examiners

        Enforce or ensure compliance with laws and regulations governing financial and securities institutions and financial and real estate transactions. May examine, verify, or authenticate records.

        Illustrative examples: Bank Examiner , Financial Compliance Examiner , Home Mortgage Disclosure Act Specialist

    • 13-2070  Credit Counselors and Loan Officers
      • 13-2071  Credit Counselors

        Advise and educate individuals or organizations on acquiring and managing debt. May provide guidance in determining the best type of loan and explaining loan requirements or restrictions. May help develop debt management plans, advise on credit issues, or provide budget, mortgage, and bankruptcy counseling.

        Illustrative examples: Debt Management Counselor , Financial Assistance Advisor , Loan Counselor

      • 13-2072  Loan Officers

        Evaluate, authorize, or recommend approval of commercial, real estate, or credit loans. Advise borrowers on financial status and payment methods. Includes mortgage loan officers and agents, collection analysts, loan servicing officers, and loan underwriters.

        Illustrative examples: Commercial Lender , Loan Reviewer , Real Estate Loan Officer

    • 13-2080  Tax Examiners, Collectors and Preparers, and Revenue Agents
      • 13-2081  Tax Examiners and Collectors, and Revenue Agents

        Determine tax liability or collect taxes from individuals or business firms according to prescribed laws and regulations.

        Illustrative examples: Internal Revenue Service Agent , Revenue Collector , Tax Investigator

      • 13-2082  Tax Preparers

        Prepare tax returns for individuals or small businesses. Excludes "Accountants and Auditors" (13-2011).

        Illustrative examples: Income Tax Advisor , Income Tax Preparer , Licensed Tax Consultant

    • 13-2090  Miscellaneous Financial Specialists

15-0000 Computer and Mathematical Occupations

  • 15-1100  Computer Occupations
    • 15-1110  Computer and Information Research Scientists
      • 15-1111  Computer and Information Research Scientists

        Conduct research into fundamental computer and information science as theorists, designers, or inventors. Develop solutions to problems in the field of computer hardware and software.

        Illustrative examples: Computational Theory Scientist , Control System Computer Scientist , Programming Methodology and Languages Researcher

    • 15-1120  Computer and Information Analysts
      • 15-1121  Computer Systems Analysts

        Analyze science, engineering, business, and other data processing problems to implement and improve computer systems. Analyze user requirements, procedures, and problems to automate or improve existing systems and review computer system capabilities, workflow, and scheduling limitations. May analyze or recommend commercially available software.

        Illustrative examples: Applications Analyst , Data Processing Systems Analyst , Information Systems Analyst , Systems Architect

      • 15-1122  Information Security Analysts

        Plan, implement, upgrade, or monitor security measures for the protection of computer networks and information. May ensure appropriate security controls are in place that will safeguard digital files and vital electronic infrastructure. May respond to computer security breaches and viruses. Excludes "Computer Network Architects" (15-1143).

        Illustrative examples: Computer Security Specialist , Internet Security Specialist , Network Security Analyst

    • 15-1130  Software Developers and Programmers
      • 15-1131  Computer Programmers

        Create, modify, and test the code, forms, and script that allow computer applications to run. Work from specifications drawn up by software developers or other individuals. May assist software developers by analyzing user needs and designing software solutions. May develop and write computer programs to store, locate, and retrieve specific documents, data, and information.

        Illustrative examples: Applications Programmer , Computer Language Coder , Systems Programmer

      • 15-1132  Software Developers, Applications

        Develop, create, and modify general computer applications software or specialized utility programs. Analyze user needs and develop software solutions. Design software or customize software for client use with the aim of optimizing operational efficiency. May analyze and design databases within an application area, working individually or coordinating database development as part of a team. May supervise computer programmers.

        Illustrative examples: Computer Applications Engineer , Database Developer , Software Applications Architect , Software Applications Engineer

      • 15-1133  Software Developers, Systems Software

        Research, design, develop, and test operating systems-level software, compilers, and network distribution software for medical, industrial, military, communications, aerospace, business, scientific, and general computing applications. Set operational specifications and formulate and analyze software requirements. May design embedded systems software. Apply principles and techniques of computer science, engineering, and mathematical analysis.

        Illustrative examples: Computer Systems Software Architect , Embedded Systems Software Developer , Software Systems Engineer

      • 15-1134  Web Developers

        Design, create, and modify Web sites. Analyze user needs to implement Web site content, graphics, performance, and capacity. May integrate Web sites with other computer applications. May convert written, graphic, audio, and video components to compatible Web formats by using software designed to facilitate the creation of Web and multimedia content. Excludes "Multimedia Artists and Animators" (27-1014).

        Illustrative examples: Internet Developer , Intranet Developer , Web Designer

    • 15-1140  Database and Systems Administrators and Network Architects
      • 15-1141  Database Administrators

        Administer, test, and implement computer databases, applying knowledge of database management systems. Coordinate changes to computer databases. May plan, coordinate, and implement security measures to safeguard computer databases. Excludes "Information Security Analysts" (15-1122).

        Illustrative examples: Database Management System Specialist , Database Security Administrator

      • 15-1142  Network and Computer Systems Administrators

        Install, configure, and support an organization's local area network (LAN), wide area network (WAN), and Internet systems or a segment of a network system. Monitor network to ensure network availability to all system users and may perform necessary maintenance to support network availability. May monitor and test Web site performance to ensure Web sites operate correctly and without interruption. May assist in network modeling, analysis, planning, and coordination between network and data communications hardware and software. May supervise computer user support specialists and computer network support specialists. May administer network security measures. Excludes "Information Security Analysts"(15-1122), "Computer User Support Specialists" (15-1151), and "Computer Network Support Specialists" (15-1152).

        Illustrative examples: Network Coordinator , Network Security Administrator , Wide Area Network Administrator

      • 15-1143  Computer Network Architects

        Design and implement computer and information networks, such as local area networks (LAN), wide area networks (WAN), intranets, extranets, and other data communications networks. Perform network modeling, analysis, and planning. May also design network and computer security measures. May research and recommend network and data communications hardware and software. Excludes "Information Security Analysts" (15-1122), "Network and Computer Systems Administrators" (15-1142), and "Computer Network Support Specialists" (15-1152).

        Illustrative examples: Computer Network Engineer , Network Designer , Network Developer

    • 15-1150  Computer Support Specialists
      • 15-1151  Computer User Support Specialists

        Provide technical assistance to computer users. Answer questions or resolve computer problems for clients in person, or via telephone or electronically. May provide assistance concerning the use of computer hardware and software, including printing, installation, word processing, electronic mail, and operating systems. Excludes "Network and Computer Systems Administrators" (15-1142).

        Illustrative examples: Desktop Support Specialist , End-User Support Specialist , Help Desk Technician

      • 15-1152  Computer Network Support Specialists

        Analyze, test, troubleshoot, and evaluate existing network systems, such as local area network (LAN), wide area network (WAN), and Internet systems or a segment of a network system. Perform network maintenance to ensure networks operate correctly with minimal interruption. Excludes "Network and Computer Systems Administrators" (15-1142) and "Computer Network Architects" (15-1143).

        Illustrative examples: Network Diagnostic Support Specialist , Network Support Technician , Network Technician

    • 15-1190  Miscellaneous Computer Occupations
      • 15-1199  Computer Occupations, All Other

        All computer occupations not listed separately. Excludes "Computer and Information Systems Managers" (11-3021), "Computer Hardware Engineers" (17-2061), "Electrical and Electronics Engineers" (17-2070), "Computer Science Teachers, Postsecondary" (25-1021), "Multimedia Artists and Animators" (27-1014), "Graphic Designers" (27-1024), "Computer Operators" (43-9011), and "Computer, Automated Teller, and Office Machine Repairs" (49-2011).

        Illustrative examples: Computer Laboratory Technician

  • 15-2000  Mathematical Science Occupations
    • 15-2010  Actuaries
      • 15-2011  Actuaries

        Analyze statistical data, such as mortality, accident, sickness, disability, and retirement rates and construct probability tables to forecast risk and liability for payment of future benefits. May ascertain insurance rates required and cash reserves necessary to ensure payment of future benefits.

        Illustrative examples: Actuarial Mathematician , Health Actuary , Insurance Actuary

    • 15-2020  Mathematicians
      • 15-2021  Mathematicians

        Conduct research in fundamental mathematics or in application of mathematical techniques to science, management, and other fields. Solve problems in various fields using mathematical methods.

        Illustrative examples: Algebraist , Cryptographer , Cryptographic Vulnerability Analyst

    • 15-2030  Operations Research Analysts
      • 15-2031  Operations Research Analysts

        Formulate and apply mathematical modeling and other optimizing methods to develop and interpret information that assists management with decision making, policy formulation, or other managerial functions. May collect and analyze data and develop decision support software, service, or products. May develop and supply optimal time, cost, or logistics networks for program evaluation, review, or implementation.

        Illustrative examples: Operations Analyst , Procedure Analyst , Process Analyst

    • 15-2040  Statisticians
      • 15-2041  Statisticians

        Develop or apply mathematical or statistical theory and methods to collect, organize, interpret, and summarize numerical data to provide usable information. May specialize in fields such as bio-statistics, agricultural statistics, business statistics, or economic statistics. Includes mathematical and survey statisticians. Excludes "Survey Researchers" (19-3022).

        Illustrative examples: Biostatistician , Statistical Analyst , Time Study Statistician

    • 15-2090  Miscellaneous Mathematical Science Occupations
      • 15-2091  Mathematical Technicians

        Apply standardized mathematical formulas, principles, and methodology to technological problems in engineering and physical sciences in relation to specific industrial and research objectives, processes, equipment, and products.

        Illustrative examples: Mathematical Engineering Technician

      • 15-2099  Mathematical Science Occupations, All Other

        All mathematical scientists not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Harmonic Analyst

17-0000 Architecture and Engineering Occupations

  • 17-1000  Architects, Surveyors, and Cartographers
    • 17-1010  Architects, Except Naval
      • 17-1011  Architects, Except Landscape and Naval

        Plan and design structures, such as private residences, office buildings, theaters, factories, and other structural property. Excludes "Landscape Architects" (17-1012) and "Marine Engineers and Naval Architects" (17-2121).

        Illustrative examples: Building Architect , Building Architectural Designer , Structural Architect

      • 17-1012  Landscape Architects

        Plan and design land areas for projects such as parks and other recreational facilities, airports, highways, hospitals, schools, land subdivisions, and commercial, industrial, and residential sites.

        Illustrative examples: Golf Course Architect , Golf Course Designer , Landscape Designer

    • 17-1020  Surveyors, Cartographers, and Photogrammetrists
      • 17-1021  Cartographers and Photogrammetrists

        Collect, analyze, and interpret geographic information provided by geodetic surveys, aerial photographs, and satellite data. Research, study, and prepare maps and other spatial data in digital or graphic form for legal, social, political, educational, and design purposes. May work with Geographic Information Systems (GIS). May design and evaluate algorithms, data structures, and user interfaces for GIS and mapping systems.

        Illustrative examples: Digital Cartographer , Mapper , Topographer

      • 17-1022  Surveyors

        Make exact measurements and determine property boundaries. Provide data relevant to the shape, contour, gravitation, location, elevation, or dimension of land or land features on or near the earth's surface for engineering, mapmaking, mining, land evaluation, construction, and other purposes.

        Illustrative examples: Geodetic Surveyor , Land Surveyor , Mineral Surveyor

  • 17-2000  Engineers
    • 17-2010  Aerospace Engineers
      • 17-2011  Aerospace Engineers

        Perform engineering duties in designing, constructing, and testing aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft. May conduct basic and applied research to evaluate adaptability of materials and equipment to aircraft design and manufacture. May recommend improvements in testing equipment and techniques.

        Illustrative examples: Aeronautical Engineer , Aircraft Design Engineer , Flight Test Engineer

    • 17-2020  Agricultural Engineers
      • 17-2021  Agricultural Engineers

        Apply knowledge of engineering technology and biological science to agricultural problems concerned with power and machinery, electrification, structures, soil and water conservation, and processing of agricultural products.

        Illustrative examples: Agricultural Production Engineer , Agricultural Research Engineer , Farm Equipment Engineer

    • 17-2030  Biomedical Engineers
      • 17-2031  Biomedical Engineers

        Apply knowledge of engineering, biology, and biomechanical principles to the design, development, and evaluation of biological and health systems and products, such as artificial organs, prostheses, instrumentation, medical information systems, and heath management and care delivery systems.

        Illustrative examples: Biomaterials Engineer , Bio-Mechanical Engineer , Dialysis Engineer

    • 17-2040  Chemical Engineers
      • 17-2041  Chemical Engineers

        Design chemical plant equipment and devise processes for manufacturing chemicals and products, such as gasoline, synthetic rubber, plastics, detergents, cement, paper, and pulp, by applying principles and technology of chemistry, physics, and engineering.

        Illustrative examples: Fuels Engineer , Plastics Engineer , Polymerization Engineer

    • 17-2050  Civil Engineers
      • 17-2051  Civil Engineers

        Perform engineering duties in planning, designing, and overseeing construction and maintenance of building structures, and facilities, such as roads, railroads, airports, bridges, harbors, channels, dams, irrigation projects, pipelines, power plants, and water and sewage systems. Includes architectural, structural, traffic, ocean, and geo-technical engineers. Excludes "Hydrologists" (19-2043).

        Illustrative examples: Bridge Engineer , Construction Engineer , Highway Engineer

    • 17-2060  Computer Hardware Engineers
      • 17-2061  Computer Hardware Engineers

        Research, design, develop, or test computer or computer-related equipment for commercial, industrial, military, or scientific use. May supervise the manufacturing and installation of computer or computer-related equipment and components. Excludes "Software Developers, Applications" (15-1132) and "Software Developers, Systems Software (15-1133).

        Illustrative examples: Computer Hardware Designer , Computer Hardware Developer

    • 17-2070  Electrical and Electronics Engineers
      • 17-2071  Electrical Engineers

        Research, design, develop, test, or supervise the manufacturing and installation of electrical equipment, components, or systems for commercial, industrial, military, or scientific use. Excludes "Computer Hardware Engineers" (17-2061).

        Illustrative examples: Electrical Systems Engineer , Illuminating Engineer , Power Distribution Engineer

      • 17-2072  Electronics Engineers, Except Computer

        Research, design, develop, or test electronic components and systems for commercial, industrial, military, or scientific use employing knowledge of electronic theory and materials properties. Design electronic circuits and components for use in fields such as telecommunications, aerospace guidance and propulsion control, acoustics, or instruments and controls. Excludes "Computer Hardware Engineers" (17-2061).

        Illustrative examples: Circuit Design Engineer , Electronic Design Automation Engineer , Telecommunication Engineer

    • 17-2080  Environmental Engineers
      • 17-2081  Environmental Engineers

        Research, design, plan, or perform engineering duties in the prevention, control, and remediation of environmental hazards using various engineering disciplines. Work may include waste treatment, site remediation, or pollution control technology.

        Illustrative examples: Environmental Remediation Engineer , Pollution Control Engineer , Soil Engineer , Water Treatment Plant Engineer

    • 17-2110  Industrial Engineers, Including Health and Safety
      • 17-2111  Health and Safety Engineers, Except Mining Safety Engineers and Inspectors

        Promote worksite or product safety by applying knowledge of industrial processes, mechanics, chemistry, psychology, and industrial health and safety laws. Includes industrial product safety engineers.

        Illustrative examples: Fire Protection Engineer , Industrial Safety Engineer , Product Safety Engineer

      • 17-2112  Industrial Engineers

        Design, develop, test, and evaluate integrated systems for managing industrial production processes, including human work factors, quality control, inventory control, logistics and material flow, cost analysis, and production coordination. Excludes "Health and Safety Engineers, Except Mining Safety Engineers and Inspectors" (17-2111).

        Illustrative examples: Efficiency Engineer , Manufacturing Engineer , Packaging Engineer , Production Engineer

    • 17-2120  Marine Engineers and Naval Architects
      • 17-2121  Marine Engineers and Naval Architects

        Design, develop, and evaluate the operation of marine vessels, ship machinery, and related equipment, such as power supply and propulsion systems.

        Illustrative examples: Marine Architect , Marine Structural Designer , Naval Engineer

    • 17-2130  Materials Engineers
      • 17-2131  Materials Engineers

        Evaluate materials and develop machinery and processes to manufacture materials for use in products that must meet specialized design and performance specifications. Develop new uses for known materials. Includes those engineers working with composite materials or specializing in one type of material, such as graphite, metal and metal alloys, ceramics and glass, plastics and polymers, and naturally occurring materials. Includes metallurgists and metallurgical engineers, ceramic engineers, and welding engineers.

        Illustrative examples: Automotive Sheet Metal Engineer , Forensic Materials Engineer , Metallographer

    • 17-2140  Mechanical Engineers
      • 17-2141  Mechanical Engineers

        Perform engineering duties in planning and designing tools, engines, machines, and other mechanically functioning equipment. Oversee installation, operation, maintenance, and repair of equipment such as centralized heat, gas, water, and steam systems.

        Illustrative examples: Combustion Engineer , Engine Designer , Heating and Cooling Systems Engineer , Tool and Die Engineer

    • 17-2150  Mining and Geological Engineers, Including Mining Safety Engineers
      • 17-2151  Mining and Geological Engineers, Including Mining Safety Engineers

        Conduct sub-surface surveys to identify the characteristics of potential land or mining development sites. May specify the ground support systems, processes and equipment for safe, economical, and environmentally sound extraction or underground construction activities. May inspect areas for unsafe geological conditions, equipment, and working conditions. May design, implement, and coordinate mine safety programs. Excludes "Petroleum Engineers" (17-2171).

        Illustrative examples: Geophysical Engineer , Mineral Engineer , Seismic Engineer

    • 17-2160  Nuclear Engineers
      • 17-2161  Nuclear Engineers

        Conduct research on nuclear engineering projects or apply principles and theory of nuclear science to problems concerned with release, control, and use of nuclear energy and nuclear waste disposal.

        Illustrative examples: Atomic Process Engineer , Nuclear Radiation Engineer , Radiation Engineer , Reactor Engineer

    • 17-2170  Petroleum Engineers
      • 17-2171  Petroleum Engineers

        Devise methods to improve oil and gas extraction and production and determine the need for new or modified tool designs. Oversee drilling and offer technical advice.

        Illustrative examples: Natural Gas Engineer , Oil Drilling Engineer , Oil Exploration Engineer

    • 17-2190  Miscellaneous Engineers
      • 17-2199  Engineers, All Other

        All engineers not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Optical Engineer , Ordnance Engineer , Photonics Engineer , Salvage Engineer

  • 17-3000  Drafters, Engineering Technicians, and Mapping Technicians
    • 17-3010  Drafters
      • 17-3011  Architectural and Civil Drafters

        Prepare detailed drawings of architectural and structural features of buildings or drawings and topographical relief maps used in civil engineering projects, such as highways, bridges, and public works. Use knowledge of building materials, engineering practices, and mathematics to complete drawings.

        Illustrative examples: Building Drafter , Civil Computer-Aided Design and Drafting Technician , Structural Drafter

      • 17-3012  Electrical and Electronics Drafters

        Prepare wiring diagrams, circuit board assembly diagrams, and layout drawings used for the manufacture, installation, or repair of electrical equipment.

        Illustrative examples: Electrical Computer Aided Design and Drafting Technician , Electrical Systems Drafter , Printed Circuit Board Drafter

      • 17-3013  Mechanical Drafters

        Prepare detailed working diagrams of machinery and mechanical devices, including dimensions, fastening methods, and other engineering information.

        Illustrative examples: Aeronautical Drafter , Automotive Design Drafter , Tool and Die Designer

      • 17-3019  Drafters, All Other

        All drafters not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Blueprint Tracer , Geological Drafter , Marine Drafter

    • 17-3020  Engineering Technicians, Except Drafters
      • 17-3021  Aerospace Engineering and Operations Technicians

        Operate, install, calibrate, and maintain integrated computer/communications systems, consoles, simulators, and other data acquisition, test, and measurement instruments and equipment, which are used to launch, track, position, and evaluate air and space vehicles. May record and interpret test data.

        Illustrative examples: Altitude Chamber Technician , Flight Data Technician , Wind Tunnel Technician

      • 17-3022  Civil Engineering Technicians

        Apply theory and principles of civil engineering in planning, designing, and overseeing construction and maintenance of structures and facilities under the direction of engineering staff or physical scientists.

        Illustrative examples: Geotechnical Engineering Technician , Highway Engineering Technician , Structural Engineering Technician

      • 17-3023  Electrical and Electronics Engineering Technicians

        Apply electrical and electronic theory and related knowledge, usually under the direction of engineering staff, to design, build, repair, calibrate, and modify electrical components, circuitry, controls, and machinery for subsequent evaluation and use by engineering staff in making engineering design decisions. Excludes "Broadcast Technicians" (27-4012).

        Illustrative examples: Electrical Design Technician , Lighting Engineering Technician , Semiconductor Development Technician

      • 17-3024  Electro-Mechanical Technicians

        Operate, test, maintain, or calibrate unmanned, automated, servo-mechanical, or electromechanical equipment. May operate unmanned submarines, aircraft, or other equipment at worksites, such as oil rigs, deep ocean exploration, or hazardous waste removal. May assist engineers in testing and designing robotics equipment.

        Illustrative examples: Remotely Piloted Vehicle Engineering Technician , Robotics Testing Technician

      • 17-3025  Environmental Engineering Technicians

        Apply theory and principles of environmental engineering to modify, test, and operate equipment and devices used in the prevention, control, and remediation of environmental problems, including waste treatment and site remediation, under the direction of engineering staff or scientist. May assist in the development of environmental remediation devices.

        Illustrative examples: Air Analysis Engineering Technician , Environmental Remediation Engineering Technician , Pollution Control Engineering Technician

      • 17-3026  Industrial Engineering Technicians

        Apply engineering theory and principles to problems of industrial layout or manufacturing production, usually under the direction of engineering staff. May perform time and motion studies on worker operations in a variety of industries for purposes such as establishing standard production rates or improving efficiency.

        Illustrative examples: Motion Study Technician , Production Control Technologist , Time Study Technician

      • 17-3027  Mechanical Engineering Technicians

        Apply theory and principles of mechanical engineering to modify, develop, test, or calibrate machinery and equipment under direction of engineering staff or physical scientists.

        Illustrative examples: Gyroscopic Engineering Technician , Heat Transfer Technician , Optomechanical Technician

      • 17-3029  Engineering Technicians, Except Drafters, All Other

        All engineering technicians, except drafters, not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Agricultural Engineering Technicians , Biomedical Engineering Technician , Metallurgical Engineering Technician , Optical Engineering Technician

    • 17-3030  Surveying and Mapping Technicians
      • 17-3031  Surveying and Mapping Technicians

        Perform surveying and mapping duties, usually under the direction of an engineer, surveyor, cartographer, or photogrammetrist to obtain data used for construction, mapmaking, boundary location, mining, or other purposes. May calculate mapmaking information and create maps from source data, such as surveying notes, aerial photography, satellite data, or other maps to show topographical features, political boundaries, and other features. May verify accuracy and completeness of maps. Excludes "Surveyors" (17-1022), "Cartographers and Photogrammetrists" (17-1021), and "Geoscientists, Except Hydrologists and Geographers" (19-2042).

        Illustrative examples: Cartographic Technician , Field Map Technician , GIS Mapping Technician

19-0000 Life, Physical, and Social Science Occupations

  • 19-1000  Life Scientists
    • 19-1010  Agricultural and Food Scientists
      • 19-1011  Animal Scientists

        Conduct research in the genetics, nutrition, reproduction, growth, and development of domestic farm animals.

        Illustrative examples: Animal Nutritionist , Dairy Scientist , Poultry Scientist

      • 19-1012  Food Scientists and Technologists

        Use chemistry, microbiology, engineering, and other sciences to study the principles underlying the processing and deterioration of foods; analyze food content to determine levels of vitamins, fat, sugar, and protein; discover new food sources; research ways to make processed foods safe, palatable, and healthful; and apply food science knowledge to determine best ways to process, package, preserve, store, and distribute food.

        Illustrative examples: Dairy Bacteriologist , Enologist , Food Safety Scientist

      • 19-1013  Soil and Plant Scientists

        Conduct research in breeding, physiology, production, yield, and management of crops and agricultural plants or trees, shrubs, and nursery stock, their growth in soils, and control of pests; or study the chemical, physical, biological, and mineralogical composition of soils as they relate to plant or crop growth. May classify and map soils and investigate effects of alternative practices on soil and crop productivity.

        Illustrative examples: Arboreal Scientist , Horticulturist , Plant Physiologist

    • 19-1020  Biological Scientists
      • 19-1021  Biochemists and Biophysicists

        Study the chemical composition or physical principles of living cells and organisms, their electrical and mechanical energy, and related phenomena. May conduct research to further understanding of the complex chemical combinations and reactions involved in metabolism, reproduction, growth, and heredity. May determine the effects of foods, drugs, serums, hormones, and other substances on tissues and vital processes of living organisms.

        Illustrative examples: Biological Chemist , Clinical Biochemist , Physical Biochemist

      • 19-1022  Microbiologists

        Investigate the growth, structure, development, and other characteristics of microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, algae, or fungi. Includes medical microbiologists who study the relationship between organisms and disease or the effects of antibiotics on microorganisms.

        Illustrative examples: Bacteriologist , Public Health Microbiologist , Virologist

      • 19-1023  Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists

        Study the origins, behavior, diseases, genetics, and life processes of animals and wildlife. May specialize in wildlife research and management. May collect and analyze biological data to determine the environmental effects of present and potential use of land and water habitats.

        Illustrative examples: Herpetologist , Ichthyologist , Marine Biologist , Ornithologist

      • 19-1029  Biological Scientists, All Other

        All biological scientists not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Embryologist , Osteologist , Paleobotanist

    • 19-1030  Conservation Scientists and Foresters
      • 19-1031  Conservation Scientists

        Manage, improve, and protect natural resources to maximize their use without damaging the environment. May conduct soil surveys and develop plans to eliminate soil erosion or to protect rangelands. May instruct farmers, agricultural production managers, or ranchers in best ways to use crop rotation, contour plowing, or terracing to conserve soil and water; in the number and kind of livestock and forage plants best suited to particular ranges; and in range and farm improvements, such as fencing and reservoirs for stock watering. Excludes "Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists" (19-1023) and "Foresters" (19-1032).

        Illustrative examples: Grassland Conservationist , Range Ecologist , Soil Conservationist

      • 19-1032  Foresters

        Manage public and private forested lands for economic, recreational, and conservation purposes. May inventory the type, amount, and location of standing timber, appraise the timber's worth, negotiate the purchase, and draw up contracts for procurement. May determine how to conserve wildlife habitats, creek beds, water quality, and soil stability, and how best to comply with environmental regulations. May devise plans for planting and growing new trees, monitor trees for healthy growth, and determine optimal harvesting schedules.

        Illustrative examples: Environmental Protection Forester , Forest Ecologist , Timber Management Specialist

    • 19-1040  Medical Scientists
      • 19-1041  Epidemiologists

        Investigate and describe the determinants and distribution of disease, disability, or health outcomes. May develop the means for prevention and control.

        Illustrative examples: Epidemiology Investigator , Malariologist , Pharmacoepidemiologist

      • 19-1042  Medical Scientists, Except Epidemiologists

        Conduct research dealing with the understanding of human diseases and the improvement of human health. Engage in clinical investigation, research and development, or other related activities. Includes physicians, dentists, public health specialists, pharmacologists, and medical pathologists who primarily conduct research. Practitioners who primarily provide medical or dental care or dispense drugs are included in "Health Diagnosing and Treating Practitioners" (29-1000).

        Illustrative examples: Cancer Researcher , Immunochemist , Toxicologist

    • 19-1090  Miscellaneous Life Scientists
  • 19-2000  Physical Scientists
    • 19-2010  Astronomers and Physicists
      • 19-2011  Astronomers

        Observe, research, and interpret astronomical phenomena to increase basic knowledge or apply such information to practical problems.

        Illustrative examples: Astrophysicist

      • 19-2012  Physicists

        Conduct research into physical phenomena, develop theories on the basis of observation and experiments, and devise methods to apply physical laws and theories. Excludes "Biochemists and Biophysicists" (19-1021).

        Illustrative examples: Fluid Dynamicist , Molecular Physicist , Optical Scientist , Rheologist

    • 19-2020  Atmospheric and Space Scientists
      • 19-2021  Atmospheric and Space Scientists

        Investigate atmospheric phenomena and interpret meteorological data, gathered by surface and air stations, satellites, and radar to prepare reports and forecasts for public and other uses. Includes weather analysts and forecasters whose functions require the detailed knowledge of meteorology.

        Illustrative examples: Atmospheric Chemist , Climatologist , Hurricane Tracker , Meteorologist

    • 19-2030  Chemists and Materials Scientists
      • 19-2031  Chemists

        Conduct qualitative and quantitative chemical analyses or experiments in laboratories for quality or process control or to develop new products or knowledge. Excludes "Geoscientists, Except Hydrologists and Geographers" (19-2042) and "Biochemists and Biophysicists" (19-1021).

        Illustrative examples: Food Chemist , Industrial Chemist , Inorganic Chemist , Research and Development Chemist

      • 19-2032  Materials Scientists

        Research and study the structures and chemical properties of various natural and synthetic or composite materials, including metals, alloys, rubber, ceramics, semiconductors, polymers, and glass. Determine ways to strengthen or combine materials or develop new materials with new or specific properties for use in a variety of products and applications. Includes glass scientists, ceramic scientists, metallurgical scientists, and polymer scientists.

        Illustrative examples: Metal Alloy Scientist , Plastics Scientist

    • 19-2040  Environmental Scientists and Geoscientists
      • 19-2041  Environmental Scientists and Specialists, Including Health

        Conduct research or perform investigation for the purpose of identifying, abating, or eliminating sources of pollutants or hazards that affect either the environment or the health of the population. Using knowledge of various scientific disciplines, may collect, synthesize, study, report, and recommend action based on data derived from measurements or observations of air, food, soil, water, and other sources. Excludes "Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists" (19-1023), "Conservation Scientists" (19-1031), "Forest and Conservation Technicians" (19-4093), "Fish and Game Wardens" (33-3031), and "Forest and Conservation Workers" (45-4011).

        Illustrative examples: Hazardous Substances Scientist , Health Environmentalist , Water Pollution Scientist

      • 19-2042  Geoscientists, Except Hydrologists and Geographers

        Study the composition, structure, and other physical aspects of the Earth. May use geological, physics, and mathematics knowledge in exploration for oil, gas, minerals, or underground water; or in waste disposal, land reclamation, or other environmental problems. May study the Earth's internal composition, atmospheres, oceans, and its magnetic, electrical, and gravitational forces. Includes mineralogists, crystallographers, paleontologists, stratigraphers, geodesists, and seismologists.

        Illustrative examples: Geochemist , Oceanographer , Petrologist , Volcanologist

      • 19-2043  Hydrologists

        Research the distribution, circulation, and physical properties of underground and surface waters; and study the form and intensity of precipitation, its rate of infiltration into the soil, movement through the earth, and its return to the ocean and atmosphere.

        Illustrative examples: Hydrogeologist , Isotope Hydrologist , Surface Hydrologist

    • 19-2090  Miscellaneous Physical Scientists
  • 19-3000  Social Scientists and Related Workers
    • 19-3010  Economists
      • 19-3011  Economists

        Conduct research, prepare reports, or formulate plans to address economic problems related to the production and distribution of goods and services or monetary and fiscal policy. May collect and process economic and statistical data using sampling techniques and econometric methods. Excludes "Market Research Analysts and Marketing Specialists" (13-1161).

        Illustrative examples: Econometrician , Economic Research Analyst , Environmental Economist , Industrial Economist

    • 19-3020  Survey Researchers
      • 19-3022  Survey Researchers

        Plan, develop, or conduct surveys. May analyze and interpret the meaning of survey data, determine survey objectives, or suggest or test question wording. Includes social scientists who primarily design questionnaires or supervise survey teams. Excludes "Market Research Analysts and Marketing Specialists" (13-1161) and "Statisticians" (15-2041).

        Illustrative examples: Pollster , Survey Methodologist , Survey Questionnaire Designer

    • 19-3030  Psychologists
      • 19-3031  Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists

        Diagnose and treat mental disorders; learning disabilities; and cognitive, behavioral, and emotional problems, using individual, child, family, and group therapies. May design and implement behavior modification programs.

        Illustrative examples: Child Psychologist , Geropsychologist , School Psychologist , Vocational Psychologist

      • 19-3032  Industrial-Organizational Psychologists

        Apply principles of psychology to human resources, administration, management, sales, and marketing problems. Activities may include policy planning; employee testing and selection, training and development; and organizational development and analysis. May work with management to organize the work setting to improve worker productivity.

        Illustrative examples: Engineering Psychologist , Human Resources Psychologist , Management Psychologist

      • 19-3039  Psychologists, All Other

        All psychologists not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Forensic Psychologist , Social Psychologist , Sports Psychologist

    • 19-3040  Sociologists
      • 19-3041  Sociologists

        Study human society and social behavior by examining the groups and social institutions that people form, as well as various social, religious, political, and business organizations. May study the behavior and interaction of groups, trace their origin and growth, and analyze the influence of group activities on individual members.

        Illustrative examples: Criminologist , Family Sociologist , Rural Sociologist

    • 19-3050  Urban and Regional Planners
      • 19-3051  Urban and Regional Planners

        Develop comprehensive plans and programs for use of land and physical facilities of jurisdictions, such as towns, cities, counties, and metropolitan areas.

        Illustrative examples: City Planner , Community Development Planner

    • 19-3090  Miscellaneous Social Scientists and Related Workers
      • 19-3091  Anthropologists and Archeologists

        Study the origin, development, and behavior of human beings. May study the way of life, language, or physical characteristics of people in various parts of the world. May engage in systematic recovery and examination of material evidence, such as tools or pottery remaining from past human cultures, in order to determine the history, customs, and living habits of earlier civilizations.

        Illustrative examples: Ethnoarchaeologist , Political Anthropologist , Research Archaeologist

      • 19-3092  Geographers

        Study the nature and use of areas of the Earth's surface, relating and interpreting interactions of physical and cultural phenomena. Conduct research on physical aspects of a region, including land forms, climates, soils, plants, and animals, and conduct research on the spatial implications of human activities within a given area, including social characteristics, economic activities, and political organization, as well as researching interdependence between regions at scales ranging from local to global.

        Illustrative examples: Economic Geographer , Geomorphologist , GIS Geographer , Political Geographer

      • 19-3093  Historians

        Research, analyze, record, and interpret the past as recorded in sources, such as government and institutional records, newspapers and other periodicals, photographs, interviews, films, electronic media, and unpublished manuscripts, such as personal diaries and letters.

        Illustrative examples: Genealogist , Historiographer , Protohistorian

      • 19-3094  Political Scientists

        Study the origin, development, and operation of political systems. May study topics, such as public opinion, political decision-making, and ideology. May analyze the structure and operation of governments, as well as various political entities. May conduct public opinion surveys, analyze election results, or analyze public documents. Excludes "Survey Researchers" (19-3022).

        Illustrative examples: Government Affairs Specialist , Political Consultant , Political Research Scientist

      • 19-3099  Social Scientists and Related Workers, All Other

        All social scientists and related workers not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Demographer , Ethnologist , Linguist

  • 19-4000  Life, Physical, and Social Science Technicians
    • 19-4010  Agricultural and Food Science Technicians
      • 19-4011  Agricultural and Food Science Technicians

        Work with agricultural and food scientists in food, fiber, and animal research, production, and processing; and assist with animal breeding and nutrition. Conduct tests and experiments to improve yield and quality of crops or to increase the resistance of plants and animals to disease or insects. Includes technicians who assist food scientists or technologists in the research and development of production technology, quality control, packaging, processing, and use of foods.

        Illustrative examples: Dairy Technologist , Feed Research Technician , Seed Analyst

    • 19-4020  Biological Technicians
      • 19-4021  Biological Technicians

        Assist biological and medical scientists in laboratories. Set up, operate, and maintain laboratory instruments and equipment, monitor experiments, make observations, and calculate and record results. May analyze organic substances, such as blood, food, and drugs.

        Illustrative examples: Bacteriology Technician , Marine Fisheries Technician , Wildlife Technician

    • 19-4030  Chemical Technicians
      • 19-4031  Chemical Technicians

        Conduct chemical and physical laboratory tests to assist scientists in making qualitative and quantitative analyses of solids, liquids, and gaseous materials for research and development of new products or processes, quality control, maintenance of environmental standards, and other work involving experimental, theoretical, or practical application of chemistry and related sciences.

        Illustrative examples: Assayer , Chemical Laboratory Technician , Inorganic Chemical Technician

    • 19-4040  Geological and Petroleum Technicians
      • 19-4041  Geological and Petroleum Technicians

        Assist scientists or engineers in the use of electronic, sonic, or nuclear measuring instruments in both laboratory and production activities to obtain data indicating potential resources such as metallic ore, minerals, gas, coal, or petroleum. Analyze mud and drill cuttings. Chart pressure, temperature, and other characteristics of wells or bore holes. Investigate and collect information leading to the possible discovery of new metallic ore, minerals, gas, coal, or petroleum deposits.

        Illustrative examples: Crude Tester , Geophysical Prospector , Seismic Observer

    • 19-4050  Nuclear Technicians
      • 19-4051  Nuclear Technicians

        Assist nuclear physicists, nuclear engineers, or other scientists in laboratory or production activities. May operate, maintain, or provide quality control for nuclear testing and research equipment. May monitor radiation.

        Illustrative examples: Nuclear Monitoring Technician , Radiochemical Technician

    • 19-4060  Social Science Research Assistants
      • 19-4061  Social Science Research Assistants

        Assist social scientists in laboratory, survey, and other social science research. May help prepare findings for publication and assist in laboratory analysis, quality control, or data management. Excludes "Graduate Teaching Assistants" (25-1191).

        Illustrative examples: City Planning Aide , Economic Research Assistant , Historian Research Assistant

    • 19-4090  Miscellaneous Life, Physical, and Social Science Technicians
      • 19-4091  Environmental Science and Protection Technicians, Including Health

        Perform laboratory and field tests to monitor the environment and investigate sources of pollution, including those that affect health, under the direction of an environmental scientist, engineer, or other specialist. May collect samples of gases, soil, water, and other materials for testing.

        Illustrative examples: Groundwater Monitoring Technician , Infectious Waste Technician , Pollution Control Technician , Waste Minimization Technician

      • 19-4092  Forensic Science Technicians

        Collect, identify, classify, and analyze physical evidence related to criminal investigations. Perform tests on weapons or substances, such as fiber, hair, and tissue to determine significance to investigation. May testify as expert witnesses on evidence or crime laboratory techniques. May serve as specialists in area of expertise, such as ballistics, fingerprinting, handwriting, or biochemistry.

        Illustrative examples: Ballistics Expert , Crime Scene Technician , Trace Evidence Technician

      • 19-4093  Forest and Conservation Technicians

        Provide technical assistance regarding the conservation of soil, water, forests, or related natural resources. May compile data pertaining to size, content, condition, and other characteristics of forest tracts, under the direction of foresters; or train and lead forest workers in forest propagation, fire prevention and suppression. May assist conservation scientists in managing, improving, and protecting rangelands and wildlife habitats. Excludes "Conservation Scientists" (19-1031) and "Foresters" (19-1032).

        Illustrative examples: Forestry Aide , Soil Conservation Technician , Timber Management Technician

      • 19-4099  Life, Physical, and Social Science Technicians, All Other

        All life, physical, and social science technicians not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Meteorological Aide , Polygraph Examiner

21-0000 Community and Social Service Occupations

  • 21-1000  Counselors, Social Workers, and Other Community and Social Service Specialists
    • 21-1010  Counselors
      • 21-1011  Substance Abuse and Behavioral Disorder Counselors

        Counsel and advise individuals with alcohol, tobacco, drug, or other problems, such as gambling and eating disorders. May counsel individuals, families, or groups or engage in prevention programs. Excludes "Social Workers" (21-1021 through 21-1029), "Psychologists" (19-3031 through 19-3039), and "Mental Health Counselors" (21-1014) providing these services.

        Illustrative examples: Addiction Counselor , Alcohol and Drug Counselor , Chemical Dependency Counselor

      • 21-1012  Educational, Guidance, School, and Vocational Counselors

        Counsel individuals and provide group educational and vocational guidance services.

        Illustrative examples: Career Counselor , Career Technical Counselor , Student Development Advisor

      • 21-1013  Marriage and Family Therapists

        Diagnose and treat mental and emotional disorders, whether cognitive, affective, or behavioral, within the context of marriage and family systems. Apply psychotherapeutic and family systems theories and techniques in the delivery of services to individuals, couples, and families for the purpose of treating such diagnosed nervous and mental disorders. Excludes "Social Workers" (21-1021 through 21-1029) and "Psychologists" of all types (19-3031 through 19-3039).

        Illustrative examples: Child and Family Counselor , Couples Therapist , Marriage Counselor

      • 21-1014  Mental Health Counselors

        Counsel with emphasis on prevention. Work with individuals and groups to promote optimum mental and emotional health. May help individuals deal with issues associated with addictions and substance abuse; family, parenting, and marital problems; stress management; self-esteem; and aging. Excludes "Social Workers" (21-1021 through 21-1029), "Psychiatrists" (29-1066), and "Psychologists" (19-3031 through 19-3039).

        Illustrative examples: Licensed Clinical Mental Health Counselor (LCMHC) , Licensed Mental Health Counselor (LMHC)

      • 21-1015  Rehabilitation Counselors

        Counsel individuals to maximize the independence and employability of persons coping with personal, social, and vocational difficulties that result from birth defects, illness, disease, accidents, or the stress of daily life. Coordinate activities for residents of care and treatment facilities. Assess client needs and design and implement rehabilitation programs that may include personal and vocational counseling, training, and job placement.

        Illustrative examples: Psychosocial Rehabilitation Counselor , Veterans Rehabilitation Counselor , Vocational Rehabilitation Counselor

      • 21-1019  Counselors, All Other

        All counselors not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Anger Control Counselor , Grief Counselor , Sexual Assault Counselor

    • 21-1020  Social Workers
      • 21-1021  Child, Family, and School Social Workers

        Provide social services and assistance to improve the social and psychological functioning of children and their families and to maximize the family well-being and the academic functioning of children. May assist parents, arrange adoptions, and find foster homes for abandoned or abused children. In schools, they address such problems as teenage pregnancy, misbehavior, and truancy. May also advise teachers.

        Illustrative examples: Certified Children, Youth, and Family Social Worker , Child Abuse Worker , Foster Care Worker

      • 21-1022  Healthcare Social Workers

        Provide individuals, families, and groups with the psychosocial support needed to cope with chronic, acute, or terminal illnesses. Services include advising family care givers, providing patient education and counseling, and making referrals for other services. May also provide care and case management or interventions designed to promote health, prevent disease, and address barriers to access to healthcare.

        Illustrative examples: Hospice Social Worker , Oncology Social Worker , Public Health Social Worker

      • 21-1023  Mental Health and Substance Abuse Social Workers

        Assess and treat individuals with mental, emotional, or substance abuse problems, including abuse of alcohol, tobacco, and/or other drugs. Activities may include individual and group therapy, crisis intervention, case management, client advocacy, prevention, and education.

        Illustrative examples: Community Mental Health Social Worker , Drug Abuse Social Worker , Psychiatric Social Worker

      • 21-1029  Social Workers, All Other

        All social workers not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Criminal Justice Social Worker , Forensic Social Worker , Sexual Assault Social Worker

    • 21-1090  Miscellaneous Community and Social Service Specialists
      • 21-1091  Health Educators

        Provide and manage health education programs that help individuals, families, and their communities maximize and maintain healthy lifestyles. Collect and analyze data to identify community needs prior to planning, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating programs designed to encourage healthy lifestyles, policies, and environments. May serve as resource to assist individuals, other health professionals, or the community, and may administer fiscal resources for health education programs. Excludes "Community Health Workers" (21-1094).

        Illustrative examples: Community Health Education Coordinator , Diabetes Educator , Public Health Educator

      • 21-1092  Probation Officers and Correctional Treatment Specialists

        Provide social services to assist in rehabilitation of law offenders in custody or on probation or parole. Make recommendations for actions involving formulation of rehabilitation plan and treatment of offender, including conditional release and education and employment stipulations.

        Illustrative examples: Juvenile Probation Officer , Parole Agent , Parole Officer

      • 21-1093  Social and Human Service Assistants

        Assist in providing client services in a wide variety of fields, such as psychology, rehabilitation, or social work, including support for families. May assist clients in identifying and obtaining available benefits and social and community services. May assist social workers with developing, organizing, and conducting programs to prevent and resolve problems relevant to substance abuse, human relationships, rehabilitation, or dependent care. Excludes "Rehabilitation Counselors" (21-1015), "Psychiatric Technicians" (29-2053), "Personal Care Aides" (39-9021), and "Eligibility Interviewers, Government Programs" (43-4061).

        Illustrative examples: Case Work Aide , Family Service Assistant , Human Services Worker

      • 21-1094  Community Health Workers

        Assist individuals and communities to adopt healthy behaviors. Conduct outreach for medical personnel or health organizations to implement programs in the community that promote, maintain, and improve individual and community health. May provide information on available resources, provide social support and informal counseling, advocate for individuals and community health needs, and provide services such as first aid and blood pressure screening. May collect data to help identify community health needs. Excludes "Health Educators" (21-1091).

        Illustrative examples: Lay Health Advocate , Peer Health Promoter

      • 21-1099  Community and Social Service Specialists, All Other

        All community and social service specialists not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Community Organization Worker , Veterans Service Officer

  • 21-2000  Religious Workers
    • 21-2010  Clergy
      • 21-2011  Clergy

        Conduct religious worship and perform other spiritual functions associated with beliefs and practices of religious faith or denomination. Provide spiritual and moral guidance and assistance to members.

        Illustrative examples: Imam , Priest , Rabbi

    • 21-2020  Directors, Religious Activities and Education
      • 21-2021  Directors, Religious Activities and Education

        Plan, direct, or coordinate programs designed to promote the religious education or activities of a denominational group. May provide counseling and guidance relative to marital, health, financial, and religious problems.

        Illustrative examples: Religious Education Director , Youth Ministry Director

    • 21-2090  Miscellaneous Religious Workers

23-0000 Legal Occupations

  • 23-1000  Lawyers, Judges, and Related Workers
    • 23-1010  Lawyers and Judicial Law Clerks
      • 23-1011  Lawyers

        Represent clients in criminal and civil litigation and other legal proceedings, draw up legal documents, or manage or advise clients on legal transactions. May specialize in a single area or may practice broadly in many areas of law.

        Illustrative examples: Attorney , Corporate Counsel , Public Defender

      • 23-1012  Judicial Law Clerks

        Assist judges in court or by conducting research or preparing legal documents. Excludes "Lawyers" (23-1011) and "Paralegals and Legal Assistants" (23-2011).

        Illustrative examples: Judicial Clerk

    • 23-1020  Judges, Magistrates, and Other Judicial Workers
      • 23-1021  Administrative Law Judges, Adjudicators, and Hearing Officers

        Conduct hearings to recommend or make decisions on claims concerning government programs or other government-related matters. Determine liability, sanctions, or penalties, or recommend the acceptance or rejection of claims or settlements. Excludes "Arbitrators, Mediators, and Conciliators" (23-1022).

        Illustrative examples: Appeals Examiner , Justice of The Peace , Traffic Court Referee

      • 23-1022  Arbitrators, Mediators, and Conciliators

        Facilitate negotiation and conflict resolution through dialogue. Resolve conflicts outside of the court system by mutual consent of parties involved.

        Illustrative examples: Alternative Dispute Resolution Coordinator , Mediation Commissioner , Ombudsman

      • 23-1023  Judges, Magistrate Judges, and Magistrates

        Arbitrate, advise, adjudicate, or administer justice in a court of law. May sentence defendant in criminal cases according to government statutes or sentencing guidelines. May determine liability of defendant in civil cases. May perform wedding ceremonies.

        Illustrative examples: Circuit Court Judge , Justice , Tribal Judge

  • 23-2000  Legal Support Workers
    • 23-2010  Paralegals and Legal Assistants
      • 23-2011  Paralegals and Legal Assistants

        Assist lawyers by investigating facts, preparing legal documents, or researching legal precedent. Conduct research to support a legal proceeding, to formulate a defense, or to initiate legal action. Excludes "Legal Secretaries" (43-6012).

        Illustrative examples: Legal Aide

    • 23-2090  Miscellaneous Legal Support Workers
      • 23-2091  Court Reporters

        Use verbatim methods and equipment to capture, store, retrieve, and transcribe pretrial and trial proceedings or other information. Includes stenocaptioners who operate computerized stenographic captioning equipment to provide captions of live or prerecorded broadcasts for hearing-impaired viewers.

        Illustrative examples: Court Stenographer , Court Transcriber , Deposition Reporter

      • 23-2093  Title Examiners, Abstractors, and Searchers

        Search real estate records, examine titles, or summarize pertinent legal or insurance documents or details for a variety of purposes. May compile lists of mortgages, contracts, and other instruments pertaining to titles by searching public and private records for law firms, real estate agencies, or title insurance companies.

        Illustrative examples: Escrow Officer , Lien Searcher , Title Officer

      • 23-2099  Legal Support Workers, All Other

        All legal support workers not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Legal Technician

25-0000 Education, Training, and Library Occupations

  • 25-1000  Postsecondary Teachers
    • 25-1010  Business Teachers, Postsecondary
      • 25-1011  Business Teachers, Postsecondary

        Teach courses in business administration and management, such as accounting, finance, human resources, labor and industrial relations, marketing, and operations research. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.

        Illustrative examples: Accounting Professor , Finance Professor , Marketing Professor

    • 25-1020  Math and Computer Teachers, Postsecondary
      • 25-1021  Computer Science Teachers, Postsecondary

        Teach courses in computer science. May specialize in a field of computer science, such as the design and function of computers or operations and research analysis. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.

        Illustrative examples: Computer Information Systems Professor , Information Technology Professor , Java Programming Professor

      • 25-1022  Mathematical Science Teachers, Postsecondary

        Teach courses pertaining to mathematical concepts, statistics, and actuarial science and to the application of original and standardized mathematical techniques in solving specific problems and situations. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.

        Illustrative examples: Actuarial Science Professor , Calculus Professor , Statistics Professor

    • 25-1030  Engineering and Architecture Teachers, Postsecondary
      • 25-1031  Architecture Teachers, Postsecondary

        Teach courses in architecture and architectural design, such as architectural environmental design, interior architecture/design, and landscape architecture. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.

        Illustrative examples: Architectural Design Professor , Landscape Architecture Professor

      • 25-1032  Engineering Teachers, Postsecondary

        Teach courses pertaining to the application of physical laws and principles of engineering for the development of machines, materials, instruments, processes, and services. Includes teachers of subjects such as chemical, civil, electrical, industrial, mechanical, mineral, and petroleum engineering. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research. Excludes "Computer Science Teachers, Postsecondary" (25-1021).

        Illustrative examples: Aeronautical Engineering Professor , Civil Engineering Professor , Electrical Engineering Professor , Marine Engineering Professor

    • 25-1040  Life Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary
      • 25-1041  Agricultural Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary

        Teach courses in the agricultural sciences. Includes teachers of agronomy, dairy sciences, fisheries management, horticultural sciences, poultry sciences, range management, and agricultural soil conservation. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research. Excludes "Forestry and Conservation Science Teachers, Postsecondary" (25-1043).

        Illustrative examples: Agronomy Professor , Aquaculture and Fisheries Professor , Farm Management Professor

      • 25-1042  Biological Science Teachers, Postsecondary

        Teach courses in biological sciences. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.

        Illustrative examples: Bacteriology Professor , Biochemistry Professor , Botany Professor

      • 25-1043  Forestry and Conservation Science Teachers, Postsecondary

        Teach courses in forestry and conservation science. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research. Excludes "Agricultural Science Teachers, Postsecondary" (25-1041) and "Environmental Science Teachers, Postsecondary" (25-1053).

        Illustrative examples: Forest Ecology Professor , Timber Management Professor , Wildlife Conservation Professor

    • 25-1050  Physical Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary
      • 25-1051  Atmospheric, Earth, Marine, and Space Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary

        Teach courses in the physical sciences, except chemistry and physics. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching, and those who do a combination of teaching and research.

        Illustrative examples: Climatology Professor , Geology Professor , Oceanography Professor

      • 25-1052  Chemistry Teachers, Postsecondary

        Teach courses pertaining to the chemical and physical properties and compositional changes of substances. Work may include instruction in the methods of qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching, and those who do a combination of teaching and research. Excludes "Biological Science Teachers, Postsecondary" (25-1042) who teach biochemistry.

        Illustrative examples: Inorganic Chemistry Professor , Organic Chemistry Professor , Physical Chemistry Professor

      • 25-1053  Environmental Science Teachers, Postsecondary

        Teach courses in environmental science. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.

        Illustrative examples: Environmental Studies Professor

      • 25-1054  Physics Teachers, Postsecondary

        Teach courses pertaining to the laws of matter and energy. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.

        Illustrative examples: Astrophysics Professor , Ballistics Professor , Hydrodynamics Professor , Thermodynamics Professor

    • 25-1060  Social Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary
      • 25-1061  Anthropology and Archeology Teachers, Postsecondary

        Teach courses in anthropology or archeology. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.

        Illustrative examples: Cultural Anthropology Professor , Ethnoarchaeology Professor , Paleology Professor

      • 25-1062  Area, Ethnic, and Cultural Studies Teachers, Postsecondary

        Teach courses pertaining to the culture and development of an area, an ethnic group, or any other group, such as Latin American studies, women's studies, or urban affairs. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.

        Illustrative examples: Ethnology Professor , Latin American Studies Professor , Women's Studies Professor

      • 25-1063  Economics Teachers, Postsecondary

        Teach courses in economics. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.

        Illustrative examples: Agricultural Economics Professor , Econometrics Professor , Labor Economics Professor

      • 25-1064  Geography Teachers, Postsecondary

        Teach courses in geography. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.

        Illustrative examples: Cartography Professor , Geomatics Professor , GIS Professor

      • 25-1065  Political Science Teachers, Postsecondary

        Teach courses in political science, international affairs, and international relations. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.

        Illustrative examples: Government Professor , International Relations Professor , Public Policy Professor

      • 25-1066  Psychology Teachers, Postsecondary

        Teach courses in psychology, such as child, clinical, and developmental psychology, and psychological counseling. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.

        Illustrative examples: Child Development Professor , Educational Psychology Professor , Industrial/Organizational Psychology Professor

      • 25-1067  Sociology Teachers, Postsecondary

        Teach courses in sociology. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.

        Illustrative examples: Comparative Sociology Professor

      • 25-1069  Social Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary, All Other

        All postsecondary social sciences teachers not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Survey Research Professor , Urban Planning Professor

    • 25-1070  Health Teachers, Postsecondary
      • 25-1071  Health Specialties Teachers, Postsecondary

        Teach courses in health specialties, in fields such as dentistry, laboratory technology, medicine, pharmacy, public health, therapy, and veterinary medicine. Excludes "Nursing Instructors and Teachers, Postsecondary" (25-1072) and "Biological Science Teachers, Postsecondary" (25-1042) who teach medical science.

        Illustrative examples: Nutrition Professor , Pharmacology Professor , Public Health Professor

      • 25-1072  Nursing Instructors and Teachers, Postsecondary

        Demonstrate and teach patient care in classroom and clinical units to nursing students. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.

        Illustrative examples: Advanced Nursing Professor , Clinical Nursing Professor , Registered Nursing Professor

    • 25-1080  Education and Library Science Teachers, Postsecondary
      • 25-1081  Education Teachers, Postsecondary

        Teach courses pertaining to education, such as counseling, curriculum, guidance, instruction, teacher education, and teaching English as a second language. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.

        Illustrative examples: Primary Education Professor , Special Education Professor

      • 25-1082  Library Science Teachers, Postsecondary

        Teach courses in library science. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.

        Illustrative examples: Library and Information Science Professor , Medical Records Library Professor

    • 25-1110  Law, Criminal Justice, and Social Work Teachers, Postsecondary
      • 25-1111  Criminal Justice and Law Enforcement Teachers, Postsecondary

        Teach courses in criminal justice, corrections, and law enforcement administration. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.

        Illustrative examples: Criminology Professor , Penology Professor

      • 25-1112  Law Teachers, Postsecondary

        Teach courses in law. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.

        Illustrative examples: Constitutional Law Professor , Environmental Law Professor , Torts Law Professor

      • 25-1113  Social Work Teachers, Postsecondary

        Teach courses in social work. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.

        Illustrative examples: Family Welfare Social Work Professor , Geriatric Social Work Professor , Health Social Work Professor

    • 25-1120  Arts, Communications, and Humanities Teachers, Postsecondary
      • 25-1121  Art, Drama, and Music Teachers, Postsecondary

        Teach courses in drama, music, and the arts including fine and applied art, such as painting and sculpture, or design and crafts. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.

        Illustrative examples: Ballet Professor , Photography Professor , Piano Professor

      • 25-1122  Communications Teachers, Postsecondary

        Teach courses in communications, such as organizational communications, public relations, radio/television broadcasting, and journalism. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.

        Illustrative examples: Journalism Professor , Public Speaking Professor

      • 25-1123  English Language and Literature Teachers, Postsecondary

        Teach courses in English language and literature, including linguistics and comparative literature. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.

        Illustrative examples: Contemporary English Literature Professor , Creative Writing English Professor , Etymology Professor

      • 25-1124  Foreign Language and Literature Teachers, Postsecondary

        Teach languages and literature courses in languages other than English. Includes teachers of American Sign Language (ASL). Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.

        Illustrative examples: Chinese Language Professor , Russian Language Professor , Spanish Literature Professor

      • 25-1125  History Teachers, Postsecondary

        Teach courses in human history and historiography. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.

        Illustrative examples: African History Professor , American History Professor , Jewish History Professor , Russian History Professor

      • 25-1126  Philosophy and Religion Teachers, Postsecondary

        Teach courses in philosophy, religion, and theology. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.

        Illustrative examples: Divinity Professor , Eastern Philosophy Professor , Theology Professor

    • 25-1190  Miscellaneous Postsecondary Teachers
      • 25-1191  Graduate Teaching Assistants

        Assist faculty or other instructional staff in postsecondary institutions by performing teaching or teaching-related duties, such as teaching lower level courses, developing teaching materials, preparing and giving examinations, and grading examinations or papers. Graduate teaching assistants must be enrolled in a graduate school program. Graduate assistants who primarily perform non-teaching duties, such as research, should be reported in the occupational category related to the work performed. Excludes "Teacher Assistants" (25-9041).

        Illustrative examples: Graduate Student Instructor , Teaching Fellow

      • 25-1192  Home Economics Teachers, Postsecondary

        Teach courses in childcare, family relations, finance, nutrition, and related subjects pertaining to home management. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.

        Illustrative examples: Family and Consumer Sciences Professor , Weaving Professor

      • 25-1193  Recreation and Fitness Studies Teachers, Postsecondary

        Teach courses pertaining to recreation, leisure, and fitness studies, including exercise physiology and facilities management. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.

        Illustrative examples: Kinesiology Professor , Leisure Studies Professor , Physical Education (PE) Professor

      • 25-1194  Vocational Education Teachers, Postsecondary

        Teach or instruct vocational or occupational subjects at the postsecondary level (but at less than the baccalaureate) to students who have graduated or left high school. Includes correspondence school instructors; industrial, commercial, and government training instructors; and adult education teachers and instructors who prepare persons to operate industrial machinery and equipment and transportation and communications equipment. Teaching may take place in public or private schools whose primary business is education or in a school associated with an organization whose primary business is other than education.

        Illustrative examples: Barbering Instructor , Cosmetology Professor , Mechanical Maintenance Instructor

      • 25-1199  Postsecondary Teachers, All Other

        All postsecondary teachers not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Military Science Teacher

  • 25-2000  Preschool, Primary, Secondary, and Special Education School Teachers
    • 25-2010  Preschool and Kindergarten Teachers
      • 25-2011  Preschool Teachers, Except Special Education

        Instruct preschool-aged children in activities designed to promote social, physical, and intellectual growth needed for primary school in preschool, day care center, or other child development facility. Substitute teachers are included in "Teachers and Instructors, All Other" (25-3099). May be required to hold State certification. Excludes "Childcare Workers" (39-9011) and "Special Education Teachers" (25-2050).

        Illustrative examples: Head Start Teacher , Nursery School Teacher , Pre-Kindergarten Teacher

      • 25-2012  Kindergarten Teachers, Except Special Education

        Teach elemental natural and social science, personal hygiene, music, art, and literature to kindergarten students. Promote physical, mental, and social development. May be required to hold State certification. Substitute teachers are included in "Teachers and Instructors, All Other" (25-3099). Excludes "Special Education Teachers" (25-2050).

        Illustrative examples: Bilingual Kindergarten Teacher

    • 25-2020  Elementary and Middle School Teachers
      • 25-2021  Elementary School Teachers, Except Special Education

        Teach students basic academic, social, and other formative skills in public or private schools at the elementary level. Substitute teachers are included in "Teachers and Instructors, All Other" (25-3099). Excludes "Special Education Teachers" (25-2050).

        Illustrative examples: 4th Grade Math Teacher

      • 25-2022  Middle School Teachers, Except Special and Career/Technical Education

        Teach students in one or more subjects in public or private schools at the middle, intermediate, or junior high level, which falls between elementary and senior high school as defined by applicable laws and regulations. Substitute teachers are included in "Teachers and Instructors, All Other" (25-3099). Excludes "Career/Technical Education Teachers, Middle School " (25-2023) and "Special Education Teachers" (25-2050).

        Illustrative examples: 7th Grade Social Studies Teacher , Junior High School Teacher , Middle School Science Teacher

      • 25-2023  Career/Technical Education Teachers, Middle School

        Teach occupational, career and technical, or vocational subjects in public or private schools at the middle, intermediate, or junior high level, which falls between elementary and senior high school as defined by applicable laws and regulations. Substitute teachers are included in "Teachers and Instructors, All Other" (25-3099). Excludes "Special Education Teachers" (25-2050).

        Illustrative examples: Middle School Vocational Education Teacher

    • 25-2030  Secondary School Teachers
      • 25-2031  Secondary School Teachers, Except Special and Career/Technical Education

        Teach students in one or more subjects, such as English, mathematics, or social studies at the secondary level in public or private schools. May be designated according to subject matter specialty. Substitute teachers are included in "Teachers and Instructors, All Other" (25-3099). Excludes "Career/Technical Education Teachers, Secondary School" (25-2032) and "Special Education Teachers" (25-2050).

        Illustrative examples: High School English Teacher , High School French Teacher , High School History Teacher

      • 25-2032  Career/Technical Education Teachers, Secondary School

        Teach occupational, career and technical, or vocational subjects at the secondary school level in public or private schools. Substitute teachers are included in "Teachers and Instructors, All Other" (25-3099). Excludes "Special Education Teachers, Secondary School" (25-2054).

        Illustrative examples: High School Auto Repair Teacher , High School Vocational Education Teacher

    • 25-2050  Special Education Teachers
      • 25-2051  Special Education Teachers, Preschool

        Teach preschool school subjects to educationally and physically handicapped students. Includes teachers who specialize and work with audibly and visually handicapped students and those who teach basic academic and life processes skills to the mentally impaired. Substitute teachers are included in "Teachers and Instructors, All Other" (25-3099).

        Illustrative examples: Early Childhood Special Education Teacher , Pre-Kindergarten Special Education Teacher

      • 25-2052  Special Education Teachers, Kindergarten and Elementary School

        Teach elementary school subjects to educationally and physically handicapped students. Includes teachers who specialize and work with audibly and visually handicapped students and those who teach basic academic and life processes skills to the mentally impaired. Substitute teachers are included in "Teachers and Instructors, All Other" (25-3099).

        Illustrative examples: Severe Emotional Disorders Elementary School Teacher , Special Education Kindergarten Teacher

      • 25-2053  Special Education Teachers, Middle School

        Teach middle school subjects to educationally and physically handicapped students. Includes teachers who specialize and work with audibly and visually handicapped students and those who teach basic academic and life processes skills to the mentally impaired. Substitute teachers are included in "Teachers and Instructors, All Other" (25-3099).

        Illustrative examples: Middle School Special Education Teacher , Middle School Teacher for Students with Moderate Intellectual Disabilities

      • 25-2054  Special Education Teachers, Secondary School

        Teach secondary school subjects to educationally and physically handicapped students. Includes teachers who specialize and work with audibly and visually handicapped students and those who teach basic academic and life processes skills to the mentally impaired. Substitute teachers are included in "Teachers and Instructors, All Other" (25-3099).

        Illustrative examples: High School Learning Support Teacher , High School Special Education Teacher

      • 25-2059  Special Education Teachers, All Other

        All special education teachers not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Autism Tutor , Special Education Teacher for Adults with Disabilities

  • 25-3000  Other Teachers and Instructors
    • 25-3010  Adult Basic and Secondary Education and Literacy Teachers and Instructors
      • 25-3011  Adult Basic and Secondary Education and Literacy Teachers and Instructors

        Teach or instruct out-of-school youths and adults in remedial education classes, preparatory classes for the General Educational Development test, literacy, or English as a Second Language. Teaching may or may not take place in a traditional educational institution.

        Illustrative examples: Adult Education Teacher , Adult Literacy Instructor , General Educational Development (GED) Teacher

    • 25-3020  Self-Enrichment Education Teachers
      • 25-3021  Self-Enrichment Education Teachers

        Teach or instruct courses other than those that normally lead to an occupational objective or degree. Courses may include self-improvement, nonvocational, and nonacademic subjects. Teaching may or may not take place in a traditional educational institution. Excludes "Fitness Trainers and Aerobics Instructors" (39-9031). Flight instructors are included with "Aircraft Pilots and Flight Engineers" (53-2010).

        Illustrative examples: Citizenship Teacher , Horseback Riding Instructor , Sailing Instructor

    • 25-3090  Miscellaneous Teachers and Instructors
  • 25-4000  Librarians, Curators, and Archivists
    • 25-4010  Archivists, Curators, and Museum Technicians
      • 25-4011  Archivists

        Appraise, edit, and direct safekeeping of permanent records and historically valuable documents. Participate in research activities based on archival materials.

        Illustrative examples: Film Archivist , Historical Records Administrator , Reference Archivist

      • 25-4012  Curators

        Administer collections, such as artwork, collectibles, historic items, or scientific specimens of museums or other institutions. May conduct instructional, research, or public service activities of institution.

        Illustrative examples: Herbarium Curator , Photography and Prints Curator

      • 25-4013  Museum Technicians and Conservators

        Restore, maintain, or prepare objects in museum collections for storage, research, or exhibit. May work with specimens such as fossils, skeletal parts, or botanicals; or artifacts, textiles, or art. May identify and record objects or install and arrange them in exhibits. Includes book or document conservators.

        Illustrative examples: Ethnographic Materials Conservator , Museum Exhibit Technician , Textile Conservator

    • 25-4020  Librarians
      • 25-4021  Librarians

        Administer libraries and perform related library services. Work in a variety of settings, including public libraries, educational institutions, museums, corporations, government agencies, law firms, non-profit organizations, and healthcare providers. Tasks may include selecting, acquiring, cataloguing, classifying, circulating, and maintaining library materials; and furnishing reference, bibliographical, and readers' advisory services. May perform in-depth, strategic research, and synthesize, analyze, edit, and filter information. May set up or work with databases and information systems to catalogue and access information.

        Illustrative examples: Law Librarian , Music Librarian , School Librarian

    • 25-4030  Library Technicians
      • 25-4031  Library Technicians

        Assist librarians by helping readers in the use of library catalogs, databases, and indexes to locate books and other materials; and by answering questions that require only brief consultation of standard reference. Compile records; sort and shelve books or other media; remove or repair damaged books or other media; register patrons; and check materials in and out of the circulation process. Replace materials in shelving area (stacks) or files. Includes bookmobile drivers who assist with providing services in mobile libraries.

        Illustrative examples: Library Acquisitions Technician , Library Circulation Technician

  • 25-9000  Other Education, Training, and Library Occupations
    • 25-9010  Audio-Visual and Multimedia Collections Specialists
      • 25-9011  Audio-Visual and Multimedia Collections Specialists

        Prepare, plan, and operate multimedia teaching aids for use in education. May record, catalogue, and file materials.

        Illustrative examples: Audio-Visual Collections Coordinator , Library Media Specialist , Multimedia Services Coordinator

    • 25-9020  Farm and Home Management Advisors
      • 25-9021  Farm and Home Management Advisors

        Advise, instruct, and assist individuals and families engaged in agriculture, agricultural-related processes, or home economics activities. Demonstrate procedures and apply research findings to solve problems; and instruct and train in product development, sales, and the use of machinery and equipment to promote general welfare. Includes county agricultural agents, feed and farm management advisers, home economists, and extension service advisors.

        Illustrative examples: Agricultural Extension Educator , Family Resource Management Specialist , Feed Management Advisor

    • 25-9030  Instructional Coordinators
      • 25-9031  Instructional Coordinators

        Develop instructional material, coordinate educational content, and incorporate current technology in specialized fields that provide guidelines to educators and instructors for developing curricula and conducting courses. Includes educational consultants and specialists, and instructional material directors.

        Illustrative examples: Curriculum and Assessment Director , Curriculum Specialist , Special Education Curriculum Specialist

    • 25-9040  Teacher Assistants
      • 25-9041  Teacher Assistants

        Perform duties that are instructional in nature or deliver direct services to students or parents. Serve in a position for which a teacher has ultimate responsibility for the design and implementation of educational programs and services. Excludes "Graduate Teaching Assistants" (25-1191).

        Illustrative examples: Instructional Aide , Special Education Classroom Aide

    • 25-9090  Miscellaneous Education, Training, and Library Workers
      • 25-9099  Education, Training, and Library Workers, All Other

        All education, training, and library workers not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: General Educational Development (GED) Examiner , Individualized Education Plan (IEP) Aide , Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) Grader

27-0000 Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media Occupations

  • 27-1000  Art and Design Workers
    • 27-1010  Artists and Related Workers
      • 27-1011  Art Directors

        Formulate design concepts and presentation approaches for visual communications media, such as print, broadcasting, and advertising. Direct workers engaged in art work or layout design.

        Illustrative examples: Magazine Designer

      • 27-1012  Craft Artists

        Create or reproduce hand-made objects for sale and exhibition using a variety of techniques, such as welding, weaving, pottery, and needlecraft.

        Illustrative examples: Hand Potter , Metal Arts Production Artist , Quilter

      • 27-1013  Fine Artists, Including Painters, Sculptors, and Illustrators

        Create original artwork using any of a wide variety of media and techniques.

        Illustrative examples: Ice Sculptor , Political Cartoonist , Scientific Illustrator , Sketch Artist

      • 27-1014  Multimedia Artists and Animators

        Create special effects, animation, or other visual images using film, video, computers, or other electronic tools and media for use in products or creations, such as computer games, movies, music videos, and commercials.

        Illustrative examples: 3D Animator , Special Effects Artist

      • 27-1019  Artists and Related Workers, All Other

        All artists and related workers not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Calligrapher , Tattoo Artist

    • 27-1020  Designers
      • 27-1021  Commercial and Industrial Designers

        Develop and design manufactured products, such as cars, home appliances, and children's toys. Combine artistic talent with research on product use, marketing, and materials to create the most functional and appealing product design.

        Illustrative examples: Automobile Designer , Package Designer

      • 27-1022  Fashion Designers

        Design clothing and accessories. Create original designs or adapt fashion trends.

        Illustrative examples: Costume Designer , Custom Furrier , Dress Designer

      • 27-1023  Floral Designers

        Design, cut, and arrange live, dried, or artificial flowers and foliage.

        Illustrative examples: Corsage Maker , Florist , Flower Arranger

      • 27-1024  Graphic Designers

        Design or create graphics to meet specific commercial or promotional needs, such as packaging, displays, or logos. May use a variety of mediums to achieve artistic or decorative effects.

        Illustrative examples: Catalogue Illustrator , Graphic Artist

      • 27-1025  Interior Designers

        Plan, design, and furnish interiors of residential, commercial, or industrial buildings. Formulate design which is practical, aesthetic, and conducive to intended purposes, such as raising productivity, selling merchandise, or improving life style. May specialize in a particular field, style, or phase of interior design. Excludes "Merchandise Displayers and Window Trimmers" (27-1026).

        Illustrative examples: Home Lighting Adviser , Interior Decorator , Kitchen Designer

      • 27-1026  Merchandise Displayers and Window Trimmers

        Plan and erect commercial displays, such as those in windows and interiors of retail stores and at trade exhibitions.

        Illustrative examples: Display Artist , Mannequin Decorator , Window Decorator

      • 27-1027  Set and Exhibit Designers

        Design special exhibits and movie, television, and theater sets. May study scripts, confer with directors, and conduct research to determine appropriate architectural styles.

        Illustrative examples: Set Decorator , Stage Scenery Designer

      • 27-1029  Designers, All Other

        All designers not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Memorial Marker Designer

  • 27-2000  Entertainers and Performers, Sports and Related Workers
    • 27-2010  Actors, Producers, and Directors
      • 27-2011  Actors

        Play parts in stage, television, radio, video, motion picture productions, or other settings for entertainment, information, or instruction. Interpret serious or comic role by speech, gesture, and body movement to entertain or inform audience. May dance and sing.

        Illustrative examples: Actress , Dramatic Reader , Voice-Over Artist

      • 27-2012  Producers and Directors

        Produce or direct stage, television, radio, video, or motion picture productions for entertainment, information, or instruction. Responsible for creative decisions, such as interpretation of script, choice of actors or guests, set design, sound, special effects, and choreography.

        Illustrative examples: Casting Director , Independent Film Maker , Stage Manager

    • 27-2020  Athletes, Coaches, Umpires, and Related Workers
      • 27-2021  Athletes and Sports Competitors

        Compete in athletic events.

        Illustrative examples: Football Player , Jockey , Race Car Driver

      • 27-2022  Coaches and Scouts

        Instruct or coach groups or individuals in the fundamentals of sports. Demonstrate techniques and methods of participation. May evaluate athletes' strengths and weaknesses as possible recruits or to improve the athletes' technique to prepare them for competition. Those required to hold teaching degrees should be reported in the appropriate teaching category. Excludes "Athletic Trainers" (29-9091).

        Illustrative examples: Baseball Scout , Boxing Trainer , Football Coach

      • 27-2023  Umpires, Referees, and Other Sports Officials

        Officiate at competitive athletic or sporting events. Detect infractions of rules and decide penalties according to established regulations. Includes all sporting officials, referees, and competition judges.

        Illustrative examples: Athletic Events Scorer , Paddock Judge , Race Starter

    • 27-2030  Dancers and Choreographers
      • 27-2031  Dancers

        Perform dances. May perform on stage, for on-air broadcasting, or for video recording

        Illustrative examples: Ballerina , Dance Artist , Tap Dancer

      • 27-2032  Choreographers

        Create new dance routines. Rehearse performance of routines. May direct and stage presentations.

        Illustrative examples: Dance Director , Dance Master

    • 27-2040  Musicians, Singers, and Related Workers
      • 27-2041  Music Directors and Composers

        Conduct, direct, plan, and lead instrumental or vocal performances by musical groups, such as orchestras, bands, choirs, and glee clubs. Includes arrangers, composers, choral directors, and orchestrators.

        Illustrative examples: Choirmaster , Jingle Writer , Orchestra Conductor , Songwriter

      • 27-2042  Musicians and Singers

        Play one or more musical instruments or sing. May perform on stage, for on-air broadcasting, or for sound or video recording.

        Illustrative examples: Instrumentalist , Oboist , Rapper

    • 27-2090  Miscellaneous Entertainers and Performers, Sports and Related Workers
  • 27-3000  Media and Communication Workers
    • 27-3010  Announcers
      • 27-3011  Radio and Television Announcers

        Speak or read from scripted materials, such as news reports or commercial messages, on radio or television. May announce artist or title of performance, identify station, or interview guests. Excludes "Broadcast News Analysts" (27-3021).

        Illustrative examples: Game Show Host , Radio Disk Jockey , Talk Show Host

      • 27-3012  Public Address System and Other Announcers

        Make announcements over public address system at sporting or other public events. May act as master of ceremonies or disc jockey at weddings, parties, clubs, or other gathering places.

        Illustrative examples: Emcee , Ringmaster , Train Caller

    • 27-3020  News Analysts, Reporters and Correspondents
      • 27-3021  Broadcast News Analysts

        Analyze, interpret, and broadcast news received from various sources.

        Illustrative examples: News Anchor , News Commentator , Newscaster

      • 27-3022  Reporters and Correspondents

        Collect and analyze facts about newsworthy events by interview, investigation, or observation. Report and write stories for newspaper, news magazine, radio, or television. Excludes "Broadcast News Analysts" (27-3021).

        Illustrative examples: Columnist , Film Critic , Foreign Correspondent

    • 27-3030  Public Relations Specialists
      • 27-3031  Public Relations Specialists

        Engage in promoting or creating an intended public image for individuals, groups, or organizations. May write or select material for release to various communications media.

        Illustrative examples: Lobbyist , Press Secretary , Publicity Writer

    • 27-3040  Writers and Editors
      • 27-3041  Editors

        Plan, coordinate, or edit content of material for publication. May review proposals and drafts for possible publication. Includes technical editors.

        Illustrative examples: Advertising Editor , Copy Editor , Technical Editor

      • 27-3042  Technical Writers

        Write technical materials, such as equipment manuals, appendices, or operating and maintenance instructions. May assist in layout work.

        Illustrative examples: Documentation Writer , Medical Writer , Specifications Writer

      • 27-3043  Writers and Authors

        Originate and prepare written material, such as scripts, stories, advertisements, and other material. Excludes "Public Relations Specialists" (27-3031) and "Technical Writers" (27-3042).

        Illustrative examples: Advertising Copy Writer , Playwright , Television Writer

    • 27-3090  Miscellaneous Media and Communication Workers
      • 27-3091  Interpreters and Translators

        Interpret oral or sign language, or translate written text from one language into another.

        Illustrative examples: American Sign Language Interpreter , Court Interpreter , Diplomatic Interpreter

      • 27-3099  Media and Communication Workers, All Other

        All media and communication workers not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Stage Technician

  • 27-4000  Media and Communication Equipment Workers
    • 27-4010  Broadcast and Sound Engineering Technicians and Radio Operators
      • 27-4011  Audio and Video Equipment Technicians

        Set up, or set up and operate audio and video equipment including microphones, sound speakers, video screens, projectors, video monitors, recording equipment, connecting wires and cables, sound and mixing boards, and related electronic equipment for concerts, sports events, meetings and conventions, presentations, and news conferences. May also set up and operate associated spotlights and other custom lighting systems. Excludes "Sound Engineering Technicians" (27-4014).

        Illustrative examples: Multimedia Production Assistant , Video Control Operator , Video Production Assistant

      • 27-4012  Broadcast Technicians

        Set up, operate, and maintain the electronic equipment used to transmit radio and television programs. Control audio equipment to regulate volume level and quality of sound during radio and television broadcasts. Operate transmitter to broadcast radio or television programs.

        Illustrative examples: Audio Engineer , Broadcast Engineer

      • 27-4013  Radio Operators

        Receive and transmit communications using radiotelephone equipment in accordance with government regulations. May repair equipment. Excludes "Radio, Cellular, and Tower Equipment Installers and Repairs" (49-2021).

        Illustrative examples: Radio Officer , Radiophone Operator

      • 27-4014  Sound Engineering Technicians

        Operate machines and equipment to record, synchronize, mix, or reproduce music, voices, or sound effects in sporting arenas, theater productions, recording studios, or movie and video productions.

        Illustrative examples: Audio Recording Engineer , Sound Editor , Sound Effects Technician

    • 27-4020  Photographers
      • 27-4021  Photographers

        Photograph people, landscapes, merchandise, or other subjects, using digital or film cameras and equipment. May develop negatives or use computer software to produce finished images and prints. Includes scientific photographers, aerial photographers, and photojournalists.

        Illustrative examples: Marine Photographer , Medical Photographer , Wedding Photographer

    • 27-4030  Television, Video, and Motion Picture Camera Operators and Editors
      • 27-4031  Camera Operators, Television, Video, and Motion Picture

        Operate television, video, or motion picture camera to record images or scenes for various purposes, such as TV broadcasts, advertising, video production, or motion pictures.

        Illustrative examples: Cinematographer , News Videographer

      • 27-4032  Film and Video Editors

        Edit moving images on film, video, or other media. May edit or synchronize soundtracks with images. Excludes "Sound Engineering Technicians"(27-4014).

        Illustrative examples: Cue Selector , Film Editor , Television News Video Editor

    • 27-4090  Miscellaneous Media and Communication Equipment Workers

29-0000 Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations

  • 29-1000  Health Diagnosing and Treating Practitioners
    • 29-1010  Chiropractors
      • 29-1011  Chiropractors

        Assess, treat, and care for patients by manipulation of spine and musculoskeletal system. May provide spinal adjustment or address sacral or pelvic misalignment.

        Illustrative examples: Chiropractic Physician

    • 29-1020  Dentists
      • 29-1021  Dentists, General

        Examine, diagnose, and treat diseases, injuries, and malformations of teeth and gums. May treat diseases of nerve, pulp, and other dental tissues affecting oral hygiene and retention of teeth. May fit dental appliances or provide preventive care. Excludes "Prosthodontists" (29-1024), "Orthodontists" (29-1023), "Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons" (29-1022) and "Dentists, All Other Specialists" (29-1029).

        Illustrative examples: Family Dentist

      • 29-1022  Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons

        Perform surgery and related procedures on the hard and soft tissues of the oral and maxillofacial regions to treat diseases, injuries, or defects. May diagnose problems of the oral and maxillofacial regions. May perform surgery to improve function or appearance.

        Illustrative examples: Dental Surgeon

      • 29-1023  Orthodontists

        Examine, diagnose, and treat dental malocclusions and oral cavity anomalies. Design and fabricate appliances to realign teeth and jaws to produce and maintain normal function and to improve appearance.

        Illustrative examples: Dentofacial Orthopedics Dentist , Invisible Braces Orthodontist , Pediatric Orthodontist

      • 29-1024  Prosthodontists

        Construct oral prostheses to replace missing teeth and other oral structures to correct natural and acquired deformation of mouth and jaws, to restore and maintain oral function, such as chewing and speaking, and to improve appearance.

        Illustrative examples: Maxillofacial Prosthetics Dentist , Reconstructive Dentist

      • 29-1029  Dentists, All Other Specialists

        All dentists not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Endodontist , Oral Pathologist , Periodontist

    • 29-1030  Dietitians and Nutritionists
      • 29-1031  Dietitians and Nutritionists

        Plan and conduct food service or nutritional programs to assist in the promotion of health and control of disease. May supervise activities of a department providing quantity food services, counsel individuals, or conduct nutritional research.

        Illustrative examples: Clinical Dietitian , Pediatric Dietician , Public Health Nutritionist

    • 29-1040  Optometrists
      • 29-1041  Optometrists

        Diagnose, manage, and treat conditions and diseases of the human eye and visual system. Examine eyes and visual system, diagnose problems or impairments, prescribe corrective lenses, and provide treatment. May prescribe therapeutic drugs to treat specific eye conditions. Ophthalmologists are included in "Physicians and Surgeons, All Other" (29-1069).

        Illustrative examples: Doctor of Optometry

    • 29-1050  Pharmacists
      • 29-1051  Pharmacists

        Dispense drugs prescribed by physicians and other health practitioners and provide information to patients about medications and their use. May advise physicians and other health practitioners on the selection, dosage, interactions, and side effects of medications.

        Illustrative examples: Apothecary , Hospital Pharmacist

    • 29-1060  Physicians and Surgeons
      • 29-1061  Anesthesiologists

        Physicians who administer anesthetics prior to, during, or after surgery, or other medical procedures.

        Illustrative examples: Obstetrical Anesthesiologist

      • 29-1062  Family and General Practitioners

        Physicians who diagnose, treat, and help prevent diseases and injuries that commonly occur in the general population. May refer patients to specialists when needed for further diagnosis or treatment.

        Illustrative examples: Family Practice Physician

      • 29-1063  Internists, General

        Physicians who diagnose and provide non-surgical treatment of diseases and injuries of internal organ systems. Provide care mainly for adults who have a wide range of problems associated with the internal organs. Subspecialists, such as cardiologists and gastroenterologists, are included in "Physicians and Surgeons, All Other" (29-1069).

        Illustrative examples: Internal Medicine Physician

      • 29-1064  Obstetricians and Gynecologists

        Physicians who provide medical care related to pregnancy or childbirth and those who diagnose, treat, and help prevent diseases of women, particularly those affecting the reproductive system. May also provide general medical care to women.

        Illustrative examples: OB Specialist , OB/GYN

      • 29-1065  Pediatricians, General

        Physicians who diagnose, treat, and help prevent children's diseases and injuries.

        Illustrative examples: Paediatrician , Pediatrist , Primary Care Pediatrician

      • 29-1066  Psychiatrists

        Physicians who diagnose, treat, and help prevent disorders of the mind.

        Illustrative examples: Addiction Psychiatrist , Geriatric Psychiatrist , Neuropsychiatrist

      • 29-1067  Surgeons

        Physicians who treat diseases, injuries, and deformities by invasive, minimally-invasive, or non-invasive surgical methods, such as using instruments, appliances, or by manual manipulation. Excludes "Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons" (29-1022).

        Illustrative examples: Cardiovascular Surgeon , Orthopedic Surgeon , Plastic Surgeon , Thoracic Surgeon

      • 29-1069  Physicians and Surgeons, All Other

        All physicians and surgeons not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Cardiologist , Dermatologist , Gastroenterologist , Ophthalmologist

    • 29-1070  Physician Assistants
      • 29-1071  Physician Assistants

        Provide healthcare services typically performed by a physician, under the supervision of a physician. Conduct complete physicals, provide treatment, and counsel patients. May, in some cases, prescribe medication. Must graduate from an accredited educational program for physician assistants. Excludes "Emergency Medical Technicians and Paramedics" (29-2041), "Medical Assistants" (31-9092), "Registered Nurses" (29-1141), "Nurse Anesthetists" (29-1151), "Nurse Midwives" (29-1161), and "Nurse Practitioners" (29-1171).

        Illustrative examples: Anesthesiologist Assistant , Family Practice Physician Assistant

    • 29-1080  Podiatrists
      • 29-1081  Podiatrists

        Diagnose and treat diseases and deformities of the human foot.

        Illustrative examples: Chiropodist , Foot Doctor , Foot Orthopedist

    • 29-1120  Therapists
      • 29-1122  Occupational Therapists

        Assess, plan, organize, and participate in rehabilitative programs that help build or restore vocational, homemaking, and daily living skills, as well as general independence, to persons with disabilities or developmental delays.

        Illustrative examples: Registered Occupational Therapist

      • 29-1123  Physical Therapists

        Assess, plan, organize, and participate in rehabilitative programs that improve mobility, relieve pain, increase strength, and improve or correct disabling conditions resulting from disease or injury.

        Illustrative examples: Geriatric Physical Therapist , Physiotherapist , Pulmonary Physical Therapist

      • 29-1124  Radiation Therapists

        Provide radiation therapy to patients as prescribed by a radiologist according to established practices and standards. Duties may include reviewing prescription and diagnosis; acting as liaison with physician and supportive care personnel; preparing equipment, such as immobilization, treatment, and protection devices; and maintaining records, reports, and files. May assist in dosimetry procedures and tumor localization.

        Illustrative examples: Dosimetrist , Radiation Therapy Technologist

      • 29-1125  Recreational Therapists

        Plan, direct, or coordinate medically-approved recreation programs for patients in hospitals, nursing homes, or other institutions. Activities include sports, trips, dramatics, social activities, and arts and crafts. May assess a patient condition and recommend appropriate recreational activity. Excludes "Recreation Workers" (39-9032).

        Illustrative examples: Certified Recreational Therapist , Drama Therapist , Therapeutic Recreation Specialist

      • 29-1126  Respiratory Therapists

        Assess, treat, and care for patients with breathing disorders. Assume primary responsibility for all respiratory care modalities, including the supervision of respiratory therapy technicians. Initiate and conduct therapeutic procedures; maintain patient records; and select, assemble, check, and operate equipment.

        Illustrative examples: Inhalation Therapist , Oxygen Therapist , Registered Respiratory Therapist

      • 29-1127  Speech-Language Pathologists

        Assess and treat persons with speech, language, voice, and fluency disorders. May select alternative communication systems and teach their use. May perform research related to speech and language problems.

        Illustrative examples: Public School Speech Therapist , Speech Clinician , Speech Therapist

      • 29-1128  Exercise Physiologists

        Assess, plan, or implement fitness programs that include exercise or physical activities such as those designed to improve cardiorespiratory function, body composition, muscular strength, muscular endurance, or flexibility. Excludes "Physical Therapists" (29-1123), "Athletic Trainers" (29-9091), and "Fitness Trainers and Aerobic Instructors" (39-9031).

        Illustrative examples: Applied Exercise Physiologist , Clinical Exercise Physiologist , Kinesiotherapist

      • 29-1129  Therapists, All Other

        All therapists not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Hydrotherapist , Music Therapist

    • 29-1130  Veterinarians
      • 29-1131  Veterinarians

        Diagnose, treat, or research diseases and injuries of animals. Includes veterinarians who conduct research and development, inspect livestock, or care for pets and companion animals.

        Illustrative examples: Animal Surgeon , Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) , Veterinary Medicine Scientist , Wildlife Veterinarian

    • 29-1140  Registered Nurses
      • 29-1141  Registered Nurses

        Assess patient health problems and needs, develop and implement nursing care plans, and maintain medical records. Administer nursing care to ill, injured, convalescent, or disabled patients. May advise patients on health maintenance and disease prevention or provide case management. Licensing or registration required. Includes Clinical Nurse Specialists. Excludes "Nurse Anesthetists" (29-1151), "Nurse Midwives" (29-1161), and "Nurse Practitioners" (29-1171).

        Illustrative examples: Coronary Care Unit Nurse , Hospice Registered Nurse , Psychiatric Nurse

    • 29-1150  Nurse Anesthetists
      • 29-1151  Nurse Anesthetists

        Administer anesthesia, monitor patient's vital signs, and oversee patient recovery from anesthesia. May assist anesthesiologists, surgeons, other physicians, or dentists. Must be registered nurses who have specialized graduate education.

        Illustrative examples: Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist (CRNA)

    • 29-1160  Nurse Midwives
      • 29-1161  Nurse Midwives

        Diagnose and coordinate all aspects of the birthing process, either independently or as part of a healthcare team. May provide well-woman gynecological care. Must have specialized, graduate nursing education.

        Illustrative examples: Certified Nurse Midwife (CNM)

    • 29-1170  Nurse Practitioners
      • 29-1171  Nurse Practitioners

        Diagnose and treat acute, episodic, or chronic illness, independently or as part of a healthcare team. May focus on health promotion and disease prevention. May order, perform, or interpret diagnostic tests such as lab work and x rays. May prescribe medication. Must be registered nurses who have specialized graduate education.

        Illustrative examples: Cardiology Nurse Practitioner , Family Practice Nurse Practitioner , Gerontological Nurse Practitioner

    • 29-1180  Audiologists
      • 29-1181  Audiologists

        Assess and treat persons with hearing and related disorders. May fit hearing aids and provide auditory training. May perform research related to hearing problems.

        Illustrative examples: Clinical Audiologist , Pediatric Audiologist

    • 29-1190  Miscellaneous Health Diagnosing and Treating Practitioners
  • 29-2000  Health Technologists and Technicians
    • 29-2010  Clinical Laboratory Technologists and Technicians
      • 29-2011  Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists

        Perform complex medical laboratory tests for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. May train or supervise staff.

        Illustrative examples: Blood Bank Laboratory Technologist , Cytogenetic Technologist , Immunohematologist

      • 29-2012  Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technicians

        Perform routine medical laboratory tests for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. May work under the supervision of a medical technologist.

        Illustrative examples: Histology Technician , Pathology Technician , Serology Technician

    • 29-2020  Dental Hygienists
      • 29-2021  Dental Hygienists

        Clean teeth and examine oral areas, head, and neck for signs of oral disease. May educate patients on oral hygiene, take and develop x rays, or apply fluoride or sealants.

        Illustrative examples: Oral Hygienist , Registered Dental Hygienist

    • 29-2030  Diagnostic Related Technologists and Technicians
      • 29-2031  Cardiovascular Technologists and Technicians

        Conduct tests on pulmonary or cardiovascular systems of patients for diagnostic purposes. May conduct or assist in electrocardiograms, cardiac catheterizations, pulmonary functions, lung capacity, and similar tests. Includes vascular technologists.

        Illustrative examples: Cardiac Catheterization Technologist , EKG Technician

      • 29-2032  Diagnostic Medical Sonographers

        Produce ultrasonic recordings of internal organs for use by physicians.

        Illustrative examples: Echocardiographer , Registered Diagnostic Medical Sonographer , Ultrasound Technologist

      • 29-2033  Nuclear Medicine Technologists

        Prepare, administer, and measure radioactive isotopes in therapeutic, diagnostic, and tracer studies using a variety of radioisotope equipment. Prepare stock solutions of radioactive materials and calculate doses to be administered by radiologists. Subject patients to radiation. Execute blood volume, red cell survival, and fat absorption studies following standard laboratory techniques.

        Illustrative examples: Certified Nuclear Medicine Technologist , Nuclear Cardiology Technologist , Radioisotope Technologist

      • 29-2034  Radiologic Technologists

        Take x rays and CAT scans or administer nonradioactive materials into patient's blood stream for diagnostic purposes. Includes technologists who specialize in other scanning modalities. Excludes "Diagnostic Medical Sonographers"(29-2032) and "Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technologists" (29-2035).

        Illustrative examples: Computed Tomography (CT) Scanner Operator , X-Ray Technician

      • 29-2035  Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technologists

        Operate Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanners. Monitor patient safety and comfort, and view images of area being scanned to ensure quality of pictures. May administer gadolinium contrast dosage intravenously. May interview patient, explain MRI procedures, and position patient on examining table. May enter into the computer data such as patient history, anatomical area to be scanned, orientation specified, and position of entry.

        Illustrative examples: Computed Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CT/MRI) Technologist , MRI Technologist

    • 29-2040  Emergency Medical Technicians and Paramedics
      • 29-2041  Emergency Medical Technicians and Paramedics

        Assess injuries, administer emergency medical care, and extricate trapped individuals. Transport injured or sick persons to medical facilities.

        Illustrative examples: EMT , Flight Paramedic

    • 29-2050  Health Practitioner Support Technologists and Technicians
      • 29-2051  Dietetic Technicians

        Assist in the provision of food service and nutritional programs, under the supervision of a dietitian. May plan and produce meals based on established guidelines, teach principles of food and nutrition, or counsel individuals.

        Illustrative examples: Dietary Technician , Registered Diet Technician

      • 29-2052  Pharmacy Technicians

        Prepare medications under the direction of a pharmacist. May measure, mix, count out, label, and record amounts and dosages of medications according to prescription orders.

        Illustrative examples: Certified Pharmacy Technician , Pharmacist Technician

      • 29-2053  Psychiatric Technicians

        Care for individuals with mental or emotional conditions or disabilities, following the instructions of physicians or other health practitioners. Monitor patients' physical and emotional well-being and report to medical staff. May participate in rehabilitation and treatment programs, help with personal hygiene, and administer oral or injectable medications.

        Illustrative examples: Behavioral Health Technician , Mental Health Technician

      • 29-2054  Respiratory Therapy Technicians

        Provide respiratory care under the direction of respiratory therapists and physicians.

        Illustrative examples: Certified Respiratory Therapy Technician , Oxygen Therapy Technician

      • 29-2055  Surgical Technologists

        Assist in operations, under the supervision of surgeons, registered nurses, or other surgical personnel. May help set up operating room, prepare and transport patients for surgery, adjust lights and equipment, pass instruments and other supplies to surgeons and surgeon's assistants, hold retractors, cut sutures, and help count sponges, needles, supplies, and instruments.

        Illustrative examples: Certified Surgical Technologist , OR Tech , Surgical Scrub Technologist

      • 29-2056  Veterinary Technologists and Technicians

        Perform medical tests in a laboratory environment for use in the treatment and diagnosis of diseases in animals. Prepare vaccines and serums for prevention of diseases. Prepare tissue samples, take blood samples, and execute laboratory tests, such as urinalysis and blood counts. Clean and sterilize instruments and materials and maintain equipment and machines. May assist a veterinarian during surgery.

        Illustrative examples: Veterinary Laboratory Technician , Veterinary Surgery Technologist , Veterinary X-Ray Operator

      • 29-2057  Ophthalmic Medical Technicians

        Assist ophthalmologists by performing ophthalmic clinical functions. May administer eye exams, administer eye medications, and instruct the patient in care and use of corrective lenses.

        Illustrative examples: Ocular Care Technologist , Ophthalmic Technologist

    • 29-2060  Licensed Practical and Licensed Vocational Nurses
      • 29-2061  Licensed Practical and Licensed Vocational Nurses

        Care for ill, injured, or convalescing patients or persons with disabilities in hospitals, nursing homes, clinics, private homes, group homes, and similar institutions. May work under the supervision of a registered nurse. Licensing required.

        Illustrative examples: LPN , LVN , Pediatric Licensed Practical Nurse

    • 29-2070  Medical Records and Health Information Technicians
      • 29-2071  Medical Records and Health Information Technicians

        Compile, process, and maintain medical records of hospital and clinic patients in a manner consistent with medical, administrative, ethical, legal, and regulatory requirements of the health care system. Process, maintain, compile, and report patient information for health requirements and standards in a manner consistent with the healthcare industry's numerical coding system. Excludes "File Clerks" (43-4071).

        Illustrative examples: Cancer Registrar , Health Information Coder , Health Information Systems Technician , Medical Records Specialist

    • 29-2080  Opticians, Dispensing
      • 29-2081  Opticians, Dispensing

        Design, measure, fit, and adapt lenses and frames for client according to written optical prescription or specification. Assist client with inserting, removing, and caring for contact lenses. Assist client with selecting frames. Measure customer for size of eyeglasses and coordinate frames with facial and eye measurements and optical prescription. Prepare work order for optical laboratory containing instructions for grinding and mounting lenses in frames. Verify exactness of finished lens spectacles. Adjust frame and lens position to fit client. May shape or reshape frames. Includes contact lens opticians.

        Illustrative examples: Contact Lens Fitter , Eyeglass Fitter

    • 29-2090  Miscellaneous Health Technologists and Technicians
      • 29-2091  Orthotists and Prosthetists

        Design, measure, fit, and adapt orthopedic braces, appliances or prostheses, such as limbs or facial parts for patients with disabling conditions.

        Illustrative examples: Artificial Limb Fitter , Certified Orthotic Fitter , Pedorthist

      • 29-2092  Hearing Aid Specialists

        Select and fit hearing aids for customers. Administer and interpret tests of hearing. Assess hearing instrument efficacy. Take ear impressions and prepare, design, and modify ear molds. Excludes "Audiologists" (29-1181).

        Illustrative examples: Hearing Aid Fitter , Hearing Aid Technician , Hearing Instrument Specialist

      • 29-2099  Health Technologists and Technicians, All Other

        All health technologists and technicians not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Dialysis Technician , Electroencephalogram (EEG) Technologist , Electroneurodiagnostic Technologist , Polysomnograph Tech

  • 29-9000  Other Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations
    • 29-9010  Occupational Health and Safety Specialists and Technicians
      • 29-9011  Occupational Health and Safety Specialists

        Review, evaluate, and analyze work environments and design programs and procedures to control, eliminate, and prevent disease or injury caused by chemical, physical, and biological agents or ergonomic factors. May conduct inspections and enforce adherence to laws and regulations governing the health and safety of individuals. May be employed in the public or private sector. Includes environmental protection officers.

        Illustrative examples: Environmental Health Sanitarian , Health and Safety Inspector , Industrial Hygienist

      • 29-9012  Occupational Health and Safety Technicians

        Collect data on work environments for analysis by occupational health and safety specialists. Implement and conduct evaluation of programs designed to limit chemical, physical, biological, and ergonomic risks to workers.

        Illustrative examples: Construction Health and Safety Technician , Ergonomics Technician

    • 29-9090  Miscellaneous Health Practitioners and Technical Workers
      • 29-9091  Athletic Trainers

        Evaluate and advise individuals to assist recovery from or avoid athletic-related injuries or illnesses, or maintain peak physical fitness. May provide first aid or emergency care.

        Illustrative examples: Certified Athletic Trainer

      • 29-9092  Genetic Counselors

        Assess individual or family risk for a variety of inherited conditions, such as genetic disorders and birth defects. Provide information to other healthcare providers or to individuals and families concerned with the risk of inherited conditions. Advise individuals and families to support informed decisionmaking and coping methods for those at risk. May help conduct research related to genetic conditions or genetic counseling.

        Illustrative examples: Chromosomal Disorders Counselor , Mitochondrial Disorders Counselor , Prenatal Genetic Counselor

      • 29-9099  Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Workers, All Other

        All healthcare practitioners and technical workers not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Podiatric Technician , Traditional Chinese Herbalist

31-0000 Healthcare Support Occupations

  • 31-1000  Nursing, Psychiatric, and Home Health Aides
    • 31-1010  Nursing, Psychiatric, and Home Health Aides
      • 31-1011  Home Health Aides

        Provide routine individualized healthcare such as changing bandages and dressing wounds, and applying topical medications to the elderly, convalescents, or persons with disabilities at the patient's home or in a care facility. Monitor or report changes in health status. May also provide personal care such as bathing, dressing, and grooming of patient.

        Illustrative examples: Home Health Attendant , Home Hospice Aide

      • 31-1013  Psychiatric Aides

        Assist mentally impaired or emotionally disturbed patients, working under direction of nursing and medical staff. May assist with daily living activities, lead patients in educational and recreational activities, or accompany patients to and from examinations and treatments. May restrain violent patients. Includes psychiatric orderlies.

        Illustrative examples: Mental Health Orderly , Psychiatric Nursing Aide , Psychiatric Technician Assistant

      • 31-1014  Nursing Assistants

        Provide basic patient care under direction of nursing staff. Perform duties such as feed, bathe, dress, groom, or move patients, or change linens. May transfer or transport patients. Includes nursing care attendants, nursing aides, and nursing attendants. Excludes "Home Health Aides" (31-1011), "Orderlies" (31-1015), "Personal Care Aides" (39-9021), and "Psychiatric Aides" (31-1013).

        Illustrative examples: Certified Nurse Aide , Certified Nursing Assistant , Nursing Care Attendant

      • 31-1015  Orderlies

        Transport patients to areas such as operating rooms or x-ray rooms using wheelchairs, stretchers, or moveable beds. May maintain stocks of supplies or clean and transport equipment. Psychiatric orderlies are included in "Psychiatric Aides" (31-1013). Excludes "Nursing Assistants" (31-1014).

        Illustrative examples: Hospital Orderly , Medical Orderly , Surgical Orderly

  • 31-2000  Occupational Therapy and Physical Therapist Assistants and Aides
    • 31-2010  Occupational Therapy Assistants and Aides
      • 31-2011  Occupational Therapy Assistants

        Assist occupational therapists in providing occupational therapy treatments and procedures. May, in accordance with State laws, assist in development of treatment plans, carry out routine functions, direct activity programs, and document the progress of treatments. Generally requires formal training.

        Illustrative examples: Certified Occupational Therapy Assistant , Licensed Occupational Therapy Assistant

      • 31-2012  Occupational Therapy Aides

        Under close supervision of an occupational therapist or occupational therapy assistant, perform only delegated, selected, or routine tasks in specific situations. These duties include preparing patient and treatment room.

        Illustrative examples: Occupational Rehabilitation Aide , Occupational Therapist Aide

    • 31-2020  Physical Therapist Assistants and Aides
      • 31-2021  Physical Therapist Assistants

        Assist physical therapists in providing physical therapy treatments and procedures. May, in accordance with State laws, assist in the development of treatment plans, carry out routine functions, document the progress of treatment, and modify specific treatments in accordance with patient status and within the scope of treatment plans established by a physical therapist. Generally requires formal training.

        Illustrative examples: Licensed Physical Therapist Assistant , Physiotherapy Assistant

      • 31-2022  Physical Therapist Aides

        Under close supervision of a physical therapist or physical therapy assistant, perform only delegated, selected, or routine tasks in specific situations. These duties include preparing the patient and the treatment area.

        Illustrative examples: Clinical Rehabilitation Aide , Physical Therapy Aide

  • 31-9000  Other Healthcare Support Occupations
    • 31-9010  Massage Therapists
      • 31-9011  Massage Therapists

        Perform therapeutic massages of soft tissues and joints. May assist in the assessment of range of motion and muscle strength, or propose client therapy plans.

        Illustrative examples: Deep Tissue Massage Therapist , Licensed Massage Therapist , Swedish Masseuse

    • 31-9090  Miscellaneous Healthcare Support Occupations
      • 31-9091  Dental Assistants

        Assist dentist, set up equipment, prepare patient for treatment, and keep records.

        Illustrative examples: Certified Dental Assistant , Orthodontic Assistant

      • 31-9092  Medical Assistants

        Perform administrative and certain clinical duties under the direction of a physician. Administrative duties may include scheduling appointments, maintaining medical records, billing, and coding information for insurance purposes. Clinical duties may include taking and recording vital signs and medical histories, preparing patients for examination, drawing blood, and administering medications as directed by physician. Excludes "Physician Assistants" (29-1071).

        Illustrative examples: Chiropractic Assistant , Morgue Attendant , Orthopedic Cast Specialist

      • 31-9093  Medical Equipment Preparers

        Prepare, sterilize, install, or clean laboratory or healthcare equipment. May perform routine laboratory tasks and operate or inspect equipment.

        Illustrative examples: Central Sterile Supply Technician , Sterilization Specialist

      • 31-9094  Medical Transcriptionists

        Transcribe medical reports recorded by physicians and other healthcare practitioners using various electronic devices, covering office visits, emergency room visits, diagnostic imaging studies, operations, chart reviews, and final summaries. Transcribe dictated reports and translate abbreviations into fully understandable form. Edit as necessary and return reports in either printed or electronic form for review and signature, or correction.

        Illustrative examples: Medical Stenographer , Medical Transcriber , Pathology Transcriptionist

      • 31-9095  Pharmacy Aides

        Record drugs delivered to the pharmacy, store incoming merchandise, and inform the supervisor of stock needs. May operate cash register and accept prescriptions for filling.

        Illustrative examples: Pharmacist Assistant , Pharmacy Clerk , Prescription Clerk

      • 31-9096  Veterinary Assistants and Laboratory Animal Caretakers

        Feed, water, and examine pets and other nonfarm animals for signs of illness, disease, or injury in laboratories and animal hospitals and clinics. Clean and disinfect cages and work areas, and sterilize laboratory and surgical equipment. May provide routine post-operative care, administer medication orally or topically, or prepare samples for laboratory examination under the supervision of veterinary or laboratory animal technologists or technicians, veterinarians, or scientists. Excludes "Nonfarm Animal Caretakers" (39-2021).

        Illustrative examples: Veterinarian Helper , Veterinary Attendant

      • 31-9097  Phlebotomists

        Draw blood for tests, transfusions, donations, or research. May explain the procedure to patients and assist in the recovery of patients with adverse reactions.

        Illustrative examples: Phlebotomy Technician , Venipuncturist

      • 31-9099  Healthcare Support Workers, All Other

        All healthcare support workers not listed separately

        Illustrative examples: Ortho/Prosthetic Aide

33-0000 Protective Service Occupations

  • 33-1000  Supervisors of Protective Service Workers
    • 33-1010  First-Line Supervisors of Law Enforcement Workers
    • 33-1020  First-Line Supervisors of Fire Fighting and Prevention Workers
    • 33-1090  Miscellaneous First-Line Supervisors, Protective Service Workers
  • 33-2000  Fire Fighting and Prevention Workers
    • 33-2010  Firefighters
      • 33-2011  Firefighters

        Control and extinguish fires or respond to emergency situations where life, property, or the environment is at risk. Duties may include fire prevention, emergency medical service, hazardous material response, search and rescue, and disaster assistance.

        Illustrative examples: Fire Engine Pump Operator , Forest Firefighter , Smoke Jumper

    • 33-2020  Fire Inspectors
      • 33-2021  Fire Inspectors and Investigators

        Inspect buildings to detect fire hazards and enforce local ordinances and State laws, or investigate and gather facts to determine cause of fires and explosions.

        Illustrative examples: Certified Vehicle Fire Investigator , Fire Hazard Inspector , Fire Prevention Inspector

      • 33-2022  Forest Fire Inspectors and Prevention Specialists

        Enforce fire regulations, inspect forest for fire hazards and recommend forest fire prevention or control measures. May report forest fires and weather conditions.

        Illustrative examples: Environmental Protection Fire Control Officer , Forest Fire Control Officer , Wildfire Prevention Specialist

  • 33-3000  Law Enforcement Workers
    • 33-3010  Bailiffs, Correctional Officers, and Jailers
      • 33-3011  Bailiffs

        Maintain order in courts of law.

        Illustrative examples: Court Bailiff , Court Security Officer , Deputy Bailiff

      • 33-3012  Correctional Officers and Jailers

        Guard inmates in penal or rehabilitative institutions in accordance with established regulations and procedures. May guard prisoners in transit between jail, courtroom, prison, or other point. Includes deputy sheriffs and police who spend the majority of their time guarding prisoners in correctional institutions.

        Illustrative examples: Certified Detention Deputy , Juvenile Corrections Officer , Prison Guard

    • 33-3020  Detectives and Criminal Investigators
      • 33-3021  Detectives and Criminal Investigators

        Conduct investigations related to suspected violations of Federal, State, or local laws to prevent or solve crimes. Excludes "Private Detectives and Investigators" (33-9021).

        Illustrative examples: Deputy United States Marshal , Homicide Detective , Narcotics Investigator

    • 33-3030  Fish and Game Wardens
      • 33-3031  Fish and Game Wardens

        Patrol assigned area to prevent fish and game law violations. Investigate reports of damage to crops or property by wildlife. Compile biological data.

        Illustrative examples: Conservation Enforcement Officer , Wildlife and Game Protector , Wildlife Officer

    • 33-3040  Parking Enforcement Workers
      • 33-3041  Parking Enforcement Workers

        Patrol assigned area, such as public parking lot or city streets to issue tickets to overtime parking violators and illegally parked vehicles.

        Illustrative examples: Meter Maid , Parking Enforcement Officer

    • 33-3050  Police Officers
      • 33-3051  Police and Sheriff's Patrol Officers

        Maintain order and protect life and property by enforcing local, tribal, State, or Federal laws and ordinances. Perform a combination of the following duties: patrol a specific area; direct traffic; issue traffic summonses; investigate accidents; apprehend and arrest suspects, or serve legal processes of courts.

        Illustrative examples: Border Patrol Officer , Motorcycle Police , Park Police , State Trooper

      • 33-3052  Transit and Railroad Police

        Protect and police railroad and transit property, employees, or passengers.

        Illustrative examples: Railroad Detective , Track Patrol , Transit Authority Police

  • 33-9000  Other Protective Service Workers
    • 33-9010  Animal Control Workers
      • 33-9011  Animal Control Workers

        Handle animals for the purpose of investigations of mistreatment, or control of abandoned, dangerous, or unattended animals.

        Illustrative examples: Animal Control Officer , Animal Warden , Dog Catcher , Humane Officer

    • 33-9020  Private Detectives and Investigators
      • 33-9021  Private Detectives and Investigators

        Gather, analyze, compile and report information regarding individuals or organizations to clients, or detect occurrences of unlawful acts or infractions of rules in private establishment.

        Illustrative examples: Private Eye , Skip Tracer , Store Detective

    • 33-9030  Security Guards and Gaming Surveillance Officers
      • 33-9031  Gaming Surveillance Officers and Gaming Investigators

        Act as oversight and security agent for management and customers. Observe casino or casino hotel operation for irregular activities such as cheating or theft by either employees or patrons. May use one-way mirrors above the casino floor, cashier's cage, and from desk. Use of audio/video equipment is also common to observe operation of the business. Usually required to provide verbal and written reports of all violations and suspicious behavior to supervisor.

        Illustrative examples: Casino Investigator , Casino Surveillance Officer , Gambling Monitor

      • 33-9032  Security Guards

        Guard, patrol, or monitor premises to prevent theft, violence, or infractions of rules. May operate x-ray and metal detector equipment. Excludes "Transportation Security Screeners" (33-9093).

        Illustrative examples: Bank Guard , Bodyguard , Bouncer

    • 33-9090  Miscellaneous Protective Service Workers
      • 33-9091  Crossing Guards

        Guide or control vehicular or pedestrian traffic at such places as streets, schools, railroad crossings, or construction sites.

        Illustrative examples: Construction Site Crossing Guard , School Traffic Guard

      • 33-9092  Lifeguards, Ski Patrol, and Other Recreational Protective Service Workers

        Monitor recreational areas, such as pools, beaches, or ski slopes to provide assistance and protection to participants.

        Illustrative examples: Beach Lifeguard , Outdoor Emergency Care Technician

      • 33-9093  Transportation Security Screeners

        Conduct screening of passengers, baggage, or cargo to ensure compliance with Transportation Security Administration (TSA) regulations. May operate basic security equipment such as x-ray machines and hand wands at screening checkpoints.

        Illustrative examples: Airport Baggage Screener , Airport Security Screener , Transportation Security Administration (TSA) Screener , Transportation Security Officer

      • 33-9099  Protective Service Workers, All Other

        All protective service workers not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Playground Monitor , Warrant Server

35-0000 Food Preparation and Serving Related Occupations

  • 35-1000  Supervisors of Food Preparation and Serving Workers
    • 35-1010  Supervisors of Food Preparation and Serving Workers
      • 35-1011  Chefs and Head Cooks

        Direct and may participate in the preparation, seasoning, and cooking of salads, soups, fish, meats, vegetables, desserts, or other foods. May plan and price menu items, order supplies, and keep records and accounts.

        Illustrative examples: Executive Chef , Pastry Chef , Sous Chef

      • 35-1012  First-Line Supervisors of Food Preparation and Serving Workers

        Directly supervise and coordinate activities of workers engaged in preparing and serving food.

        Illustrative examples: Banquet Supervisor , Bar Manager , Kitchen Supervisor

  • 35-2000  Cooks and Food Preparation Workers
    • 35-2010  Cooks
      • 35-2011  Cooks, Fast Food

        Prepare and cook food in a fast food restaurant with a limited menu. Duties of these cooks are limited to preparation of a few basic items and normally involve operating large-volume single-purpose cooking equipment.

        Illustrative examples: Fast Food Fry Cook

      • 35-2012  Cooks, Institution and Cafeteria

        Prepare and cook large quantities of food for institutions, such as schools, hospitals, or cafeterias.

        Illustrative examples: Camp Cook , Galley Cook , Mess Cook , School Cook

      • 35-2013  Cooks, Private Household

        Prepare meals in private homes. Includes personal chefs.

        Illustrative examples: Certified Personal Chef , Private Chef

      • 35-2014  Cooks, Restaurant

        Prepare, season, and cook dishes such as soups, meats, vegetables, or desserts in restaurants. May order supplies, keep records and accounts, price items on menu, or plan menu.

        Illustrative examples: Banquet Cook , Line Cook , Saucier

      • 35-2015  Cooks, Short Order

        Prepare and cook to order a variety of foods that require only a short preparation time. May take orders from customers and serve patrons at counters or tables. Excludes "Fast Food Cooks" (35-2011).

        Illustrative examples: Griddle Cook

      • 35-2019  Cooks, All Other

        All cooks not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Falafel Cart Cook , Fraternity House Cook

    • 35-2020  Food Preparation Workers
      • 35-2021  Food Preparation Workers

        Perform a variety of food preparation duties other than cooking, such as preparing cold foods and shellfish, slicing meat, and brewing coffee or tea.

        Illustrative examples: Fruit and Vegetable Parer , Salad Maker , Sandwich Maker

  • 35-3000  Food and Beverage Serving Workers
    • 35-3010  Bartenders
      • 35-3011  Bartenders

        Mix and serve drinks to patrons, directly or through waitstaff.

        Illustrative examples: Barkeep , Mixologist , Taproom Attendant

    • 35-3020  Fast Food and Counter Workers
    • 35-3030  Waiters and Waitresses
      • 35-3031  Waiters and Waitresses

        Take orders and serve food and beverages to patrons at tables in dining establishment. Excludes "Counter Attendants, Cafeteria, Food Concession, and Coffee Shop" (35-3022).

        Illustrative examples: Cocktail Server , Dining Car Server , Wine Steward

    • 35-3040  Food Servers, Nonrestaurant
      • 35-3041  Food Servers, Nonrestaurant

        Serve food to individuals outside of a restaurant environment, such as in hotel rooms, hospital rooms, residential care facilities, or cars. Excludes "Door-to-Door Sales Workers, News and Street Vendors, and Related Workers" (41-9091) and "Counter Attendants, Cafeteria, Food Concession, and Coffee Shop" (35-3022).

        Illustrative examples: Boat Hop , Hospital Food Service Worker , Room Service Food Server

  • 35-9000  Other Food Preparation and Serving Related Workers
    • 35-9010  Dining Room and Cafeteria Attendants and Bartender Helpers
      • 35-9011  Dining Room and Cafeteria Attendants and Bartender Helpers

        Facilitate food service. Clean tables, remove dirty dishes, replace soiled table linens; set tables; replenish supply of clean linens, silverware, glassware, and dishes; supply service bar with food; and serve items such as water, condiments, and coffee to patrons.

        Illustrative examples: Bar Back , Busser , Lunchroom Attendant

    • 35-9020  Dishwashers
      • 35-9021  Dishwashers

        Clean dishes, kitchen, food preparation equipment, or utensils.

        Illustrative examples: Dish Room Worker , Silverware Cleaner

    • 35-9030  Hosts and Hostesses, Restaurant, Lounge, and Coffee Shop
    • 35-9090  Miscellaneous Food Preparation and Serving Related Workers

37-0000 Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance Occupations

  • 37-1000  Supervisors of Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance Workers
    • 37-1010  First-Line Supervisors of Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance Workers
      • 37-1011  First-Line Supervisors of Housekeeping and Janitorial Workers

        Directly supervise and coordinate work activities of cleaning personnel in hotels, hospitals, offices, and other establishments.

        Illustrative examples: Building Cleaning Supervisor , Cleaning Staff Supervisor , Custodial Supervisor

      • 37-1012  First-Line Supervisors of Landscaping, Lawn Service, and Groundskeeping Workers

        Directly supervise and coordinate activities of workers engaged in landscaping or groundskeeping activities. Work may involve reviewing contracts to ascertain service, machine, and workforce requirements; answering inquiries from potential customers regarding methods, material, and price ranges; and preparing estimates according to labor, material, and machine costs.

        Illustrative examples: Grounds Maintenance Supervisor , Head Greenskeeper , Horticultural Services Supervisor

  • 37-2000  Building Cleaning and Pest Control Workers
    • 37-2010  Building Cleaning Workers
      • 37-2011  Janitors and Cleaners, Except Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners

        Keep buildings in clean and orderly condition. Perform heavy cleaning duties, such as cleaning floors, shampooing rugs, washing walls and glass, and removing rubbish. Duties may include tending furnace and boiler, performing routine maintenance activities, notifying management of need for repairs, and cleaning snow or debris from sidewalk.

        Illustrative examples: Industrial Plant Custodian , School Custodian , Window Washer

      • 37-2012  Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners

        Perform any combination of light cleaning duties to maintain private households or commercial establishments, such as hotels and hospitals, in a clean and orderly manner. Duties may include making beds, replenishing linens, cleaning rooms and halls, and vacuuming.

        Illustrative examples: Chambermaid , House Cleaner , Housekeeping Staff

      • 37-2019  Building Cleaning Workers, All Other

        All building cleaning workers not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Building Pressure Washer , Chimney Sweeper

    • 37-2020  Pest Control Workers
      • 37-2021  Pest Control Workers

        Apply or release chemical solutions or toxic gases and set traps to kill or remove pests and vermin that infest buildings and surrounding areas.

        Illustrative examples: Exterminator , Fumigator , Rodent Exterminator

  • 37-3000  Grounds Maintenance Workers
    • 37-3010  Grounds Maintenance Workers
      • 37-3011  Landscaping and Groundskeeping Workers

        Landscape or maintain grounds of property using hand or power tools or equipment. Workers typically perform a variety of tasks, which may include any combination of the following: sod laying, mowing, trimming, planting, watering, fertilizing, digging, raking, sprinkler installation, and installation of mortarless segmental concrete masonry wall units. Excludes "Farmworkers and Laborers, Crop, Nursery, and Greenhouse" (45-2092).

        Illustrative examples: Greenskeeper , Hedge Trimmer , Lawn Caretaker , Shrub Planter

      • 37-3012  Pesticide Handlers, Sprayers, and Applicators, Vegetation

        Mix or apply pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, or insecticides through sprays, dusts, vapors, soil incorporation, or chemical application on trees, shrubs, lawns, or botanical crops. Usually requires specific training and State or Federal certification. Excludes "Commercial Pilots" (53-2012) who dust or spray crops from aircraft.

        Illustrative examples: Fruit Sprayer , Weed Sprayer

      • 37-3013  Tree Trimmers and Pruners

        Using sophisticated climbing and rigging techniques, cut away dead or excess branches from trees or shrubs to maintain right-of-way for roads, sidewalks, or utilities, or to improve appearance, health, and value of tree. Prune or treat trees or shrubs using handsaws, hand pruners, clippers, and power pruners. Works off the ground in the tree canopy and may use truck-mounted lifts. Excludes workers who primarily perform duties of "Pesticide Handlers, Sprayers, and Applicators, Vegetation" (37-3012) and "Landscaping and Groundskeeping Workers" (37-3011).

        Illustrative examples: Tree Specialist , Tree Surgeon

      • 37-3019  Grounds Maintenance Workers, All Other

        All grounds maintenance workers not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Trailhead Maintenance Worker , Tree Trimmer Helper

39-0000 Personal Care and Service Occupations

  • 39-1000  Supervisors of Personal Care and Service Workers
    • 39-1010  First-Line Supervisors of Gaming Workers
      • 39-1011  Gaming Supervisors

        Supervise and coordinate activities of workers in assigned gaming areas. Circulate among tables and observe operations. Ensure that stations and games are covered for each shift. May explain and interpret operating rules of house to patrons. May plan and organize activities and services for guests in hotels/casinos. May address service complaints. Excludes "Slot Supervisors" (39-1012).

        Illustrative examples: Cardroom Manager , Pit Boss , Table Games Supervisor

      • 39-1012  Slot Supervisors

        Supervise and coordinate activities of slot department workers to provide service to patrons. Handle and settle complaints of players. Verify and pay off jackpots. Reset slot machines after payoffs. Make repairs or adjustments to slot machines or recommend removal of slot machines for repair. Report hazards and enforce safety rules.

        Illustrative examples: Casino Slot Supervisor , Electronic Gaming Device Supervisor , Slot Key Person

    • 39-1020  First-Line Supervisors of Personal Service Workers
      • 39-1021  First-Line Supervisors of Personal Service Workers

        Directly supervise and coordinate activities of personal service workers, such as flight attendants, hairdressers, or caddies.

        Illustrative examples: Animal Trainer Supervisor , Caddy Master , Recreation Attendant Supervisor

  • 39-2000  Animal Care and Service Workers
    • 39-2010  Animal Trainers
      • 39-2011  Animal Trainers

        Train animals for riding, harness, security, performance, or obedience, or assisting persons with disabilities. Accustom animals to human voice and contact; and condition animals to respond to commands. Train animals according to prescribed standards for show or competition. May train animals to carry pack loads or work as part of pack team.

        Illustrative examples: Guide Dog Trainer , Horse Breaker , Marine Mammal Trainer

    • 39-2020  Nonfarm Animal Caretakers
      • 39-2021  Nonfarm Animal Caretakers

        Feed, water, groom, bathe, exercise, or otherwise care for pets and other nonfarm animals, such as dogs, cats, ornamental fish or birds, zoo animals, and mice. Work in settings such as kennels, animal shelters, zoos, circuses, and aquariums. May keep records of feedings, treatments, and animals received or discharged. May clean, disinfect, and repair cages, pens, or fish tanks. Excludes "Veterinary Assistants and Laboratory Animal Caretakers" (31-9096).

        Illustrative examples: Animal Shelter Worker , Dog Groomer , Kennel Worker , Zookeeper

  • 39-3000  Entertainment Attendants and Related Workers
    • 39-3010  Gaming Services Workers
      • 39-3011  Gaming Dealers

        Operate table games. Stand or sit behind table and operate games of chance by dispensing the appropriate number of cards or blocks to players, or operating other gaming equipment. Distribute winnings or collect players' money or chips. May compare the house's hand against players' hands.

        Illustrative examples: Blackjack Dealer , Craps Dealer , Poker Dealer , Roulette Dealer

      • 39-3012  Gaming and Sports Book Writers and Runners

        Post information enabling patrons to wager on various races and sporting events. Assist in the operation of games such as keno and bingo. May operate random number generating equipment and announce the numbers for patrons. Receive, verify, and record patrons' wagers. Scan and process winning tickets presented by patrons and payout winnings for those wagers.

        Illustrative examples: Betting Clerk , Keno Runner , Race Book Writer

      • 39-3019  Gaming Service Workers, All Other

        All gaming service workers not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Pit Clerk , Proposition Player , Shill

    • 39-3020  Motion Picture Projectionists
      • 39-3021  Motion Picture Projectionists

        Set up and operate motion picture projection and related sound reproduction equipment.

        Illustrative examples: Film Projector Operator , Movie Projectionist

    • 39-3030  Ushers, Lobby Attendants, and Ticket Takers
      • 39-3031  Ushers, Lobby Attendants, and Ticket Takers

        Assist patrons at entertainment events by performing duties, such as collecting admission tickets and passes from patrons, assisting in finding seats, searching for lost articles, and locating such facilities as rest rooms and telephones.

        Illustrative examples: Theater Usher , Ticket Collector

    • 39-3090  Miscellaneous Entertainment Attendants and Related Workers
      • 39-3091  Amusement and Recreation Attendants

        Perform a variety of attending duties at amusement or recreation facility. May schedule use of recreation facilities, maintain and provide equipment to participants of sporting events or recreational pursuits, or operate amusement concessions and rides.

        Illustrative examples: Arcade Attendant , Golf Caddy , Ski Lift Operator

      • 39-3092  Costume Attendants

        Select, fit, and take care of costumes for cast members, and aid entertainers. May assist with multiple costume changes during performances.

        Illustrative examples: Theatrical Wardrobe Dresser , Wardrobe Attendant

      • 39-3093  Locker Room, Coatroom, and Dressing Room Attendants

        Provide personal items to patrons or customers in locker rooms, dressing rooms, or coatrooms.

        Illustrative examples: Bathhouse Attendant , Coat Checker , Washroom Attendant

      • 39-3099  Entertainment Attendants and Related Workers, All Other

        All entertainment attendants and related workers not listed separately.

  • 39-4000  Funeral Service Workers
    • 39-4010  Embalmers
      • 39-4011  Embalmers

        Prepare bodies for interment in conformity with legal requirements.

        Illustrative examples: Licensed Embalmer , Restorative Art Embalmer

    • 39-4020  Funeral Attendants
      • 39-4021  Funeral Attendants

        Perform a variety of tasks during funeral, such as placing casket in parlor or chapel prior to service; arranging floral offerings or lights around casket; directing or escorting mourners; closing casket; and issuing and storing funeral equipment.

        Illustrative examples: Funeral Home Assistant , Mortician Helper , Pallbearer

    • 39-4030  Morticians, Undertakers, and Funeral Directors
      • 39-4031  Morticians, Undertakers, and Funeral Directors

        Perform various tasks to arrange and direct funeral services, such as coordinating transportation of body to mortuary, interviewing family or other authorized person to arrange details, selecting pallbearers, aiding with the selection of officials for religious rites, and providing transportation for mourners. Excludes "Funeral Service Managers" (11-9061).

        Illustrative examples: Certified Mortician , Funeral Arranger

  • 39-5000  Personal Appearance Workers
    • 39-5010  Barbers, Hairdressers, Hairstylists and Cosmetologists
      • 39-5011  Barbers

        Provide barbering services, such as cutting, trimming, shampooing, and styling hair, trimming beards, or giving shaves.

        Illustrative examples: Barber Apprentice , Master Barber

      • 39-5012  Hairdressers, Hairstylists, and Cosmetologists

        Provide beauty services, such as shampooing, cutting, coloring, and styling hair, and massaging and treating scalp. May apply makeup, dress wigs, perform hair removal, and provide nail and skin care services. Excludes "Makeup Artists, Theatrical and Performance (39-5091), "Manicurists and Pedicurists" (39-5092), and "Skincare Specialists" (39-5094).

        Illustrative examples: Beautician , Wig Stylist

    • 39-5090  Miscellaneous Personal Appearance Workers
      • 39-5091  Makeup Artists, Theatrical and Performance

        Apply makeup to performers to reflect period, setting, and situation of their role.

        Illustrative examples: Special Effects Makeup Artist

      • 39-5092  Manicurists and Pedicurists

        Clean and shape customers' fingernails and toenails. May polish or decorate nails.

        Illustrative examples: Fingernail Sculptor , Nail Technician

      • 39-5093  Shampooers

        Shampoo and rinse customers' hair.

        Illustrative examples: Scalp Treatment Specialist , Shampoo Assistant

      • 39-5094  Skincare Specialists

        Provide skincare treatments to face and body to enhance an individual's appearance. Includes electrologists and laser hair removal specialists.

        Illustrative examples: Facialist , Medical Esthetician

  • 39-6000  Baggage Porters, Bellhops, and Concierges
    • 39-6010  Baggage Porters, Bellhops, and Concierges
      • 39-6011  Baggage Porters and Bellhops

        Handle baggage for travelers at transportation terminals or for guests at hotels or similar establishments.

        Illustrative examples: Bellstaff , Hotel Baggage Handler , Skycap

      • 39-6012  Concierges

        Assist patrons at hotel, apartment, or office building with personal services. May take messages, arrange or give advice on transportation, business services or entertainment, or monitor guest requests for housekeeping and maintenance.

        Illustrative examples: Activities Concierge , Hotel Concierge , Hotel Guest Service Agent

  • 39-7000  Tour and Travel Guides
    • 39-7010  Tour and Travel Guides
      • 39-7011  Tour Guides and Escorts

        Escort individuals or groups on sightseeing tours or through places of interest, such as industrial establishments, public buildings, and art galleries.

        Illustrative examples: Historical Site Guide , Museum Guide , Sightseeing Guide

      • 39-7012  Travel Guides

        Plan, organize, and conduct long distance travel , tours, and expeditions for individuals and groups.

        Illustrative examples: Cruise Director , River Expedition Guide

  • 39-9000  Other Personal Care and Service Workers
    • 39-9010  Childcare Workers
      • 39-9011  Childcare Workers

        Attend to children at schools, businesses, private households, and childcare institutions. Perform a variety of tasks, such as dressing, feeding, bathing, and overseeing play. Excludes "Preschool Teachers, Except Special Education" (25-2011) and "Teacher Assistants" (25-9041).

        Illustrative examples: Au Pair , Daycare Provider , Nanny

    • 39-9020  Personal Care Aides
      • 39-9021  Personal Care Aides

        Assist the elderly, convalescents, or persons with disabilities with daily living activities at the person's home or in a care facility. Duties performed at a place of residence may include keeping house (making beds, doing laundry, washing dishes) and preparing meals. May provide assistance at non-residential care facilities. May advise families, the elderly, convalescents, and persons with disabilities regarding such things as nutrition, cleanliness, and household activities.

        Illustrative examples: Blind Escort , Elderly Companion , Geriatric Personal Care Aide

    • 39-9030  Recreation and Fitness Workers
      • 39-9031  Fitness Trainers and Aerobics Instructors

        Instruct or coach groups or individuals in exercise activities. Demonstrate techniques and form, observe participants, and explain to them corrective measures necessary to improve their skills. Excludes teachers classified in 25-0000 Education, Training, and Library Occupations. Excludes "Coaches and Scouts" (27-2022) and "Athletic Trainers" (29-9091).

        Illustrative examples: Personal Trainer , Yoga Instructor

      • 39-9032  Recreation Workers

        Conduct recreation activities with groups in public, private, or volunteer agencies or recreation facilities. Organize and promote activities, such as arts and crafts, sports, games, music, dramatics, social recreation, camping, and hobbies, taking into account the needs and interests of individual members.

        Illustrative examples: Activities Aide , Camp Counselor , Playground Worker

    • 39-9040  Residential Advisors
      • 39-9041  Residential Advisors

        Coordinate activities in resident facilities in secondary and college dormitories, group homes, or similar establishments. Order supplies and determine need for maintenance, repairs, and furnishings. May maintain household records and assign rooms. May assist residents with problem solving or refer them to counseling resources.

        Illustrative examples: Dormitory Counselor , House Parent , Residence Life Coordinator

    • 39-9090  Miscellaneous Personal Care and Service Workers

41-0000 Sales and Related Occupations

  • 41-1000  Supervisors of Sales Workers
    • 41-1010  First-Line Supervisors of Sales Workers
      • 41-1011  First-Line Supervisors of Retail Sales Workers

        Directly supervise and coordinate activities of retail sales workers in an establishment or department. Duties may include management functions, such as purchasing, budgeting, accounting, and personnel work, in addition to supervisory duties.

        Illustrative examples: Cashier Supervisor , Delicatessen Department Manager

      • 41-1012  First-Line Supervisors of Non-Retail Sales Workers

        Directly supervise and coordinate activities of sales workers other than retail sales workers. May perform duties, such as budgeting, accounting, and personnel work, in addition to supervisory duties.

        Illustrative examples: Insurance Sales Supervisor , Real Estate Sales Supervisor , Telemarketer Supervisor

  • 41-2000  Retail Sales Workers
    • 41-2010  Cashiers
      • 41-2011  Cashiers

        Receive and disburse money in establishments other than financial institutions. May use electronic scanners, cash registers, or related equipment. May process credit or debit card transactions and validate checks. Excludes "Gaming Cage Persons and Booth Cashiers" (41-2012).

        Illustrative examples: Cash Register Operator , Grocery Checker , Toll Collector

      • 41-2012  Gaming Change Persons and Booth Cashiers

        Exchange coins, tokens and chips for patrons' money. May issue payoffs and obtain customer's signature on receipt. May operate a booth in the slot machine area and furnish change persons with money bank at the start of the shift, or count and audit money in drawers. Excludes "Cashiers" (41-2011).

        Illustrative examples: Mutuel Teller , Slot Attendant

    • 41-2020  Counter and Rental Clerks and Parts Salespersons
      • 41-2021  Counter and Rental Clerks

        Receive orders, generally in person, for repairs, rentals, and services. May describe available options, compute cost, and accept payment. Excludes "Counter Attendants, Cafeteria, Food Concession, and Coffee Shop" (35-3022), "Hotel, Motel, and Resort Desk Clerks" (43-4081), "Order Clerks" (43-4151), and "Reservation and Transportation Ticket Agents and Travel Clerks" (43-4181).

        Illustrative examples: Car Rental Agent , Dry Cleaning Counter Clerk

      • 41-2022  Parts Salespersons

        Sell spare and replacement parts and equipment in repair shop or parts store.

        Illustrative examples: Auto Parts Salesperson , Electronic Parts Salesperson

    • 41-2030  Retail Salespersons
      • 41-2031  Retail Salespersons

        Sell merchandise, such as furniture, motor vehicles, appliances, or apparel to consumers. Excludes "Cashiers" (41-2011).

        Illustrative examples: Used Car Salesperson , Women's Apparel Salesperson

  • 41-3000  Sales Representatives, Services
    • 41-3010  Advertising Sales Agents
      • 41-3011  Advertising Sales Agents

        Sell or solicit advertising space, time, or media in publications, signage, TV, radio, or Internet establishments or public spaces.

        Illustrative examples: Advertising Account Executive , Display Advertising Sales Representative , Yellow Pages Space Salesperson

    • 41-3020  Insurance Sales Agents
      • 41-3021  Insurance Sales Agents

        Sell life, property, casualty, health, automotive, or other types of insurance. May refer clients to independent brokers, work as an independent broker, or be employed by an insurance company.

        Illustrative examples: Life Insurance Salesperson , Pension Agent

    • 41-3030  Securities, Commodities, and Financial Services Sales Agents
      • 41-3031  Securities, Commodities, and Financial Services Sales Agents

        Buy and sell securities or commodities in investment and trading firms, or provide financial services to businesses and individuals. May advise customers about stocks, bonds, mutual funds, commodities, and market conditions.

        Illustrative examples: Investment Banker , Securities Trader , Stock Broker

    • 41-3040  Travel Agents
      • 41-3041  Travel Agents

        Plan and sell transportation and accommodations for travel agency customers. Determine destination, modes of transportation, travel dates, costs, and accommodations required. May also describe, plan, and arrange itineraries and sell tour packages. May assist in resolving clients' travel problems.

        Illustrative examples: Corporate Travel Expert , Travel Service Consultant

    • 41-3090  Miscellaneous Sales Representatives, Services
      • 41-3099  Sales Representatives, Services, All Other

        All services sales representatives not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Business Services Sales Representative , Membership Solicitor , Pest Control Service Sales Agent

  • 41-4000  Sales Representatives, Wholesale and Manufacturing
    • 41-4010  Sales Representatives, Wholesale and Manufacturing
  • 41-9000  Other Sales and Related Workers
    • 41-9010  Models, Demonstrators, and Product Promoters
      • 41-9011  Demonstrators and Product Promoters

        Demonstrate merchandise and answer questions for the purpose of creating public interest in buying the product. May sell demonstrated merchandise.

        Illustrative examples: Home Demonstrator , In-Store Demonstrator

      • 41-9012  Models

        Model garments or other apparel and accessories for prospective buyers at fashion shows, private showings, or retail establishments. May pose for photos to be used in magazines or advertisements. May pose as subject for paintings, sculptures, and other types of artistic expression.

        Illustrative examples: Fashion Model , Hand Model , Photographer's Model

    • 41-9020  Real Estate Brokers and Sales Agents
      • 41-9021  Real Estate Brokers

        Operate real estate office, or work for commercial real estate firm, overseeing real estate transactions. Other duties usually include selling real estate or renting properties and arranging loans.

        Illustrative examples: Licensed Real Estate Broker

      • 41-9022  Real Estate Sales Agents

        Rent, buy, or sell property for clients. Perform duties, such as study property listings, interview prospective clients, accompany clients to property site, discuss conditions of sale, and draw up real estate contracts. Includes agents who represent buyer.

        Illustrative examples: Apartment Rental Agent , Right of Way Agent

    • 41-9030  Sales Engineers
      • 41-9031  Sales Engineers

        Sell business goods or services, the selling of which requires a technical background equivalent to a baccalaureate degree in engineering. Excludes "Engineers" (17-2011 through 17-2199) whose primary function is not marketing or sales.

        Illustrative examples: Aerospace Products Sales Engineer , Missile Navigation Systems Sales Engineer , Nuclear Equipment Sales Engineer

    • 41-9040  Telemarketers
      • 41-9041  Telemarketers

        Solicit donations or orders for goods or services over the telephone.

        Illustrative examples: Telemarketing Sales Representative , Telephone Solicitor

    • 41-9090  Miscellaneous Sales and Related Workers

43-0000 Office and Administrative Support Occupations

  • 43-1000  Supervisors of Office and Administrative Support Workers
  • 43-2000  Communications Equipment Operators
    • 43-2010  Switchboard Operators, Including Answering Service
      • 43-2011  Switchboard Operators, Including Answering Service

        Operate telephone business systems equipment or switchboards to relay incoming, outgoing, and interoffice calls. May supply information to callers and record messages.

        Illustrative examples: Private Branch Exchange Operator , Telephone Answering Service Operator , Telephone Switchboard Operator

    • 43-2020  Telephone Operators
      • 43-2021  Telephone Operators

        Provide information by accessing alphabetical, geographical, or other directories. Assist customers with special billing requests, such as charges to a third party and credits or refunds for incorrectly dialed numbers or bad connections. May handle emergency calls and assist children or people with physical disabilities to make telephone calls.

        Illustrative examples: Directory Assistance Operator , Information Operator , Long Distance Operator

    • 43-2090  Miscellaneous Communications Equipment Operators
  • 43-3000  Financial Clerks
    • 43-3010  Bill and Account Collectors
      • 43-3011  Bill and Account Collectors

        Locate and notify customers of delinquent accounts by mail, telephone, or personal visit to solicit payment. Duties include receiving payment and posting amount to customer's account; preparing statements to credit department if customer fails to respond; initiating repossession proceedings or service disconnection; and keeping records of collection and status of accounts.

        Illustrative examples: Collection Agent , Debt Collector , Repossessor

    • 43-3020  Billing and Posting Clerks
      • 43-3021  Billing and Posting Clerks

        Compile, compute, and record billing, accounting, statistical, and other numerical data for billing purposes. Prepare billing invoices for services rendered or for delivery or shipment of goods.

        Illustrative examples: Invoice Control Clerk , Patient Account Representative , Statement Processor

    • 43-3030  Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks
      • 43-3031  Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks

        Compute, classify, and record numerical data to keep financial records complete. Perform any combination of routine calculating, posting, and verifying duties to obtain primary financial data for use in maintaining accounting records. May also check the accuracy of figures, calculations, and postings pertaining to business transactions recorded by other workers. Excludes "Payroll and Timekeeping Clerks" (43-3051).

        Illustrative examples: Accounts Receivable Clerk , Bookkeeper , Mortgage Accounting Clerk

    • 43-3040  Gaming Cage Workers
      • 43-3041  Gaming Cage Workers

        In a gaming establishment, conduct financial transactions for patrons. May reconcile daily summaries of transactions to balance books. Accept patron's credit application and verify credit references to provide check-cashing authorization or to establish house credit accounts. May sell gambling chips, tokens, or tickets to patrons, or to other workers for resale to patrons. May convert gaming chips, tokens, or tickets to currency upon patron's request. May use a cash register or computer to record transaction.

        Illustrative examples: Cage Cashier , Casino Cashier

    • 43-3050  Payroll and Timekeeping Clerks
      • 43-3051  Payroll and Timekeeping Clerks

        Compile and record employee time and payroll data. May compute employees' time worked, production, and commission. May compute and post wages and deductions, or prepare paychecks. Excludes "Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks" (43-3031).

        Illustrative examples: Time and Attendance Clerk , Timekeeper

    • 43-3060  Procurement Clerks
      • 43-3061  Procurement Clerks

        Compile information and records to draw up purchase orders for procurement of materials and services.

        Illustrative examples: Procurement Assistant , Purchasing Clerk

    • 43-3070  Tellers
      • 43-3071  Tellers

        Receive and pay out money. Keep records of money and negotiable instruments involved in a financial institution's various transactions.

        Illustrative examples: Foreign Exchange Clerk , Money Order Clerk , Securities Teller

    • 43-3090  Miscellaneous Financial Clerks
      • 43-3099  Financial Clerks, All Other

        All financial clerks not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Bank Vault Attendant , Financial Reserve Clerk , Safety Deposit Clerk

  • 43-4000  Information and Record Clerks
    • 43-4010  Brokerage Clerks
      • 43-4011  Brokerage Clerks

        Perform duties related to the purchase, sale or holding of securities. Duties include writing orders for stock purchases or sales, computing transfer taxes, verifying stock transactions, accepting and delivering securities, tracking stock price fluctuations, computing equity, distributing dividends, and keeping records of daily transactions and holdings.

        Illustrative examples: Commodities Clerk , Dividend Clerk

    • 43-4020  Correspondence Clerks
      • 43-4021  Correspondence Clerks

        Compose letters or electronic correspondence in reply to requests for merchandise, damage claims, credit and other information, delinquent accounts, incorrect billings, or unsatisfactory services. Duties may include gathering data to formulate reply and preparing correspondence.

        Illustrative examples: Fan Mail Editor , Medicare Correspondence Representative

    • 43-4030  Court, Municipal, and License Clerks
      • 43-4031  Court, Municipal, and License Clerks

        Perform clerical duties for courts of law, municipalities, or governmental licensing agencies and bureaus. May prepare docket of cases to be called; secure information for judges and court; prepare draft agendas or bylaws for town or city council; answer official correspondence; keep fiscal records and accounts; issue licenses or permits; and record data, administer tests, or collect fees. Clerks of Court are classified in "Managers, All Other" (11-9199).

        Illustrative examples: Circuit Court Clerk , Motor Vehicle License Clerk , Warrant Clerk

    • 43-4040  Credit Authorizers, Checkers, and Clerks
      • 43-4041  Credit Authorizers, Checkers, and Clerks

        Authorize credit charges against customers' accounts. Investigate history and credit standing of individuals or business establishments applying for credit. May interview applicants to obtain personal and financial data; determine credit worthiness; process applications; and notify customers of acceptance or rejection of credit.

        Illustrative examples: Charge Authorizer , Commercial Credit Reviewer , Credit Rating Checker

    • 43-4050  Customer Service Representatives
      • 43-4051  Customer Service Representatives

        Interact with customers to provide information in response to inquiries about products and services and to handle and resolve complaints. Excludes individuals whose duties are primarily installation, sales, or repair.

        Illustrative examples: Customer Complaint Clerk , Passenger Relations Representative , Warranty Clerk

    • 43-4060  Eligibility Interviewers, Government Programs
      • 43-4061  Eligibility Interviewers, Government Programs

        Determine eligibility of persons applying to receive assistance from government programs and agency resources, such as welfare, unemployment benefits, social security, and public housing.

        Illustrative examples: Medicare Interviewer , Public Housing Interviewer , Unemployment Benefits Claims Taker

    • 43-4070  File Clerks
      • 43-4071  File Clerks

        File correspondence, cards, invoices, receipts, and other records in alphabetical or numerical order or according to the filing system used. Locate and remove material from file when requested.

        Illustrative examples: Document Clerk , Records Clerk

    • 43-4080  Hotel, Motel, and Resort Desk Clerks
      • 43-4081  Hotel, Motel, and Resort Desk Clerks

        Accommodate hotel, motel, and resort patrons by registering and assigning rooms to guests, issuing room keys or cards, transmitting and receiving messages, keeping records of occupied rooms and guests' accounts, making and confirming reservations, and presenting statements to and collecting payments from departing guests.

        Illustrative examples: Hotel Front Desk Clerk , Hotel Registration Clerk

    • 43-4110  Interviewers, Except Eligibility and Loan
      • 43-4111  Interviewers, Except Eligibility and Loan

        Interview persons by telephone, mail, in person, or by other means for the purpose of completing forms, applications, or questionnaires. Ask specific questions, record answers, and assist persons with completing form. May sort, classify, and file forms.

        Illustrative examples: Census Taker , Market Research Interviewer , Outpatient Interviewing Clerk

    • 43-4120  Library Assistants, Clerical
      • 43-4121  Library Assistants, Clerical

        Compile records, sort, shelve, issue, and receive library materials such as books, electronic media, pictures, cards, slides and microfilm. Locate library materials for loan and replace material in shelving area, stacks, or files according to identification number and title. Register patrons to permit them to borrow books, periodicals, and other library materials. Excludes "Library Technicians" (25-4031).

        Illustrative examples: Braille and Talking Books Clerk , Circulation Clerk , Microfilm Clerk

    • 43-4130  Loan Interviewers and Clerks
      • 43-4131  Loan Interviewers and Clerks

        Interview loan applicants to elicit information; investigate applicants' backgrounds and verify references; prepare loan request papers; and forward findings, reports, and documents to appraisal department. Review loan papers to ensure completeness, and complete transactions between loan establishment, borrowers, and sellers upon approval of loan.

        Illustrative examples: Loan Processor , Mortgage Loan Closer

    • 43-4140  New Accounts Clerks
      • 43-4141  New Accounts Clerks

        Interview persons desiring to open accounts in financial institutions. Explain account services available to prospective customers and assist them in preparing applications.

        Illustrative examples: Banking Services Clerk , New Accounts Banking Representative

    • 43-4150  Order Clerks
      • 43-4151  Order Clerks

        Receive and process incoming orders for materials, merchandise, classified ads, or services such as repairs, installations, or rental of facilities. Generally receives orders via mail, phone, fax, or other electronic means. Duties include informing customers of receipt, prices, shipping dates, and delays; preparing contracts; and handling complaints. Excludes "Dispatchers, Except Police, Fire, and Ambulance" (43-5032) who both dispatch and take orders for services.

        Illustrative examples: Catalogue Clerk , Classified Ad Clerk , Subscription Clerk

    • 43-4160  Human Resources Assistants, Except Payroll and Timekeeping
      • 43-4161  Human Resources Assistants, Except Payroll and Timekeeping

        Compile and keep personnel records. Record data for each employee, such as address, weekly earnings, absences, amount of sales or production, supervisory reports, and date of and reason for termination. May prepare reports for employment records, file employment records, or search employee files and furnish information to authorized persons.

        Illustrative examples: HR Clerk , Personnel Clerk

    • 43-4170  Receptionists and Information Clerks
      • 43-4171  Receptionists and Information Clerks

        Answer inquiries and provide information to the general public, customers, visitors, and other interested parties regarding activities conducted at establishment and location of departments, offices, and employees within the organization. Excludes "Switchboard Operators, Including Answering Service" (43-2011).

        Illustrative examples: Appointment Clerk , Front Desk Receptionist , Land Leasing Information Clerk

    • 43-4180  Reservation and Transportation Ticket Agents and Travel Clerks
      • 43-4181  Reservation and Transportation Ticket Agents and Travel Clerks

        Make and confirm reservations for transportation or lodging, or sell transportation tickets. May check baggage and direct passengers to designated concourse, pier, or track; deliver tickets, contact individuals and groups to inform them of package tours; or provide tourists with travel or transportation information. Excludes "Travel Agents" (41-3041), "Hotel, Motel, and Resort Desk Clerks" (43-4081), and "Cashiers" (41-2011) who sell tickets for local transportation.

        Illustrative examples: Airline Ticket Agent , Gate Agent , Hotel Reservationist , Train Reservation Clerk

    • 43-4190  Miscellaneous Information and Record Clerks
  • 43-5000  Material Recording, Scheduling, Dispatching, and Distributing Workers
    • 43-5010  Cargo and Freight Agents
      • 43-5011  Cargo and Freight Agents

        Expedite and route movement of incoming and outgoing cargo and freight shipments in airline, train, and trucking terminals, and shipping docks. Take orders from customers and arrange pickup of freight and cargo for delivery to loading platform. Prepare and examine bills of lading to determine shipping charges and tariffs.

        Illustrative examples: Cargo Router , Freight Shipping Agent , Ramp Service Agent

    • 43-5020  Couriers and Messengers
      • 43-5021  Couriers and Messengers

        Pick up and deliver messages, documents, packages, and other items between offices or departments within an establishment or directly to other business concerns, traveling by foot, bicycle, motorcycle, automobile, or public conveyance. Excludes "Light Truck or Delivery Services Drivers" (53-3033).

        Illustrative examples: Bicycle Messenger , Laboratory Courier , Office Runner

    • 43-5030  Dispatchers
      • 43-5031  Police, Fire, and Ambulance Dispatchers

        Operate radio, telephone, or computer equipment at emergency response centers. Receive reports from the public of crimes, disturbances, fires, and medical or police emergencies. Relay information to law enforcement and emergency response personnel. May maintain contact with caller until responders arrive.

        Illustrative examples: 911 Operator , Emergency Operator , Police Radio Dispatcher

      • 43-5032  Dispatchers, Except Police, Fire, and Ambulance

        Schedule and dispatch workers, work crews, equipment, or service vehicles for conveyance of materials, freight, or passengers, or for normal installation, service, or emergency repairs rendered outside the place of business. Duties may include using radio, telephone, or computer to transmit assignments and compiling statistics and reports on work progress.

        Illustrative examples: Taxicab Dispatcher , Tow Truck Dispatcher , Train Dispatcher

    • 43-5040  Meter Readers, Utilities
      • 43-5041  Meter Readers, Utilities

        Read meter and record consumption of electricity, gas, water, or steam.

        Illustrative examples: Electric Meter Reader , Gas Meter Reader , Water Meter Reader

    • 43-5050  Postal Service Workers
      • 43-5051  Postal Service Clerks

        Perform any combination of tasks in a post office, such as receive letters and parcels; sell postage and revenue stamps, postal cards, and stamped envelopes; fill out and sell money orders; place mail in pigeon holes of mail rack or in bags; and examine mail for correct postage.

        Illustrative examples: Bulk Mail Clerk , Parcel Post Clerk , Postal Service Window Clerk

      • 43-5052  Postal Service Mail Carriers

        Sort mail for delivery. Deliver mail on established route by vehicle or on foot.

        Illustrative examples: Letter Carrier , Mail Deliverer , Rural Route Carrier

      • 43-5053  Postal Service Mail Sorters, Processors, and Processing Machine Operators

        Prepare incoming and outgoing mail for distribution. Examine, sort, and route mail. Load, operate, and occasionally adjust and repair mail processing, sorting, and canceling machinery. Keep records of shipments, pouches, and sacks; and other duties related to mail handling within the postal service. Excludes "Postal Service Clerks" (43-5051) and "Postal Service Mail Carriers" (43-5052).

        Illustrative examples: Flat Sorting Machine Clerk , Mail Forwarding System Markup Clerk

    • 43-5060  Production, Planning, and Expediting Clerks
      • 43-5061  Production, Planning, and Expediting Clerks

        Coordinate and expedite the flow of work and materials within or between departments of an establishment according to production schedule. Duties include reviewing and distributing production, work, and shipment schedules; conferring with department supervisors to determine progress of work and completion dates; and compiling reports on progress of work, inventory levels, costs, and production problems. Excludes "Weighers, Measurers, Checkers, and Samplers, Recordkeeping" (43-5111).

        Illustrative examples: Expeditor , Material Control Clerk , Production Scheduler

    • 43-5070  Shipping, Receiving, and Traffic Clerks
      • 43-5071  Shipping, Receiving, and Traffic Clerks

        Verify and maintain records on incoming and outgoing shipments. Prepare items for shipment. Duties include assembling, addressing, stamping, and shipping merchandise or material; receiving, unpacking, verifying and recording incoming merchandise or material; and arranging for the transportation of products. Excludes "Stock Clerks and Order Fillers" (43-5081) and "Weighers, Measurers, Checkers, and Samplers, Recordkeeping" (43-5111).

        Illustrative examples: Incoming Freight Clerk , Route Delivery Clerk , Store Receiving Clerk

    • 43-5080  Stock Clerks and Order Fillers
      • 43-5081  Stock Clerks and Order Fillers

        Receive, store, and issue sales floor merchandise, materials, equipment, and other items from stockroom, warehouse, or storage yard to fill shelves, racks, tables, or customers' orders. May mark prices on merchandise and set up sales displays. Excludes "Laborers and Freight, Stock, and Material Movers, Hand" (53-7062), and "Shipping, Receiving, and Traffic Clerks" (43-5071).

        Illustrative examples: Inventory Control Clerk , Tool Crib Attendant , Warehouse Clerk

    • 43-5110  Weighers, Measurers, Checkers, and Samplers, Recordkeeping
      • 43-5111  Weighers, Measurers, Checkers, and Samplers, Recordkeeping

        Weigh, measure, and check materials, supplies, and equipment for the purpose of keeping relevant records. Duties are primarily clerical by nature. Includes workers who collect and keep record of samples of products or materials. Excludes "Inspectors, Testers, Sorters, Samplers, and Weighers" (51-9061).

        Illustrative examples: Cheese Weigher , Scale Attendant , Weighing Station Operator

  • 43-6000  Secretaries and Administrative Assistants
    • 43-6010  Secretaries and Administrative Assistants
      • 43-6011  Executive Secretaries and Executive Administrative Assistants

        Provide high-level administrative support by conducting research, preparing statistical reports, handling information requests, and performing clerical functions such as preparing correspondence, receiving visitors, arranging conference calls, and scheduling meetings. May also train and supervise lower-level clerical staff. Excludes "Secretaries" (43-6012 through 43-6014).

        Illustrative examples: Executive Assistant

      • 43-6012  Legal Secretaries

        Perform secretarial duties using legal terminology, procedures, and documents. Prepare legal papers and correspondence, such as summonses, complaints, motions, and subpoenas. May also assist with legal research.

        Illustrative examples: Law Secretary , Legal Administrative Assistant

      • 43-6013  Medical Secretaries

        Perform secretarial duties using specific knowledge of medical terminology and hospital, clinic, or laboratory procedures. Duties may include scheduling appointments, billing patients, and compiling and recording medical charts, reports, and correspondence.

        Illustrative examples: Dental Secretary , Psychiatric Secretary

      • 43-6014  Secretaries and Administrative Assistants, Except Legal, Medical, and Executive

        Perform routine clerical and administrative functions such as drafting correspondence, scheduling appointments, organizing and maintaining paper and electronic files, or providing information to callers. Excludes legal, medical, and executive secretaries (43-6011 through 43-6013).

        Illustrative examples: Office Secretary , Personal Secretary , School Secretary

  • 43-9000  Other Office and Administrative Support Workers
    • 43-9010  Computer Operators
      • 43-9011  Computer Operators

        Monitor and control electronic computer and peripheral electronic data processing equipment to process business, scientific, engineering, and other data according to operating instructions. Monitor and respond to operating and error messages. May enter commands at a computer terminal and set controls on computer and peripheral devices. Excludes "Computer Occupations" (15-1100) and "Data Entry Keyers" (43-9021).

        Illustrative examples: Computer Peripheral Equipment Operator , Console Operator

    • 43-9020  Data Entry and Information Processing Workers
      • 43-9021  Data Entry Keyers

        Operate data entry device, such as keyboard or photo composing perforator. Duties may include verifying data and preparing materials for printing. Excludes "Word Processors and Typists" (43-9022).

        Illustrative examples: Data Input Clerk , Data Typist

      • 43-9022  Word Processors and Typists

        Use word processor, computer or typewriter to type letters, reports, forms, or other material from rough draft, corrected copy, or voice recording. May perform other clerical duties as assigned. Excludes "Data Entry Keyers" (43-9021), "Secretaries and Administrative Assistants" (43-6011 through 43-6014), "Court Reporters" (23-2091), and "Medical Transcriptionists" (31-9094).

        Illustrative examples: Clerk Typist , Transcription Typist

    • 43-9030  Desktop Publishers
      • 43-9031  Desktop Publishers

        Format typescript and graphic elements using computer software to produce publication-ready material.

        Illustrative examples: Desktop Publishing Specialist , Electronic Publisher

    • 43-9040  Insurance Claims and Policy Processing Clerks
      • 43-9041  Insurance Claims and Policy Processing Clerks

        Process new insurance policies, modifications to existing policies, and claims forms. Obtain information from policyholders to verify the accuracy and completeness of information on claims forms, applications and related documents, and company records. Update existing policies and company records to reflect changes requested by policyholders and insurance company representatives. Excludes "Claims Adjusters, Examiners, and Investigators" (13-1031).

        Illustrative examples: Insurance Policy Issue Clerk , Underwriting Clerk

    • 43-9050  Mail Clerks and Mail Machine Operators, Except Postal Service
      • 43-9051  Mail Clerks and Mail Machine Operators, Except Postal Service

        Prepare incoming and outgoing mail for distribution. Use hand or mail handling machines to time stamp, open, read, sort, and route incoming mail; and address, seal, stamp, fold, stuff, and affix postage to outgoing mail or packages. Duties may also include keeping necessary records and completed forms.

        Illustrative examples: Direct Mail Clerk , Mailroom Clerk , Packaging Clerk

    • 43-9060  Office Clerks, General
      • 43-9061  Office Clerks, General

        Perform duties too varied and diverse to be classified in any specific office clerical occupation, requiring knowledge of office systems and procedures. Clerical duties may be assigned in accordance with the office procedures of individual establishments and may include a combination of answering telephones, bookkeeping, typing or word processing, stenography, office machine operation, and filing.

        Illustrative examples: Administrative Clerk , Office Assistant , Real Estate Clerk

    • 43-9070  Office Machine Operators, Except Computer
      • 43-9071  Office Machine Operators, Except Computer

        Operate one or more of a variety of office machines, such as photocopying, photographic, and duplicating machines, or other office machines. Excludes "Computer Operators" (43-9011), "Mail Clerks and Mail Machine Operators, Except Postal Service" (43-9051) and "Billing and Posting Clerks" (43-3021).

        Illustrative examples: Coin Wrapping Machine Operator , Copy Machine Operator

    • 43-9080  Proofreaders and Copy Markers
      • 43-9081  Proofreaders and Copy Markers

        Read transcript or proof type setup to detect and mark for correction any grammatical, typographical, or compositional errors. Excludes workers whose primary duty is editing copy. Includes proofreaders of Braille.

        Illustrative examples: Braille Proofreader , Copy Reader , Editorial Assistant

    • 43-9110  Statistical Assistants
      • 43-9111  Statistical Assistants

        Compile and compute data according to statistical formulas for use in statistical studies. May perform actuarial computations and compile charts and graphs for use by actuaries. Includes actuarial clerks.

        Illustrative examples: Actuarial Assistant , Statistical Clerk

    • 43-9190  Miscellaneous Office and Administrative Support Workers

45-0000 Farming, Fishing, and Forestry Occupations

  • 45-1000  Supervisors of Farming, Fishing, and Forestry Workers
    • 45-1010  First-Line Supervisors of Farming, Fishing, and Forestry Workers
      • 45-1011  First-Line Supervisors of Farming, Fishing, and Forestry Workers

        Directly supervise and coordinate the activities of agricultural, forestry, aquacultural, and related workers. Excludes "First-Line Supervisors of Landscaping, Lawn Service, and Groundskeeping Workers" (37-1012).

        Illustrative examples: Corral Boss , Cranberry Bog Supervisor , Fish Hatchery Supervisor

  • 45-2000  Agricultural Workers
    • 45-2010  Agricultural Inspectors
      • 45-2011  Agricultural Inspectors

        Inspect agricultural commodities, processing equipment, and facilities, and fish and logging operations, to ensure compliance with regulations and laws governing health, quality, and safety.

        Illustrative examples: Cattle Examiner , Grain Sampler , Milk Tester

    • 45-2020  Animal Breeders
      • 45-2021  Animal Breeders

        Select and breed animals according to their genealogy, characteristics, and offspring. May require knowledge of artificial insemination techniques and equipment use. May involve keeping records on heats, birth intervals, or pedigree. Excludes "Nonfarm Animal Caretakers" (39-2021) who may occasionally breed animals as part of their other caretaking duties. Excludes "Animal Scientists" (19-1011) whose primary function is research.

        Illustrative examples: Dairy Husbandry Worker , Horse Breeder

    • 45-2040  Graders and Sorters, Agricultural Products
      • 45-2041  Graders and Sorters, Agricultural Products

        Grade, sort, or classify unprocessed food and other agricultural products by size, weight, color, or condition. Excludes "Agricultural Inspectors" (45-2011).

        Illustrative examples: Cotton Grader , Egg Grader , Fruit Sorter , Meat Grader

    • 45-2090  Miscellaneous Agricultural Workers
      • 45-2091  Agricultural Equipment Operators

        Drive and control farm equipment to till soil and to plant, cultivate, and harvest crops. May perform tasks, such as crop baling or hay bucking. May operate stationary equipment to perform post-harvest tasks, such as husking, shelling, threshing, and ginning.

        Illustrative examples: Combine Operator , Hay Baler , Tractor Operator

      • 45-2092  Farmworkers and Laborers, Crop, Nursery, and Greenhouse

        Manually plant, cultivate, and harvest vegetables, fruits, nuts, horticultural specialties, and field crops. Use hand tools, such as shovels, trowels, hoes, tampers, pruning hooks, shears, and knives. Duties may include tilling soil and applying fertilizers; transplanting, weeding, thinning, or pruning crops; applying pesticides; or cleaning, grading, sorting, packing, and loading harvested products. May construct trellises, repair fences and farm buildings, or participate in irrigation activities. Excludes "Graders and Sorters, Agricultural Products" (45-2041) and "Forest, Conservation, and Logging Workers" (45-4011 through 45-4029).

        Illustrative examples: Greenhouse Transplanter , Pecan Gatherer , Pepper Picker

      • 45-2093  Farmworkers, Farm, Ranch, and Aquacultural Animals

        Attend to live farm, ranch, or aquacultural animals that may include cattle, sheep, swine, goats, horses and other equines, poultry, finfish, shellfish, and bees. Attend to animals produced for animal products, such as meat, fur, skins, feathers, eggs, milk, and honey. Duties may include feeding, watering, herding, grazing, castrating, branding, de-beaking, weighing, catching, and loading animals. May maintain records on animals; examine animals to detect diseases and injuries; assist in birth deliveries; and administer medications, vaccinations, or insecticides as appropriate. May clean and maintain animal housing areas. Includes workers who shear wool from sheep, and collect eggs in hatcheries.

        Illustrative examples: Cattle Brander , Sheep Shearer , Shrimp Pond Laborer

      • 45-2099  Agricultural Workers, All Other

        All agricultural workers not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Crop Scout , Irrigation Worker

  • 45-3000  Fishing and Hunting Workers
    • 45-3010  Fishers and Related Fishing Workers
      • 45-3011  Fishers and Related Fishing Workers

        Use nets, fishing rods, traps, or other equipment to catch and gather fish or other aquatic animals from rivers, lakes, or oceans, for human consumption or other uses. May haul game onto ship. Aquacultural laborers who work on fish farms are included in "Farmworkers, Farm, Ranch, and Aquacultural Animals" (45-2093).

        Illustrative examples: Seaweed Harvester , Wild Oyster Harvester

    • 45-3020  Hunters and Trappers
      • 45-3021  Hunters and Trappers

        Hunt and trap wild animals for human consumption, fur, feed, bait, or other purposes.

        Illustrative examples: Bird Trapper , Deer Hunter , Predatory Animal Trapper

  • 45-4000  Forest, Conservation, and Logging Workers
    • 45-4010  Forest and Conservation Workers
      • 45-4011  Forest and Conservation Workers

        Under supervision, perform manual labor necessary to develop, maintain, or protect areas such as forests, forested areas, woodlands, wetlands, and rangelands through such activities as raising and transporting seedlings; combating insects, pests, and diseases harmful to plant life; and building structures to control water, erosion, and leaching of soil. Includes forester aides, seedling pullers, and tree planters.

        Illustrative examples: Forestry Laborer , Rangelands Conservation Laborer , Reforestation Worker , Wetlands Conservation Laborer

    • 45-4020  Logging Workers
      • 45-4021  Fallers

        Use axes or chainsaws to fell trees using knowledge of tree characteristics and cutting techniques to control direction of fall and minimize tree damage.

        Illustrative examples: Lumberjack , Pulpwood Cutter , Timber Cutter

      • 45-4022  Logging Equipment Operators

        Drive logging tractor or wheeled vehicle equipped with one or more accessories, such as bulldozer blade, frontal shear, grapple, logging arch, cable winches, hoisting rack, or crane boom, to fell tree; to skid, load, unload, or stack logs; or to pull stumps or clear brush. Logging truck drivers are included in "Heavy and Tractor Trailer Truck Drivers" (53-3032).

        Illustrative examples: Grapple Skidder Operator , Log Hauler , Logging Tractor Operator , Lumber Stacker Operator

      • 45-4023  Log Graders and Scalers

        Grade logs or estimate the marketable content or value of logs or pulpwood in sorting yards, millpond, log deck, or similar locations. Inspect logs for defects or measure logs to determine volume. Excludes "Buyers and Purchasing Agents, Farm Products" (13-1021).

        Illustrative examples: Log Check Scaler , Timber Estimator , Veneer Grader

      • 45-4029  Logging Workers, All Other

        All logging workers not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Log Roper , Rigging Slinger , Timber Hand

47-0000 Construction and Extraction Occupations

  • 47-1000  Supervisors of Construction and Extraction Workers
    • 47-1010  First-Line Supervisors of Construction Trades and Extraction Workers
  • 47-2000  Construction Trades Workers
    • 47-2010  Boilermakers
      • 47-2011  Boilermakers

        Construct, assemble, maintain, and repair stationary steam boilers and boiler house auxiliaries. Align structures or plate sections to assemble boiler frame tanks or vats, following blueprints. Work involves use of hand and power tools, plumb bobs, levels, wedges, dogs, or turnbuckles. Assist in testing assembled vessels. Direct cleaning of boilers and boiler furnaces. Inspect and repair boiler fittings, such as safety valves, regulators, automatic-control mechanisms, water columns, and auxiliary machines.

        Illustrative examples: Boiler Installer , Boiler Mechanic , Boiler Tester

    • 47-2020  Brickmasons, Blockmasons, and Stonemasons
      • 47-2021  Brickmasons and Blockmasons

        Lay and bind building materials, such as brick, structural tile, concrete block, cinder block, glass block, and terra-cotta block, with mortar and other substances to construct or repair walls, partitions, arches, sewers, and other structures. Excludes "Stonemasons" (47-2022). Installers of mortarless segmental concrete masonry wall units are classified in "Landscaping and Groundskeeping Workers" (37-3011).

        Illustrative examples: Adobe Layer , Brick Chimney Builder , Refractory Bricklayer

      • 47-2022  Stonemasons

        Build stone structures, such as piers, walls, and abutments. Lay walks, curbstones, or special types of masonry for vats, tanks, and floors.

        Illustrative examples: Curbstone Setter , Granite Setter , Monument Mason

    • 47-2030  Carpenters
      • 47-2031  Carpenters

        Construct, erect, install, or repair structures and fixtures made of wood, such as concrete forms; building frameworks, including partitions, joists, studding, and rafters; and wood stairways, window and door frames, and hardwood floors. May also install cabinets, siding, drywall and batt or roll insulation. Includes brattice builders who build doors or brattices (ventilation walls or partitions) in underground passageways

        Illustrative examples: Building Carpenter , Custom Wood Stair Builder , Wood Floor Layer

    • 47-2040  Carpet, Floor, and Tile Installers and Finishers
      • 47-2041  Carpet Installers

        Lay and install carpet from rolls or blocks on floors. Install padding and trim flooring materials. Excludes "Floor Layers, Except Carpet, Wood, and Hard Tiles" (47-2042).

        Illustrative examples: Carpet Layer , Wall-to-Wall Carpet Installer

      • 47-2042  Floor Layers, Except Carpet, Wood, and Hard Tiles

        Apply blocks, strips, or sheets of shock-absorbing, sound-deadening, or decorative coverings to floors.

        Illustrative examples: Composition Floor Layer , Cork Floor Installer , Linoleum Installer , Shock-Absorption Floor Layer

      • 47-2043  Floor Sanders and Finishers

        Scrape and sand wooden floors to smooth surfaces using floor scraper and floor sanding machine, and apply coats of finish.

        Illustrative examples: Floor Sanding Machine Operator , Floor Scraper , Hardwood Finisher

      • 47-2044  Tile and Marble Setters

        Apply hard tile, marble, and wood tile to walls, floors, ceilings, and roof decks.

        Illustrative examples: Ceramic Tile Installer , Hard Tile Setter , Marble Ceiling Installer , Parquet Floor Layer

    • 47-2050  Cement Masons, Concrete Finishers, and Terrazzo Workers
      • 47-2051  Cement Masons and Concrete Finishers

        Smooth and finish surfaces of poured concrete, such as floors, walks, sidewalks, roads, or curbs using a variety of hand and power tools. Align forms for sidewalks, curbs, or gutters; patch voids; and use saws to cut expansion joints. Installers of mortarless segmental concrete masonry wall units are classified in "Landscaping and Groundskeeping Workers" (37- 3011).

        Illustrative examples: Cement Patcher , Concrete Floor Installer , Concrete Swimming Pool Installer

      • 47-2053  Terrazzo Workers and Finishers

        Apply a mixture of cement, sand, pigment, or marble chips to floors, stairways, and cabinet fixtures to fashion durable and decorative surfaces.

        Illustrative examples: Onyx-Chip Terrazzo Worker , Terrazzo Grinder , Terrazzo Setter

    • 47-2060  Construction Laborers
      • 47-2061  Construction Laborers

        Perform tasks involving physical labor at construction sites. May operate hand and power tools of all types: air hammers, earth tampers, cement mixers, small mechanical hoists, surveying and measuring equipment, and a variety of other equipment and instruments. May clean and prepare sites, dig trenches, set braces to support the sides of excavations, erect scaffolding, and clean up rubble, debris and other waste materials. May assist other craft workers. Construction laborers who primarily assist a particular craft worker are classified under "Helpers, Construction Trades" (47-3010). Excludes "Hazardous Materials Removal Workers" (47-4041).

        Illustrative examples: Air Hammer Operator , Construction Craft Laborer , Construction Trench Digger

    • 47-2070  Construction Equipment Operators
      • 47-2071  Paving, Surfacing, and Tamping Equipment Operators

        Operate equipment used for applying concrete, asphalt, or other materials to road beds, parking lots, or airport runways and taxiways, or equipment used for tamping gravel, dirt, or other materials. Includes concrete and asphalt paving machine operators, form tampers, tamping machine operators, and stone spreader operators.

        Illustrative examples: Asphalt Roller Operator , Blacktop-Paver Operator , Road Grader

      • 47-2072  Pile-Driver Operators

        Operate pile drivers mounted on skids, barges, crawler treads, or locomotive cranes to drive pilings for retaining walls, bulkheads, and foundations of structures, such as buildings, bridges, and piers.

        Illustrative examples: Hydraulic Pile Hammer Operator , Vibratory Pile Driver

      • 47-2073  Operating Engineers and Other Construction Equipment Operators

        Operate one or several types of power construction equipment, such as motor graders, bulldozers, scrapers, compressors, pumps, derricks, shovels, tractors, or front-end loaders to excavate, move, and grade earth, erect structures, or pour concrete or other hard surface pavement. May repair and maintain equipment in addition to other duties. Excludes "Crane and Tower Operators" (53-7021) and "Extraction Workers" (47-5000).

        Illustrative examples: Bulldozer Operator , Steam Shovel Operator

    • 47-2080  Drywall Installers, Ceiling Tile Installers, and Tapers
      • 47-2081  Drywall and Ceiling Tile Installers

        Apply plasterboard or other wallboard to ceilings or interior walls of buildings. Apply or mount acoustical tiles or blocks, strips, or sheets of shock-absorbing materials to ceilings and walls of buildings to reduce or reflect sound. Materials may be of decorative quality. Includes lathers who fasten wooden, metal, or rockboard lath to walls, ceilings or partitions of buildings to provide support base for plaster, fire-proofing, or acoustical material. Excludes "Carpet Installers" (47-2041), "Carpenters" (47-2031), and "Tile and Marble Setters" (47-2044).

        Illustrative examples: Acoustical Ceiling Installer , Drywall Finisher , Sheet Rock Hanger

      • 47-2082  Tapers

        Seal joints between plasterboard or other wallboard to prepare wall surface for painting or papering.

        Illustrative examples: Drywall Taper , Sheet Rock Taper , Wall Taper

    • 47-2110  Electricians
      • 47-2111  Electricians

        Install, maintain, and repair electrical wiring, equipment, and fixtures. Ensure that work is in accordance with relevant codes. May install or service street lights, intercom systems, or electrical control systems. Excludes "Security and Fire Alarm Systems Installers" (49-2098).

        Illustrative examples: Electrical Sign Wirer , Master Electrician , Solar Photovoltaic Electrician

    • 47-2120  Glaziers
      • 47-2121  Glaziers

        Install glass in windows, skylights, store fronts, and display cases, or on surfaces, such as building fronts, interior walls, ceilings, and tabletops.

        Illustrative examples: Plate Glass Installer , Stained Glass Joiner

    • 47-2130  Insulation Workers
      • 47-2131  Insulation Workers, Floor, Ceiling, and Wall

        Line and cover structures with insulating materials. May work with batt, roll, or blown insulation materials.

        Illustrative examples: Ceiling Insulation Blower , Composition Weatherboard Installer , Interior Surface Insulation Worker

      • 47-2132  Insulation Workers, Mechanical

        Apply insulating materials to pipes or ductwork, or other mechanical systems in order to help control and maintain temperature.

        Illustrative examples: Boiler Coverer , Pipe Coverer , Pipe Insulator

    • 47-2140  Painters and Paperhangers
      • 47-2141  Painters, Construction and Maintenance

        Paint walls, equipment, buildings, bridges, and other structural surfaces, using brushes, rollers, and spray guns. May remove old paint to prepare surface prior to painting. May mix colors or oils to obtain desired color or consistency. Excludes "Paperhangers" (47-2142).

        Illustrative examples: Bridge Painter , House Painter , Traffic Line Painter

      • 47-2142  Paperhangers

        Cover interior walls or ceilings of rooms with decorative wallpaper or fabric, or attach advertising posters on surfaces such as walls and billboards. May remove old materials or prepare surfaces to be papered.

        Illustrative examples: Billboard Poster , Wall Covering Installer , Wallpaperer

    • 47-2150  Pipelayers, Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters
      • 47-2151  Pipelayers

        Lay pipe for storm or sanitation sewers, drains, and water mains. Perform any combination of the following tasks: grade trenches or culverts, position pipe, or seal joints. Excludes "Welders, Cutters, Solderers, and Brazers" (51-4121).

        Illustrative examples: Cast-Iron Drain Pipe Layer , Trench Pipe Layer , Water Main Pipe Layer

      • 47-2152  Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters

        Assemble, install, alter, and repair pipelines or pipe systems that carry water, steam, air, or other liquids or gases. May install heating and cooling equipment and mechanical control systems. Includes sprinklerfitters.

        Illustrative examples: Fire Sprinkler Installer , Solar Thermal Installer , Sprinkler Fitter

    • 47-2160  Plasterers and Stucco Masons
      • 47-2161  Plasterers and Stucco Masons

        Apply interior or exterior plaster, cement, stucco, or similar materials. May also set ornamental plaster.

        Illustrative examples: Ornamental Plasterer , Stucco Worker , Swimming Pool Plasterer

    • 47-2170  Reinforcing Iron and Rebar Workers
      • 47-2171  Reinforcing Iron and Rebar Workers

        Position and secure steel bars or mesh in concrete forms in order to reinforce concrete. Use a variety of fasteners, rod-bending machines, blowtorches, and hand tools. Includes rod busters.

        Illustrative examples: Post Tensioning Ironworker , Steel Rod Buster

    • 47-2180  Roofers
      • 47-2181  Roofers

        Cover roofs of structures with shingles, slate, asphalt, aluminum, wood, or related materials. May spray roofs, sidings, and walls with material to bind, seal, insulate, or soundproof sections of structures.

        Illustrative examples: Hot Tar Roofer , Shingles Roofer , Terra Cotta Roofer

    • 47-2210  Sheet Metal Workers
      • 47-2211  Sheet Metal Workers

        Fabricate, assemble, install, and repair sheet metal products and equipment, such as ducts, control boxes, drainpipes, and furnace casings. Work may involve any of the following: setting up and operating fabricating machines to cut, bend, and straighten sheet metal; shaping metal over anvils, blocks, or forms using hammer; operating soldering and welding equipment to join sheet metal parts; or inspecting, assembling, and smoothing seams and joints of burred surfaces. Includes sheet metal duct installers who install prefabricated sheet metal ducts used for heating, air conditioning, or other purposes.

        Illustrative examples: Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Sheet Metal Installer , Sheet Metal Former , Tinsmith

    • 47-2220  Structural Iron and Steel Workers
      • 47-2221  Structural Iron and Steel Workers

        Raise, place, and unite iron or steel girders, columns, and other structural members to form completed structures or structural frameworks. May erect metal storage tanks and assemble prefabricated metal buildings. Excludes "Reinforcing Iron and Rebar Workers" (47-2171).

        Illustrative examples: Bridge Ironworker , Precast Concrete Ironworker , Wind Turbine Erector

    • 47-2230  Solar Photovoltaic Installers
      • 47-2231  Solar Photovoltaic Installers

        Assemble, install, or maintain solar photovoltaic (PV) systems on roofs or other structures in compliance with site assessment and schematics. May include measuring, cutting, assembling, and bolting structural framing and solar modules. May perform minor electrical work such as current checks. Excludes solar thermal installers who are included in "Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters" (47-2152). Excludes solar PV electricians who are included in "Electricians" (47-2111).

        Illustrative examples: Photovoltaic (PV) Installation Technician , Solar PV Installer

  • 47-3000  Helpers, Construction Trades
    • 47-3010  Helpers, Construction Trades
      • 47-3011  Helpers--Brickmasons, Blockmasons, Stonemasons, and Tile and Marble Setters

        Help brickmasons, blockmasons, stonemasons, or tile and marble setters by performing duties requiring less skill. Duties include using, supplying or holding materials or tools, and cleaning work area and equipment. Construction laborers who do not primarily assist brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons or tile and marble setters are classified under "Construction Laborers" (47-2061). Apprentice workers are classified with the appropriate skilled construction trade occupation (47-2011 through 47-2231).

        Illustrative examples: Brick Carrier , Brick Washer , Refractory Tile Helper

      • 47-3012  Helpers--Carpenters

        Help carpenters by performing duties requiring less skill. Duties include using, supplying or holding materials or tools, and cleaning work area and equipment. Construction laborers who do not primarily assist carpenters are classified under "Construction Laborers" (47-2061). Apprentice workers are classified with the appropriate skilled construction trade occupation (47-2011 through 47-2231).

        Illustrative examples: Carpenter Assistant , Hardwood Floor Installation Helper

      • 47-3013  Helpers--Electricians

        Help electricians by performing duties requiring less skill. Duties include using, supplying or holding materials or tools, and cleaning work area and equipment. Construction laborers who do not primarily assist electricians are classified under "Construction Laborers" (47-2061). Apprentice workers are classified with the appropriate skilled construction trade occupation (47-2011 through 47-2231).

        Illustrative examples: Marine Electrician Helper , Stage Electrician Helper

      • 47-3014  Helpers--Painters, Paperhangers, Plasterers, and Stucco Masons

        Help painters, paperhangers, plasterers, or stucco masons by performing duties requiring less skill. Duties include using, supplying or holding materials or tools, and cleaning work area and equipment. Construction laborers who do not primarily assist painters, paperhangers, plasterers, or stucco masons are classified under "Construction Laborers" (47-2061). Apprentice workers are classified with the appropriate skilled construction trade occupation (47-2011 through 47-2231).

        Illustrative examples: Bridge Painter Helper , Dry Plasterer Helper , Wallpaperer Helper

      • 47-3015  Helpers--Pipelayers, Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters

        Help plumbers, pipefitters, steamfitters, or pipelayers by performing duties requiring less skill. Duties include using, supplying or holding materials or tools, and cleaning work area and equipment. Construction laborers who do not primarily assist plumbers, pipefitters, steamfitters, or pipelayers are classified under "Construction Laborers" (47-2061). Apprentice workers are classified with the appropriate skilled construction trade occupation (47-2011 through 47-2231).

        Illustrative examples: Industrial Gas Fitter Helper , Marine Pipefitter Helper , Plumber Assistant , Water Main Installer Helper

      • 47-3016  Helpers--Roofers

        Help roofers by performing duties requiring less skill. Duties include using, supplying or holding materials or tools, and cleaning work area and equipment. Construction laborers who do not primarily assist roofers are classified under "Construction Laborers" (47-2061). Apprentice workers are classified with the appropriate skilled construction trade occupation (47-2011 through 47-2231).

        Illustrative examples: Hot Tar Roofer Helper , Shingles Roofer Helper , Slate Roofer Helper , Terra Cotta Roofer Helper

      • 47-3019  Helpers, Construction Trades, All Other

        All construction trades helpers not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Cellulose Insulation Helper , Drywall Hanger Helper , Rod Buster Helper , Terrazzo Finisher Helper

  • 47-4000  Other Construction and Related Workers
    • 47-4010  Construction and Building Inspectors
      • 47-4011  Construction and Building Inspectors

        Inspect structures using engineering skills to determine structural soundness and compliance with specifications, building codes, and other regulations. Inspections may be general in nature or may be limited to a specific area, such as electrical systems or plumbing.

        Illustrative examples: Electrical Inspector , Elevator Inspector , Highway Inspector

    • 47-4020  Elevator Installers and Repairers
      • 47-4021  Elevator Installers and Repairers

        Assemble, install, repair, or maintain electric or hydraulic freight or passenger elevators, escalators, or dumbwaiters.

        Illustrative examples: Elevator Mechanic , Escalator Installer , Hydraulic Elevator Constructor

    • 47-4030  Fence Erectors
      • 47-4031  Fence Erectors

        Erect and repair fences and fence gates, using hand and power tools.

        Illustrative examples: Wire Fence Builder , Wood Fence Installer

    • 47-4040  Hazardous Materials Removal Workers
      • 47-4041  Hazardous Materials Removal Workers

        Identify, remove, pack, transport, or dispose of hazardous materials, including asbestos, lead-based paint, waste oil, fuel, transmission fluid, radioactive materials, or contaminated soil. Specialized training and certification in hazardous materials handling or a confined entry permit are generally required. May operate earth-moving equipment or trucks.

        Illustrative examples: Asbestos Abatement Worker , Decontamination Worker , Irradiated Fuel Handler

    • 47-4050  Highway Maintenance Workers
      • 47-4051  Highway Maintenance Workers

        Maintain highways, municipal and rural roads, airport runways, and rights-of-way. Duties include patching broken or eroded pavement, repairing guard rails, highway markers, and snow fences. May also mow or clear brush from along road or plow snow from roadway. Excludes "Tree Trimmers and Pruners" (37-3013).

        Illustrative examples: Road Patcher , Road Sign Installer

    • 47-4060  Rail-Track Laying and Maintenance Equipment Operators
      • 47-4061  Rail-Track Laying and Maintenance Equipment Operators

        Lay, repair, and maintain track for standard or narrow-gauge railroad equipment used in regular railroad service or in plant yards, quarries, sand and gravel pits, and mines. Includes ballast cleaning machine operators and railroad bed tamping machine operators.

        Illustrative examples: Rail Maintenance Worker , Track Repairer , Track Surfacing Machine Operator

    • 47-4070  Septic Tank Servicers and Sewer Pipe Cleaners
      • 47-4071  Septic Tank Servicers and Sewer Pipe Cleaners

        Clean and repair septic tanks, sewer lines, or drains. May patch walls and partitions of tank, replace damaged drain tile, or repair breaks in underground piping.

        Illustrative examples: Electric Sewer Cleaning Machine Operator , Septic Tank Cleaner , Sewage Screen Operator

    • 47-4090  Miscellaneous Construction and Related Workers
      • 47-4091  Segmental Pavers

        Lay out, cut, and place segmental paving units. Includes installers of bedding and restraining materials for the paving units.

        Illustrative examples: Concrete Pavement Installer , Paving Stone Installer

      • 47-4099  Construction and Related Workers, All Other

        All construction and related workers not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Aluminum Pool Installer , Waterproofer

  • 47-5000  Extraction Workers
    • 47-5010  Derrick, Rotary Drill, and Service Unit Operators, Oil, Gas, and Mining
      • 47-5011  Derrick Operators, Oil and Gas

        Rig derrick equipment and operate pumps to circulate mud through drill hole.

        Illustrative examples: Rotary Derrick Operator , Well Service Derrick Worker

      • 47-5012  Rotary Drill Operators, Oil and Gas

        Set up or operate a variety of drills to remove underground oil and gas, or remove core samples for testing during oil and gas exploration. Excludes "Earth Drillers, Except Oil and Gas" (47-5021).

        Illustrative examples: Oil Well Cable Tool Operator , Oil Well Driller

      • 47-5013  Service Unit Operators, Oil, Gas, and Mining

        Operate equipment to increase oil flow from producing wells or to remove stuck pipe, casing, tools, or other obstructions from drilling wells. May also perform similar services in mining exploration operations. Includes fishing-tool technicians.

        Illustrative examples: Well Servicing Rig Operator

    • 47-5020  Earth Drillers, Except Oil and Gas
      • 47-5021  Earth Drillers, Except Oil and Gas

        Operate a variety of drills such as rotary, churn, and pneumatic to tap sub-surface water and salt deposits, to remove core samples during mineral exploration or soil testing, and to facilitate the use of explosives in mining or construction. May use explosives. Includes horizontal and earth boring machine operators.

        Illustrative examples: Blast Hole Driller , Churn Driller , Earth Auger Operator

    • 47-5030  Explosives Workers, Ordnance Handling Experts, and Blasters
      • 47-5031  Explosives Workers, Ordnance Handling Experts, and Blasters

        Place and detonate explosives to demolish structures or to loosen, remove, or displace earth, rock, or other materials. May perform specialized handling, storage, and accounting procedures. Includes seismograph shooters. Excludes "Earth Drillers, Except Oil and Gas" (47-5021) who may also work with explosives.

        Illustrative examples: Blast Setter , Dynamiter , Explosive Technician

    • 47-5040  Mining Machine Operators
      • 47-5041  Continuous Mining Machine Operators

        Operate self-propelled mining machines that rip coal, metal and nonmetal ores, rock, stone, or sand from the mine face and load it onto conveyors or into shuttle cars in a continuous operation.

        Illustrative examples: Continuous Mining Machine Lode Miner , Self-Propelled Mining Machine Operator

      • 47-5042  Mine Cutting and Channeling Machine Operators

        Operate machinery such as longwall shears, plows, and cutting machines to cut or channel along the face or seams of coal mines, stone quarries, or other mining surfaces to facilitate blasting, separating, or removing minerals or materials from mines or from the Earth's surface. Includes shale planers.

        Illustrative examples: Bore Miner Operator , Clay Mine Cutting Machine Operator , Long Wall Shear Operator

      • 47-5049  Mining Machine Operators, All Other

        All mining machine operators not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Dry Placer Machine Operator , Rock Dust Sprayer

    • 47-5050  Rock Splitters, Quarry
      • 47-5051  Rock Splitters, Quarry

        Separate blocks of rough dimension stone from quarry mass using jackhammer and wedges.

        Illustrative examples: Quarry Plug and Feather Driller , Sandstone Splitter

    • 47-5060  Roof Bolters, Mining
      • 47-5061  Roof Bolters, Mining

        Operate machinery to install roof support bolts in underground mine.

        Illustrative examples: Roof Bolting Coal Miner , Underground Bolting Machine Operator , Underground Roof Bolter

    • 47-5070  Roustabouts, Oil and Gas
      • 47-5071  Roustabouts, Oil and Gas

        Assemble or repair oil field equipment using hand and power tools. Perform other tasks as needed.

        Illustrative examples: Oil Field Roustabout , Oil Rig Roughneck

    • 47-5080  Helpers--Extraction Workers
      • 47-5081  Helpers--Extraction Workers

        Help extraction craft workers, such as earth drillers, blasters and explosives workers, derrick operators, and mining machine operators, by performing duties requiring less skill. Duties include supplying equipment or cleaning work area. Apprentice workers are classified with the appropriate skilled construction trade occupation (47-2011 through 47-2231).

        Illustrative examples: Blaster Helper , Mining Helper , Roof Bolter Helper

    • 47-5090  Miscellaneous Extraction Workers

49-0000 Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Occupations

  • 49-1000  Supervisors of Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers
    • 49-1010  First-Line Supervisors of Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers
      • 49-1011  First-Line Supervisors of Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers

        Directly supervise and coordinate the activities of mechanics, installers, and repairers. Excludes team or work leaders.

        Illustrative examples: Automobile Body Repair Supervisor , Fleet Maintenance Supervisor , Railroad Car Repair Supervisor

  • 49-2000  Electrical and Electronic Equipment Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers
    • 49-2010  Computer, Automated Teller, and Office Machine Repairers
      • 49-2011  Computer, Automated Teller, and Office Machine Repairers

        Repair, maintain, or install computers, word processing systems, automated teller machines, and electronic office machines, such as duplicating and fax machines.

        Illustrative examples: ATM Servicer , Cash Register Servicer , Data Processing Equipment Repairer

    • 49-2020  Radio and Telecommunications Equipment Installers and Repairers
      • 49-2021  Radio, Cellular, and Tower Equipment Installers and Repairers

        Repair, install or maintain mobile or stationary radio transmitting, broadcasting, and receiving equipment, and two-way radio communications systems used in cellular telecommunications, mobile broadband, ship-to-shore, aircraft-to-ground communications, and radio equipment in service and emergency vehicles. May test and analyze network coverage.

        Illustrative examples: Radio Frequency Technician , Radio Mechanic , Two-Way Radio Technician

      • 49-2022  Telecommunications Equipment Installers and Repairers, Except Line Installers

        Install, set-up, rearrange, or remove switching, distribution, routing, and dialing equipment used in central offices or headends. Service or repair telephone, cable television, Internet, and other communications equipment on customers' property. May install communications equipment or communications wiring in buildings. Excludes "Telecommunications Line Installers and Repairers" (49-9052).

        Illustrative examples: Fiber Optic Central Office Installer , Private Branch Exchange (PBX ) Installer and Repairer

    • 49-2090  Miscellaneous Electrical and Electronic Equipment Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers
      • 49-2091  Avionics Technicians

        Install, inspect, test, adjust, or repair avionics equipment, such as radar, radio, navigation, and missile control systems in aircraft or space vehicles.

        Illustrative examples: Aircraft Electrician , Aircraft Instrument Mechanic , Automatic Pilot Mechanic

      • 49-2092  Electric Motor, Power Tool, and Related Repairers

        Repair, maintain, or install electric motors, wiring, or switches.

        Illustrative examples: Armature Rewinder , Electrical Parts Reconditioner

      • 49-2093  Electrical and Electronics Installers and Repairers, Transportation Equipment

        Install, adjust, or maintain mobile electronics communication equipment, including sound, sonar, security, navigation, and surveillance systems on trains, watercraft, or other mobile equipment. Excludes "Avionics Technicians" (49-2091) and "Electronic Equipment Installers and Repairers, Motor Vehicles" (49-2096).

        Illustrative examples: Locomotive Electrician , Marine Electronics Repairer

      • 49-2094  Electrical and Electronics Repairers, Commercial and Industrial Equipment

        Repair, test, adjust, or install electronic equipment, such as industrial controls, transmitters, and antennas. Excludes "Avionics Technicians" (49-2091), "Electronic Equipment Installers and Repairers, Motor Vehicles" (49-2096), and "Electrical and Electronics Installers and Repairers, Transportation Equipment" (49-2093).

        Illustrative examples: Industrial Robotics Mechanic , Missile Pad Mechanic , Public Address System Mechanic

      • 49-2095  Electrical and Electronics Repairers, Powerhouse, Substation, and Relay

        Inspect, test, repair, or maintain electrical equipment in generating stations, substations, and in-service relays.

        Illustrative examples: Power Transformer Repairer , Powerhouse Electrician , Relay Technician

      • 49-2096  Electronic Equipment Installers and Repairers, Motor Vehicles

        Install, diagnose, or repair communications, sound, security, or navigation equipment in motor vehicles.

        Illustrative examples: Automotive Electrician , Car Alarm Installer , Car Stereo Installer , GPS Car Navigation Installer

      • 49-2097  Electronic Home Entertainment Equipment Installers and Repairers

        Repair, adjust, or install audio or television receivers, stereo systems, camcorders, video systems, or other electronic home entertainment equipment.

        Illustrative examples: Electronic Musical Instrument Repairer , Home Theater Installer , Satellite Dish Installer , Wireless Internet Installer

      • 49-2098  Security and Fire Alarm Systems Installers

        Install, program, maintain, and repair security and fire alarm wiring and equipment. Ensure that work is in accordance with relevant codes. Excludes "Electricians" (47-2111) who do a broad range of electrical wiring.

        Illustrative examples: Burglar Alarm Installer , Fire Alarm Installer , Home Security Alarm Installer

  • 49-3000  Vehicle and Mobile Equipment Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers
    • 49-3010  Aircraft Mechanics and Service Technicians
      • 49-3011  Aircraft Mechanics and Service Technicians

        Diagnose, adjust, repair, or overhaul aircraft engines and assemblies, such as hydraulic and pneumatic systems. Includes helicopter and aircraft engine specialists. Excludes "Avionics Technician" (49-2091).

        Illustrative examples: Aircraft Engine Specialist , Airframe Mechanic , Flight Test Mechanic

    • 49-3020  Automotive Technicians and Repairers
      • 49-3021  Automotive Body and Related Repairers

        Repair and refinish automotive vehicle bodies and straighten vehicle frames. Excludes "Painters, Transportation Equipment" (51-9122) and "Automotive Glass Installers and Repairers" (49-3022).

        Illustrative examples: Auto Body Customizer , Auto Bumper Straightener , Truck Body Repairer

      • 49-3022  Automotive Glass Installers and Repairers

        Replace or repair broken windshields and window glass in motor vehicles.

        Illustrative examples: Auto Glass Mechanic , Automotive Glazier , Windshield Installer

      • 49-3023  Automotive Service Technicians and Mechanics

        Diagnose, adjust, repair, or overhaul automotive vehicles. Excludes "Automotive Body and Related Repairers" (49-3021), "Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists" (49-3031), and "Electronic Equipment Installers and Repairers, Motor Vehicles" (49-2096).

        Illustrative examples: Auto Transmission Specialist , Automotive Brake Technician , Automotive Fuel Injection Servicer , Hybrid Car Mechanic

    • 49-3030  Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists
      • 49-3031  Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists

        Diagnose, adjust, repair, or overhaul buses and trucks, or maintain and repair any type of diesel engines. Includes mechanics working primarily with automobile or marine diesel engines.

        Illustrative examples: Biodiesel Engine Specialist , Marine Diesel Technician , School Bus Mechanic , Tractor Trailer Mechanic

    • 49-3040  Heavy Vehicle and Mobile Equipment Service Technicians and Mechanics
      • 49-3041  Farm Equipment Mechanics and Service Technicians

        Diagnose, adjust, repair, or overhaul farm machinery and vehicles, such as tractors, harvesters, dairy equipment, and irrigation systems. Excludes "Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists" (49-3031).

        Illustrative examples: Combine Mechanic , Dairy Equipment Repairer , Irrigation Equipment Mechanic

      • 49-3042  Mobile Heavy Equipment Mechanics, Except Engines

        Diagnose, adjust, repair, or overhaul mobile mechanical, hydraulic, and pneumatic equipment, such as cranes, bulldozers, graders, and conveyors, used in construction, logging, and surface mining. Excludes "Rail Car Repairers" (49-3043) and "Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists" (49-3031).

        Illustrative examples: Bulldozer Mechanic , Construction Equipment Mechanic , Forklift Mechanic

      • 49-3043  Rail Car Repairers

        Diagnose, adjust, repair, or overhaul railroad rolling stock, mine cars, or mass transit rail cars. Excludes "Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists" (49-3031).

        Illustrative examples: Mine Car Mechanic , Streetcar Repairer , Subway Car Repairer , Trolley Car Overhauler

    • 49-3050  Small Engine Mechanics
      • 49-3051  Motorboat Mechanics and Service Technicians

        Repair and adjust electrical and mechanical equipment of inboard or inboard-outboard boat engines. Excludes "Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists" (49-3031).

        Illustrative examples: Certified Marine Mechanic , Outboard Motor Mechanic

      • 49-3052  Motorcycle Mechanics

        Diagnose, adjust, repair, or overhaul motorcycles, scooters, mopeds, dirt bikes, or similar motorized vehicles.

        Illustrative examples: All Terrain Vehicle Technician , Motor Scooter Mechanic , Motorcycle Service Technician

      • 49-3053  Outdoor Power Equipment and Other Small Engine Mechanics

        Diagnose, adjust, repair, or overhaul small engines used to power lawn mowers, chain saws, recreational sporting equipment and related equipment.

        Illustrative examples: Golf Cart Mechanic , Lawn Mower Repairer , Mobility Scooter Repairer , Power Saw Mechanic

    • 49-3090  Miscellaneous Vehicle and Mobile Equipment Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers
      • 49-3091  Bicycle Repairers

        Repair and service bicycles.

        Illustrative examples: Bicycle Mechanic , Bicycle Service Technician

      • 49-3092  Recreational Vehicle Service Technicians

        Diagnose, inspect, adjust, repair, or overhaul recreational vehicles including travel trailers. May specialize in maintaining gas, electrical, hydraulic, plumbing, or chassis/towing systems as well as repairing generators, appliances, and interior components. Includes workers who perform customized van conversions. Excludes "Automotive Service Technicians and Mechanics" (49-3023) and "Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists" (49-3031) who also work on recreation vehicles.

        Illustrative examples: Recreational Vehicle (RV) Repairer , RV Mechanic

      • 49-3093  Tire Repairers and Changers

        Repair and replace tires.

        Illustrative examples: Tire Balancer , Tire Fixer

  • 49-9000  Other Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Occupations
    • 49-9010  Control and Valve Installers and Repairers
      • 49-9011  Mechanical Door Repairers

        Install, service, or repair automatic door mechanisms and hydraulic doors. Includes garage door mechanics.

        Illustrative examples: Automatic Door Mechanic

      • 49-9012  Control and Valve Installers and Repairers, Except Mechanical Door

        Install, repair, and maintain mechanical regulating and controlling devices, such as electric meters, gas regulators, thermostats, safety and flow valves, and other mechanical governors.

        Illustrative examples: Air Valve Mechanic , Gas Meter Installer , Thermostat Repairer

    • 49-9020  Heating, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Mechanics and Installers
    • 49-9030  Home Appliance Repairers
      • 49-9031  Home Appliance Repairers

        Repair, adjust, or install all types of electric or gas household appliances, such as refrigerators, washers, dryers, and ovens.

        Illustrative examples: Vacuum Cleaner Repairer , Washing Machine Installer , Window Air Conditioner Installer

    • 49-9040  Industrial Machinery Installation, Repair, and Maintenance Workers
      • 49-9041  Industrial Machinery Mechanics

        Repair, install, adjust, or maintain industrial production and processing machinery or refinery and pipeline distribution systems. Excludes "Millwrights" (49-9044), "Mobile Heavy Equipment Mechanics, Except Engines" (49-3042), and "Maintenance Workers, Machinery" (49-9043).

        Illustrative examples: Boilerhouse Mechanic , Foundry Equipment Mechanic , Hydroelectric Machinery Mechanic

      • 49-9043  Maintenance Workers, Machinery

        Lubricate machinery, change parts, or perform other routine machinery maintenance. Excludes "Maintenance and Repair Workers, General" (49-9071).

        Illustrative examples: Crane Oiler

      • 49-9044  Millwrights

        Install, dismantle, or move machinery and heavy equipment according to layout plans, blueprints, or other drawings.

        Illustrative examples: Machinery Dismantler , Maintenance Millwright

      • 49-9045  Refractory Materials Repairers, Except Brickmasons

        Build or repair equipment such as furnaces, kilns, cupolas, boilers, converters, ladles, soaking pits and ovens, using refractory materials.

    • 49-9050  Line Installers and Repairers
      • 49-9051  Electrical Power-Line Installers and Repairers

        Install or repair cables or wires used in electrical power or distribution systems. May erect poles and light or heavy duty transmission towers. Excludes "Electrical and Electronics Repairers, Powerhouse, Substation, and Relay" (49-2095).

        Illustrative examples: Electric Powerline Examiner , Electric Utility Lineworker , Electrical High Tension Tester , Electrical Lineworker

      • 49-9052  Telecommunications Line Installers and Repairers

        Install and repair telecommunications cable, including fiber optics.

        Illustrative examples: Cable Television Installer , FIOS Line Installer , Telephone Cable Splicer

    • 49-9060  Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers
      • 49-9061  Camera and Photographic Equipment Repairers

        Repair and adjust cameras and photographic equipment, including commercial video and motion picture camera equipment.

        Illustrative examples: Aircraft Photographic Equipment Repairer , Camera Repairer , Photographic Equipment Technician

      • 49-9062  Medical Equipment Repairers

        Test, adjust, or repair biomedical or electromedical equipment.

        Illustrative examples: Biomedical Equipment Technician , Radiology Equipment Servicer , Surgical Instrument Mechanic

      • 49-9063  Musical Instrument Repairers and Tuners

        Repair percussion, stringed, reed, or wind instruments. May specialize in one area, such as piano tuning. Excludes "Electronic Home Entertainment Equipment Installers and Repairers" (49-2097) who repair electrical and electronic musical instruments.

        Illustrative examples: Brass and Wind Instrument Repairer , Piano Tuner , Violin Repairer

      • 49-9064  Watch Repairers

        Repair, clean, and adjust mechanisms of timing instruments, such as watches and clocks. Includes watchmakers, watch technicians, and mechanical timepiece repairers.

        Illustrative examples: Antique Clock Repairer , Clock Repair Technician , Horologist

      • 49-9069  Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers, All Other

        All precision instrument and equipment repairers not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Gyroscope Repairer , Telescope Repairer

    • 49-9070  Maintenance and Repair Workers, General
      • 49-9071  Maintenance and Repair Workers, General

        Perform work involving the skills of two or more maintenance or craft occupations to keep machines, mechanical equipment, or the structure of an establishment in repair. Duties may involve pipe fitting; boiler making; insulating; welding; machining; carpentry; repairing electrical or mechanical equipment; installing, aligning, and balancing new equipment; and repairing buildings, floors, or stairs. Excludes "Maintenance Workers, Machinery" (49-9043).

        Illustrative examples: Building Maintenance Mechanic

    • 49-9080  Wind Turbine Service Technicians
      • 49-9081  Wind Turbine Service Technicians

        Inspect, diagnose, adjust, or repair wind turbines. Perform maintenance on wind turbine equipment including resolving electrical, mechanical, and hydraulic malfunctions.

        Illustrative examples: Wind Energy Technician , Wind Turbine Mechanic

    • 49-9090  Miscellaneous Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers
      • 49-9091  Coin, Vending, and Amusement Machine Servicers and Repairers

        Install, service, adjust, or repair coin, vending, or amusement machines including video games, juke boxes, pinball machines, or slot machines.

        Illustrative examples: Arcade Games Mechanic , Parking Meter Collector , Slot Machine Mechanic , Vending Machine Filler

      • 49-9092  Commercial Divers

        Work below surface of water, using scuba gear to inspect, repair, remove, or install equipment and structures. May use a variety of power and hand tools, such as drills, sledgehammers, torches, and welding equipment. May conduct tests or experiments, rig explosives, or photograph structures or marine life. Excludes "Fishers and Related Fishing Workers" (45-3011), "Athletes and Sports Competitors" (27-2021), and "Police and Sheriff's Patrol Officers" (33-3051).

        Illustrative examples: Marine Diver , Salvage Diver , Scuba Diver , Underwater Welder

      • 49-9093  Fabric Menders, Except Garment

        Repair tears, holes, and other defects in fabrics, such as draperies, linens, parachutes, and tents.

        Illustrative examples: Fabric Awning Repairer , Parachute Repairer , Sail Repairer

      • 49-9094  Locksmiths and Safe Repairers

        Repair and open locks; make keys; change locks and safe combinations; and install and repair safes.

        Illustrative examples: Key Maker , Safe and Vault Installer , Safe and Vault Mechanic

      • 49-9095  Manufactured Building and Mobile Home Installers

        Move or install mobile homes or prefabricated buildings.

        Illustrative examples: Housetrailer Servicer , Mobile Home Mechanic , Mobile Home Servicer

      • 49-9096  Riggers

        Set up or repair rigging for construction projects, manufacturing plants, logging yards, ships and shipyards, or for the entertainment industry.

        Illustrative examples: Acrobatic Rigger , Crane Rigger , Yard Rigger

      • 49-9097  Signal and Track Switch Repairers

        Install, inspect, test, maintain, or repair electric gate crossings, signals, signal equipment, track switches, section lines, or intercommunications systems within a railroad system.

        Illustrative examples: Light Rail Signal Technician , Rail Signal Mechanic , Third Rail Installer

      • 49-9098  Helpers--Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers

        Help installation, maintenance, and repair workers in maintenance, parts replacement, and repair of vehicles, industrial machinery, and electrical and electronic equipment. Perform duties such as furnishing tools, materials, and supplies to other workers; cleaning work area, machines, and tools; and holding materials or tools for other workers.

        Illustrative examples: Automobile Body Repairer Helper , Locksmith Helper , Motorboat Mechanic Helper

      • 49-9099  Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers, All Other

        All, installation, maintenance, and repair workers not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Bowling Alley Mechanic , Fire Extinguisher Installer , Gasoline Pump Installer , Gunsmith

51-0000 Production Occupations

  • 51-1000  Supervisors of Production Workers
    • 51-1010  First-Line Supervisors of Production and Operating Workers
      • 51-1011  First-Line Supervisors of Production and Operating Workers

        Directly supervise and coordinate the activities of production and operating workers, such as inspectors, precision workers, machine setters and operators, assemblers, fabricators, and plant and system operators. Excludes team or work leaders.

        Illustrative examples: Assembly Line Supervisor , Machinist Supervisor , Printing Worker Supervisor

  • 51-2000  Assemblers and Fabricators
    • 51-2010  Aircraft Structure, Surfaces, Rigging, and Systems Assemblers
      • 51-2011  Aircraft Structure, Surfaces, Rigging, and Systems Assemblers

        Assemble, fit, fasten, and install parts of airplanes, space vehicles, or missiles, such as tails, wings, fuselage, bulkheads, stabilizers, landing gear, rigging and control equipment, or heating and ventilating systems.

        Illustrative examples: Aircraft De-Icer Installer , Aircraft Fuselage Framer , Aircraft Riveter

    • 51-2020  Electrical, Electronics, and Electromechanical Assemblers
      • 51-2021  Coil Winders, Tapers, and Finishers

        Wind wire coils used in electrical components, such as resistors and transformers, and in electrical equipment and instruments, such as field cores, bobbins, armature cores, electrical motors, generators, and control equipment.

        Illustrative examples: Coil Builder , Motor Winder , Wire Coiler

      • 51-2022  Electrical and Electronic Equipment Assemblers

        Assemble or modify electrical or electronic equipment, such as computers, test equipment telemetering systems, electric motors, and batteries.

        Illustrative examples: Anode Builder , Battery Builder , Circuit Board Assembler , Electric Motor Controls Assembler

      • 51-2023  Electromechanical Equipment Assemblers

        Assemble or modify electromechanical equipment or devices, such as servomechanisms, gyros, dynamometers, magnetic drums, tape drives, brakes, control linkage, actuators, and appliances.

        Illustrative examples: Programmable Logic Controller Assembler , Synchronous Motor Assembler , Vacuum Cleaner Assembler , Vending Machine Assembler

    • 51-2030  Engine and Other Machine Assemblers
      • 51-2031  Engine and Other Machine Assemblers

        Construct, assemble, or rebuild machines, such as engines, turbines, and similar equipment used in such industries as construction, extraction, textiles, and paper manufacturing.

        Illustrative examples: Gas Turbine Assembler , Machine Builder , Steam Turbine Assembler

    • 51-2040  Structural Metal Fabricators and Fitters
      • 51-2041  Structural Metal Fabricators and Fitters

        Fabricate, position, align, and fit parts of structural metal products. Shipfitters are included in "Layout Workers, Metal and Plastic" (51-4192).

        Illustrative examples: Mill Beam Fitter , Protector Plate Attacher

    • 51-2090  Miscellaneous Assemblers and Fabricators
      • 51-2091  Fiberglass Laminators and Fabricators

        Laminate layers of fiberglass on molds to form boat decks and hulls, bodies for golf carts, automobiles, or other products.

        Illustrative examples: Fiberglass Boat Builder , Fiberglass Ski Maker

      • 51-2092  Team Assemblers

        Work as part of a team having responsibility for assembling an entire product or component of a product. Team assemblers can perform all tasks conducted by the team in the assembly process and rotate through all or most of them rather than being assigned to a specific task on a permanent basis. May participate in making management decisions affecting the work. Includes team leaders who work as part of the team. Assemblers who continuously perform the same task are classified elsewhere in 51-2000.

        Illustrative examples: Lead Team Assembler , Team Assembly Line Machine Operator , Team Automobile Assembler

      • 51-2093  Timing Device Assemblers and Adjusters

        Perform precision assembling, adjusting, or calibrating, within narrow tolerances, of timing devices such as digital clocks or timing devices with electrical or electronic components. Excludes watchmakers, which are included in "Watch Repairers" (49-9064).

        Illustrative examples: Digital Watch Assembler , Electrical Timing Device Calibrator , Marine Chronometer Assembler

      • 51-2099  Assemblers and Fabricators, All Other

        All assemblers and fabricators not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Air Bag Builder , Crate Builder , Doll Maker

  • 51-3000  Food Processing Workers
    • 51-3010  Bakers
      • 51-3011  Bakers

        Mix and bake ingredients to produce breads, rolls, cookies, cakes, pies, pastries, or other baked goods. Pastry chefs in restaurants and hotels are included with "Chefs and Head Cooks" (35-1011).

        Illustrative examples: Bagel Maker , Bread Baker , Pastry Finisher

    • 51-3020  Butchers and Other Meat, Poultry, and Fish Processing Workers
      • 51-3021  Butchers and Meat Cutters

        Cut, trim, or prepare consumer-sized portions of meat for use or sale in retail establishments.

        Illustrative examples: Butcher Apprentice , Kosher Butcher , Meat Carver , Meat Counter Worker

      • 51-3022  Meat, Poultry, and Fish Cutters and Trimmers

        Use hand or hand tools to perform routine cutting and trimming of meat, poultry, and seafood.

        Illustrative examples: Fish Filleter , Oyster Shucker , Poultry Eviscerator , Shrimp Picker

      • 51-3023  Slaughterers and Meat Packers

        Work in slaughtering, meat packing, or wholesale establishments performing precision functions involving the preparation of meat. Work may include specialized slaughtering tasks, cutting standard or premium cuts of meat for marketing, making sausage, or wrapping meats. Excludes "Meat, Poultry, and Fish Cutters and Trimmers" (51-3022) who perform routine meat cutting.

        Illustrative examples: Halal Meat Packer , Poultry Slaughterer , Shochet

    • 51-3090  Miscellaneous Food Processing Workers
      • 51-3091  Food and Tobacco Roasting, Baking, and Drying Machine Operators and Tenders

        Operate or tend food or tobacco roasting, baking, or drying equipment, including hearth ovens, kiln driers, roasters, char kilns, and vacuum drying equipment.

        Illustrative examples: Coffee Roaster , Fish Smoker , Meat Curer , Smokehouse Worker

      • 51-3092  Food Batchmakers

        Set up and operate equipment that mixes or blends ingredients used in the manufacturing of food products. Includes candy makers and cheese makers.

        Illustrative examples: Frozen Yogurt Maker , Honey Blender , Peanut Butter Maker

      • 51-3093  Food Cooking Machine Operators and Tenders

        Operate or tend cooking equipment, such as steam cooking vats, deep fry cookers, pressure cookers, kettles, and boilers, to prepare food products. Excludes "Food and Tobacco Roasting, Baking, and Drying Machine Operators and Tenders" (51-3091).

        Illustrative examples: Doughnut Machine Operator , Dumpling Machine Operator , Potato Chip Frier

      • 51-3099  Food Processing Workers, All Other

        All food processing workers not listed separately

        Illustrative examples: Olive Pitter , Poultry Hanger , Yeast Maker

  • 51-4000  Metal Workers and Plastic Workers
    • 51-4010  Computer Control Programmers and Operators
      • 51-4011  Computer-Controlled Machine Tool Operators, Metal and Plastic

        Operate computer-controlled machines or robots to perform one or more machine functions on metal or plastic work pieces.

        Illustrative examples: Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) Shot Peening Operator , Jig Boring Machine Operator for Metal , Welding Robot Operator

      • 51-4012  Computer Numerically Controlled Machine Tool Programmers, Metal and Plastic

        Develop programs to control machining or processing of metal or plastic parts by automatic machine tools, equipment, or systems.

        Illustrative examples: Metal Numerical Control Programmer , Metal Numerical Tool Programmer , Sheet Metal Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) Programmer

    • 51-4020  Forming Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic
    • 51-4030  Machine Tool Cutting Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic
    • 51-4040  Machinists
      • 51-4041  Machinists

        Set up and operate a variety of machine tools to produce precision parts and instruments. Includes precision instrument makers who fabricate, modify, or repair mechanical instruments. May also fabricate and modify parts to make or repair machine tools or maintain industrial machines, applying knowledge of mechanics, mathematics, metal properties, layout, and machining procedures.

        Illustrative examples: Automotive Machinist , Gear Machinist , Production Machinist

    • 51-4050  Metal Furnace Operators, Tenders, Pourers, and Casters
      • 51-4051  Metal-Refining Furnace Operators and Tenders

        Operate or tend furnaces, such as gas, oil, coal, electric-arc or electric induction, open-hearth, or oxygen furnaces, to melt and refine metal before casting or to produce specified types of steel. Excludes "Heat Treating Equipment Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic" (51-4191).

        Illustrative examples: Electric Arc Furnace Operator , Smelter Operator

      • 51-4052  Pourers and Casters, Metal

        Operate hand-controlled mechanisms to pour and regulate the flow of molten metal into molds to produce castings or ingots.

        Illustrative examples: Ingot Caster , Molten Iron Pourer , Steel Pourer

    • 51-4060  Model Makers and Patternmakers, Metal and Plastic
      • 51-4061  Model Makers, Metal and Plastic

        Set up and operate machines, such as lathes, milling and engraving machines, and jig borers to make working models of metal or plastic objects. Includes template makers.

        Illustrative examples: Metal Mockup Maker , Plastic Jig and Fixture Builder

      • 51-4062  Patternmakers, Metal and Plastic

        Lay out, machine, fit, and assemble castings and parts to metal or plastic foundry patterns, core boxes, or match plates.

    • 51-4070  Molders and Molding Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic
    • 51-4080  Multiple Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic
    • 51-4110  Tool and Die Makers
      • 51-4111  Tool and Die Makers

        Analyze specifications, lay out metal stock, set up and operate machine tools, and fit and assemble parts to make and repair dies, cutting tools, jigs, fixtures, gauges, and machinists' hand tools.

        Illustrative examples: Jig Bore Tool Maker , Metal Die Finisher , Metal Gauge Maker

    • 51-4120  Welding, Soldering, and Brazing Workers
      • 51-4121  Welders, Cutters, Solderers, and Brazers

        Use hand-welding, flame-cutting, hand soldering, or brazing equipment to weld or join metal components or to fill holes, indentations, or seams of fabricated metal products.

        Illustrative examples: Arc Welder , Cutting Torch Operator , Pipe Welder , Silver Solderer

      • 51-4122  Welding, Soldering, and Brazing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders

        Set up, operate, or tend welding, soldering, or brazing machines or robots that weld, braze, solder, or heat treat metal products, components, or assemblies. Includes workers who operate laser cutters or laser-beam machines.

        Illustrative examples: Electron Beam Welder Setter , Ultrasonic Welding Machine Operator

    • 51-4190  Miscellaneous Metal Workers and Plastic Workers
      • 51-4191  Heat Treating Equipment Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic

        Set up, operate, or tend heating equipment, such as heat-treating furnaces, flame-hardening machines, induction machines, soaking pits, or vacuum equipment to temper, harden, anneal, or heat-treat metal or plastic objects.

        Illustrative examples: Annealing Furnace Operator , Induction Machine Setter , Wire Temperer

      • 51-4192  Layout Workers, Metal and Plastic

        Lay out reference points and dimensions on metal or plastic stock or workpieces, such as sheets, plates, tubes, structural shapes, castings, or machine parts, for further processing. Includes shipfitters.

        Illustrative examples: Shipfitter Apprentice

      • 51-4193  Plating and Coating Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic

        Set up, operate, or tend plating or coating machines to coat metal or plastic products with chromium, zinc, copper, cadmium, nickel, or other metal to protect or decorate surfaces. Includes electrolytic processes.

        Illustrative examples: Anodizer , Galvanizer , Nickel Plater

      • 51-4194  Tool Grinders, Filers, and Sharpeners

        Perform precision smoothing, sharpening, polishing, or grinding of metal objects.

        Illustrative examples: Tool Grinding Machine Operator

      • 51-4199  Metal Workers and Plastic Workers, All Other

        All metal workers and plastic workers not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Electrical Discharge Machine Setup Operator , Metal Rivet Machine Operator , Tin Recovery Worker

  • 51-5100  Printing Workers
    • 51-5110  Printing Workers
      • 51-5111  Prepress Technicians and Workers

        Format and proof text and images submitted by designers and clients into finished pages that can be printed. Includes digital and photo typesetting. May produce printing plates.

        Illustrative examples: Digital Proofing and Platemaker , Photoengraver , Plate Mounter

      • 51-5112  Printing Press Operators

        Set up and operate digital, letterpress, lithographic, flexographic, gravure, or other printing machines. Includes short-run offset printing presses.

        Illustrative examples: Gravure Press Operator , Offset Press Operator , Web Press Operator

      • 51-5113  Print Binding and Finishing Workers

        Bind books and other publications or finish printed products by hand or machine. May set up binding and finishing machines.

        Illustrative examples: Bookbinder , Bookbinding Machine Operator

  • 51-6000  Textile, Apparel, and Furnishings Workers
    • 51-6010  Laundry and Dry-Cleaning Workers
      • 51-6011  Laundry and Dry-Cleaning Workers

        Operate or tend washing or dry-cleaning machines to wash or dry-clean industrial or household articles, such as cloth garments, suede, leather, furs, blankets, draperies, linens, rugs, and carpets. Includes spotters and dyers of these articles.

        Illustrative examples: Laundry Attendant , Laundry Equipment Operator , Laundry Sorter

    • 51-6020  Pressers, Textile, Garment, and Related Materials
    • 51-6030  Sewing Machine Operators
      • 51-6031  Sewing Machine Operators

        Operate or tend sewing machines to join, reinforce, decorate, or perform related sewing operations in the manufacture of garment or nongarment products.

        Illustrative examples: Blind Stitch Machine Operator , Button Sewing Machine Operator , Custom T-Shirt Embroidery Machine Operator

    • 51-6040  Shoe and Leather Workers
      • 51-6041  Shoe and Leather Workers and Repairers

        Construct, decorate, or repair leather and leather-like products, such as luggage, shoes, and saddles.

        Illustrative examples: Cobbler , Saddle Maker , Shoemaker

      • 51-6042  Shoe Machine Operators and Tenders

        Operate or tend a variety of machines to join, decorate, reinforce, or finish shoes and shoe parts.

        Illustrative examples: Arch Cushion Press Operator , Lasting Machine Operator , Rasper Machine Operator

    • 51-6050  Tailors, Dressmakers, and Sewers
      • 51-6051  Sewers, Hand

        Sew, join, reinforce, or finish, usually with needle and thread, a variety of manufactured items. Includes weavers and stitchers. Excludes "Fabric Menders, Except Garment" (49-9093).

        Illustrative examples: Hand Quilter , Hand Stitcher

      • 51-6052  Tailors, Dressmakers, and Custom Sewers

        Design, make, alter, repair, or fit garments.

        Illustrative examples: Alterations Tailor , Coat Maker , Vest Maker

    • 51-6060  Textile Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders
    • 51-6090  Miscellaneous Textile, Apparel, and Furnishings Workers
      • 51-6091  Extruding and Forming Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Synthetic and Glass Fibers

        Set up, operate, or tend machines that extrude and form continuous filaments from synthetic materials, such as liquid polymer, rayon, and fiberglass.

        Illustrative examples: Fiber Machine Tender , Synthetic Filament Extruder

      • 51-6092  Fabric and Apparel Patternmakers

        Draw and construct sets of precision master fabric patterns or layouts. May also mark and cut fabrics and apparel.

        Illustrative examples: Clothing Patternmaker , Embroidery Patternmaker , Fabric Pattern Grader

      • 51-6093  Upholsterers

        Make, repair, or replace upholstery for household furniture or transportation vehicles.

        Illustrative examples: Aircraft Seat Upholsterer , Furniture Upholsterer

      • 51-6099  Textile, Apparel, and Furnishings Workers, All Other

        All textile, apparel, and furnishings workers not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Apparel Embroidery Digitizer , Feltmaker , Hat Blocking Machine Operator

  • 51-7000  Woodworkers
    • 51-7010  Cabinetmakers and Bench Carpenters
      • 51-7011  Cabinetmakers and Bench Carpenters

        Cut, shape, and assemble wooden articles or set up and operate a variety of woodworking machines, such as power saws, jointers, and mortisers to surface, cut, or shape lumber or to fabricate parts for wood products. Excludes "Woodworking Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders" (51-7040).

        Illustrative examples: Cabinet Builder , Marquetry Worker , Wood Furniture Assembler

    • 51-7020  Furniture Finishers
      • 51-7021  Furniture Finishers

        Shape, finish, and refinish damaged, worn, or used furniture or new high-grade furniture to specified color or finish.

        Illustrative examples: Furniture Sander , Piano Refinisher , Wood Cabinet Finisher

    • 51-7030  Model Makers and Patternmakers, Wood
      • 51-7031  Model Makers, Wood

        Construct full-size and scale wooden precision models of products. Includes wood jig builders and loft workers.

        Illustrative examples: Architectural Wood Model Maker

      • 51-7032  Patternmakers, Wood

        Plan, lay out, and construct wooden unit or sectional patterns used in forming sand molds for castings.

        Illustrative examples: Wood Die Maker

    • 51-7040  Woodworking Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders
    • 51-7090  Miscellaneous Woodworkers
      • 51-7099  Woodworkers, All Other

        All woodworkers not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Pole Framer , Wood Carver , Wood Casket Assembler

  • 51-8000  Plant and System Operators
    • 51-8010  Power Plant Operators, Distributors, and Dispatchers
      • 51-8011  Nuclear Power Reactor Operators

        Operate or control nuclear reactors. Move control rods, start and stop equipment, monitor and adjust controls, and record data in logs. Implement emergency procedures when needed. May respond to abnormalities, determine cause, and recommend corrective action.

        Illustrative examples: Nuclear Control Room Operator , Nuclear Reactor Operator , Nuclear Station Operator

      • 51-8012  Power Distributors and Dispatchers

        Coordinate, regulate, or distribute electricity or steam.

        Illustrative examples: Steam Plant Control Room Operator , Substation Operator

      • 51-8013  Power Plant Operators

        Control, operate, or maintain machinery to generate electric power. Includes auxiliary equipment operators. Excludes "Nuclear Power Reactor Operators" (51-8011).

        Illustrative examples: Hydroelectric Plant Operator , Powerhouse Operator

    • 51-8020  Stationary Engineers and Boiler Operators
      • 51-8021  Stationary Engineers and Boiler Operators

        Operate or maintain stationary engines, boilers, or other mechanical equipment to provide utilities for buildings or industrial processes. Operate equipment, such as steam engines, generators, motors, turbines, and steam boilers.

        Illustrative examples: Boiler Engineer , Boiler Room Operator , Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Mechanic Boiler Operator

    • 51-8030  Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant and System Operators
      • 51-8031  Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant and System Operators

        Operate or control an entire process or system of machines, often through the use of control boards, to transfer or treat water or wastewater.

        Illustrative examples: Liquid Waste Treatment Plant Operator , Sewage Plant Operator

    • 51-8090  Miscellaneous Plant and System Operators
      • 51-8091  Chemical Plant and System Operators

        Control or operate entire chemical processes or system of machines.

        Illustrative examples: Nitric Acid Plant Operator , Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Machine Operator

      • 51-8092  Gas Plant Operators

        Distribute or process gas for utility companies and others by controlling compressors to maintain specified pressures on main pipelines.

        Illustrative examples: Gas Controller , Gas Plant Dispatcher

      • 51-8093  Petroleum Pump System Operators, Refinery Operators, and Gaugers

        Operate or control petroleum refining or processing units. May specialize in controlling manifold and pumping systems, gauging or testing oil in storage tanks, or regulating the flow of oil into pipelines.

        Illustrative examples: Hydrotreater Operator , Oil Pipeline Operator , Oil Refiner

      • 51-8099  Plant and System Operators, All Other

        All plant and system operators not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Asphalt Plant Operator , Concrete Batch Plant Operator , Lime Filter Operator

  • 51-9000  Other Production Occupations
    • 51-9010  Chemical Processing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders
      • 51-9011  Chemical Equipment Operators and Tenders

        Operate or tend equipment to control chemical changes or reactions in the processing of industrial or consumer products. Equipment used includes devulcanizers, steam-jacketed kettles, and reactor vessels. Excludes "Chemical Plant and System Operators" (51-8091).

        Illustrative examples: Acid Purification Equipment Operator , Chemical Process Equipment Operator

      • 51-9012  Separating, Filtering, Clarifying, Precipitating, and Still Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders

        Set up, operate, or tend continuous flow or vat-type equipment; filter presses; shaker screens; centrifuges; condenser tubes; precipitating, fermenting, or evaporating tanks; scrubbing towers; or batch stills. These machines extract, sort, or separate liquids, gases, or solids from other materials to recover a refined product. Includes dairy processing equipment operators. Excludes "Chemical Equipment Operators and Tenders" (51-9011).

        Illustrative examples: Brewmaster , Fermentation Operator , Pasteurizer

    • 51-9020  Crushing, Grinding, Polishing, Mixing, and Blending Workers
      • 51-9021  Crushing, Grinding, and Polishing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders

        Set up, operate, or tend machines to crush, grind, or polish materials, such as coal, glass, grain, stone, food, or rubber.

        Illustrative examples: Beveling and Edging Machine Operator , Industrial Coffee Grinder , Marble and Granite Polisher , Pulverizer Operator

      • 51-9022  Grinding and Polishing Workers, Hand

        Grind, sand, or polish, using hand tools or hand-held power tools, a variety of metal, wood, stone, clay, plastic, or glass objects. Includes chippers, buffers, and finishers.

        Illustrative examples: Hand Buffer , Hand Sander , Jewelry Polisher , Knife Grinder

      • 51-9023  Mixing and Blending Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders

        Set up, operate, or tend machines to mix or blend materials, such as chemicals, tobacco, liquids, color pigments, or explosive ingredients. Excludes "Food Batchmakers" (51-3092).

        Illustrative examples: Asphalt Blender , Clay Mixer , Ink Blender

    • 51-9030  Cutting Workers
      • 51-9031  Cutters and Trimmers, Hand

        Use hand tools or hand-held power tools to cut and trim a variety of manufactured items, such as carpet, fabric, stone, glass, or rubber.

        Illustrative examples: Fur Trimmer , Hand Cloth Cutter

      • 51-9032  Cutting and Slicing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders

        Set up, operate, or tend machines that cut or slice materials, such as glass, stone, cork, rubber, tobacco, food, paper, or insulating material. Excludes "Woodworking Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders" (51-7040), "Cutting, Punching, and Press Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic" (51-4031), and "Textile Cutting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders" (51-6062).

        Illustrative examples: Glass Cutting Machine Operator , Insulation Cutter , Rubber Trimmer

    • 51-9040  Extruding, Forming, Pressing, and Compacting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders
      • 51-9041  Extruding, Forming, Pressing, and Compacting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders

        Set up, operate, or tend machines, such as glass forming machines, plodder machines, and tuber machines, to shape and form products, such as glassware, food, rubber, soap, brick, tile, clay, wax, tobacco, or cosmetics. Excludes "Paper Goods Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders" (51-9196) and "Shoe Machine Operators and Tenders" (51-6042).

        Illustrative examples: Brick Maker , Rubber Extrusion Operator , Sugar Presser

    • 51-9050  Furnace, Kiln, Oven, Drier, and Kettle Operators and Tenders
      • 51-9051  Furnace, Kiln, Oven, Drier, and Kettle Operators and Tenders

        Operate or tend heating equipment other than basic metal, plastic, or food processing equipment. Includes activities, such as annealing glass, drying lumber, curing rubber, removing moisture from materials, or boiling soap.

        Illustrative examples: Lime Kiln Operator , Lumber Kiln Operator , Rubber Curer

    • 51-9060  Inspectors, Testers, Sorters, Samplers, and Weighers
      • 51-9061  Inspectors, Testers, Sorters, Samplers, and Weighers

        Inspect, test, sort, sample, or weigh nonagricultural raw materials or processed, machined, fabricated, or assembled parts or products for defects, wear, and deviations from specifications. May use precision measuring instruments and complex test equipment.

        Illustrative examples: Machined Parts Quality Inspector , Petroleum Sampler

    • 51-9070  Jewelers and Precious Stone and Metal Workers
      • 51-9071  Jewelers and Precious Stone and Metal Workers

        Design, fabricate, adjust, repair, or appraise jewelry, gold, silver, other precious metals, or gems. Includes diamond polishers and gem cutters, and persons who perform precision casting and modeling of molds, casting metal in molds, or setting precious and semi-precious stones for jewelry and related products.

        Illustrative examples: Diamond Setter , Gemologist , Goldsmith

    • 51-9080  Medical, Dental, and Ophthalmic Laboratory Technicians
      • 51-9081  Dental Laboratory Technicians

        Construct and repair full or partial dentures or dental appliances. Excludes "Dental Assistants" (31-9091).

        Illustrative examples: Crown and Bridge Technician , Dental Ceramist , Orthodontic Technician

      • 51-9082  Medical Appliance Technicians

        Construct, fit, maintain, or repair medical supportive devices, such as braces, orthotics and prosthetic devices, joints, arch supports, and other surgical and medical appliances.

        Illustrative examples: Brace Maker , Orthotics Technician , Prosthetics Technician

      • 51-9083  Ophthalmic Laboratory Technicians

        Cut, grind, and polish eyeglasses, contact lenses, or other precision optical elements. Assemble and mount lenses into frames or process other optical elements. Includes precision lens polishers or grinders, centerer-edgers, and lens mounters. Excludes "Opticians, Dispensing" (29-2081).

        Illustrative examples: Eyeglass Maker , Lens Grinder , Precision Lens Centerer and Edger

    • 51-9110  Packaging and Filling Machine Operators and Tenders
      • 51-9111  Packaging and Filling Machine Operators and Tenders

        Operate or tend machines to prepare industrial or consumer products for storage or shipment. Includes cannery workers who pack food products.

        Illustrative examples: Bottle Capper , Keg Filler , Potato Chip Packaging Machine Operator

    • 51-9120  Painting Workers
      • 51-9121  Coating, Painting, and Spraying Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders

        Set up, operate, or tend machines to coat or paint any of a wide variety of products including, glassware, cloth, ceramics, metal, plastic, paper, or wood, with lacquer, silver, copper, rubber, varnish, glaze, enamel, oil, or rust-proofing materials. Excludes "Plating and Coating Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic" (51-4193) and "Painters, Transportation Equipment" (51-9122).

        Illustrative examples: Electrostatic Paint Operator , Lacquer Spray Booth Operator

      • 51-9122  Painters, Transportation Equipment

        Operate or tend painting machines to paint surfaces of transportation equipment, such as automobiles, buses, trucks, trains, boats, and airplanes. Includes painters in auto body repair facilities.

        Illustrative examples: Aircraft Painter , Auto Painter , Railroad Car Painter

      • 51-9123  Painting, Coating, and Decorating Workers

        Paint, coat, or decorate articles, such as furniture, glass, plateware, pottery, jewelry, toys, books, or leather. Excludes "Artists and Related Workers" (27-1010), "Designers" (27-1020), "Photographic Process Workers and Processing Machine Operators" (51-9151), and "Etchers and Engravers" (51-9194).

        Illustrative examples: Ceramic Painter , China Decorator , Sign Painter

    • 51-9140  Semiconductor Processors
      • 51-9141  Semiconductor Processors

        Perform any or all of the following functions in the manufacture of electronic semiconductors: load semiconductor material into furnace; saw formed ingots into segments; load individual segment into crystal growing chamber and monitor controls; locate crystal axis in ingot using x-ray equipment and saw ingots into wafers; and clean, polish, and load wafers into series of special purpose furnaces, chemical baths, and equipment used to form circuitry and change conductive properties.

        Illustrative examples: Electronic Semiconductor Processor , Semiconductor Assembler , Wafer Fabricator

    • 51-9150  Photographic Process Workers and Processing Machine Operators
      • 51-9151  Photographic Process Workers and Processing Machine Operators

        Perform work involved in developing and processing photographic images from film or digital media. May perform precision tasks such as editing photographic negatives and prints.

        Illustrative examples: Digital Photo Printer , Photo Lab Specialist , Photo Retoucher

    • 51-9190  Miscellaneous Production Workers
      • 51-9191  Adhesive Bonding Machine Operators and Tenders

        Operate or tend bonding machines that use adhesives to join items for further processing or to form a completed product. Processes include joining veneer sheets into plywood; gluing paper; or joining rubber and rubberized fabric parts, plastic, simulated leather, or other materials. Excludes "Shoe Machine Operators and Tenders" (51-6042).

        Illustrative examples: Glue Line Operator , Glue Reel Operator , Paper Gluing Operator

      • 51-9192  Cleaning, Washing, and Metal Pickling Equipment Operators and Tenders

        Operate or tend machines to wash or clean products, such as barrels or kegs, glass items, tin plate, food, pulp, coal, plastic, or rubber, to remove impurities.

        Illustrative examples: Acid Dipper , Degreaser Operator , Immersion Metal Cleaner

      • 51-9193  Cooling and Freezing Equipment Operators and Tenders

        Operate or tend equipment, such as cooling and freezing units, refrigerators, batch freezers, and freezing tunnels, to cool or freeze products, food, blood plasma, and chemicals.

        Illustrative examples: Chiller Tender , Refrigerating Machine Operator

      • 51-9194  Etchers and Engravers

        Engrave or etch metal, wood, rubber, or other materials. Includes such workers as etcher-circuit processors, pantograph engravers, and silk screen etchers. Photoengravers are included in "Prepress Technicians and Workers" (51-5111).

        Illustrative examples: Glass Etcher , Metal Engraver

      • 51-9195  Molders, Shapers, and Casters, Except Metal and Plastic

        Mold, shape, form, cast, or carve products such as food products, figurines, tile, pipes, and candles consisting of clay, glass, plaster, concrete, stone, or combinations of materials.

        Illustrative examples: Cigar Roller , Glass Blower , Neon Tube Bender

      • 51-9196  Paper Goods Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders

        Set up, operate, or tend paper goods machines that perform a variety of functions, such as converting, sawing, corrugating, banding, wrapping, boxing, stitching, forming, or sealing paper or paperboard sheets into products.

        Illustrative examples: Box Fabricator , Carton Making Machine Operator , Corrugator Operator

      • 51-9197  Tire Builders

        Operate machines to build tires.

        Illustrative examples: Auto Tire Recapper , Retreader , Tire Molder

      • 51-9198  Helpers--Production Workers

        Help production workers by performing duties requiring less skill. Duties include supplying or holding materials or tools, and cleaning work area and equipment. Apprentice workers are classified in the appropriate production occupations (51-0000).

        Illustrative examples: Blending Tank Helper , Commercial Baker Helper , Welder Helper

      • 51-9199  Production Workers, All Other

        All production workers not listed separately.

53-0000 Transportation and Material Moving Occupations

  • 53-1000  Supervisors of Transportation and Material Moving Workers
    • 53-1010  Aircraft Cargo Handling Supervisors
      • 53-1011  Aircraft Cargo Handling Supervisors

        Supervise and coordinate the activities of ground crew in the loading, unloading, securing, and staging of aircraft cargo or baggage. May determine the quantity and orientation of cargo and compute aircraft center of gravity. May accompany aircraft as member of flight crew and monitor and handle cargo in flight, and assist and brief passengers on safety and emergency procedures. Includes loadmasters.

        Illustrative examples: Air Cargo Ground Crew Supervisor , Air Cargo Ground Operations Supervisor , Airport Ramp Supervisor

    • 53-1020  First-Line Supervisors of Helpers, Laborers, and Material Movers, Hand
    • 53-1030  First-Line Supervisors of Transportation and Material-Moving Machine and Vehicle Operators
  • 53-2000  Air Transportation Workers
    • 53-2010  Aircraft Pilots and Flight Engineers
      • 53-2011  Airline Pilots, Copilots, and Flight Engineers

        Pilot and navigate the flight of fixed-wing, multi-engine aircraft, usually on scheduled air carrier routes, for the transport of passengers and cargo. Requires Federal Air Transport certificate and rating for specific aircraft type used. Includes regional, National, and international airline pilots and flight instructors of airline pilots.

        Illustrative examples: Airline Captain , Airline Pilot In Command , Charter Pilot (Air Transport Pilot Certificate Required) , Charter Pilot (Airline)

      • 53-2012  Commercial Pilots

        Pilot and navigate the flight of fixed-wing aircraft on nonscheduled air carrier routes, or helicopters. Requires Commercial Pilot certificate. Includes charter pilots with similar certification, and air ambulance and air tour pilots. Excludes regional, National, and international airline pilots.

        Illustrative examples: Aerial Crop Duster , Charter Pilot (Commercial Pilot Certificate Required) , Flight Instructor (Commercial Pilots) , Helicopter Pilot

    • 53-2020  Air Traffic Controllers and Airfield Operations Specialists
      • 53-2021  Air Traffic Controllers

        Control air traffic on and within vicinity of airport and movement of air traffic between altitude sectors and control centers according to established procedures and policies. Authorize, regulate, and control commercial airline flights according to government or company regulations to expedite and ensure flight safety.

        Illustrative examples: Air Traffic Control Operator , Control Tower Operator , Enroute Controller

      • 53-2022  Airfield Operations Specialists

        Ensure the safe takeoff and landing of commercial and military aircraft. Duties include coordination between air-traffic control and maintenance personnel; dispatching; using airfield landing and navigational aids; implementing airfield safety procedures; monitoring and maintaining flight records; and applying knowledge of weather information.

        Illustrative examples: Aviation Operations Specialist , Flight Operations Coordinator

    • 53-2030  Flight Attendants
      • 53-2031  Flight Attendants

        Provide personal services to ensure the safety, security, and comfort of airline passengers during flight. Greet passengers, verify tickets, explain use of safety equipment, and serve food or beverages.

        Illustrative examples: Airline Flight Attendant , Airplane Flight Attendant

  • 53-3000  Motor Vehicle Operators
    • 53-3010  Ambulance Drivers and Attendants, Except Emergency Medical Technicians
    • 53-3020  Bus Drivers
      • 53-3021  Bus Drivers, Transit and Intercity

        Drive bus or motor coach, including regular route operations, charters, and private carriage. May assist passengers with baggage. May collect fares or tickets.

        Illustrative examples: Motor Coach Bus Driver , Public Transit Bus Driver

      • 53-3022  Bus Drivers, School or Special Client

        Transport students or special clients, such as the elderly or persons with disabilities. Ensure adherence to safety rules. May assist passengers in boarding or exiting.

        Illustrative examples: School Bus Operator , Special Education Bus Driver

    • 53-3030  Driver/Sales Workers and Truck Drivers
      • 53-3031  Driver/Sales Workers

        Drive truck or other vehicle over established routes or within an established territory and sell or deliver goods, such as food products, including restaurant take-out items, or pick up or deliver items such as commercial laundry. May also take orders, collect payment, or stock merchandise at point of delivery. Includes newspaper delivery drivers. Excludes "Coin, Vending, and Amusement Machine Servicers and Repairers" (49-9091) and "Light Truck or Delivery Services Drivers" (53-3033).

        Illustrative examples: Bakery Deliverer , Pizza Delivery Driver , Route Salesperson

      • 53-3032  Heavy and Tractor-Trailer Truck Drivers

        Drive a tractor-trailer combination or a truck with a capacity of at least 26,000 pounds Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW). May be required to unload truck. Requires commercial drivers' license.

        Illustrative examples: Auto Carrier Driver , Cement Truck Driver , Moving Van Driver

      • 53-3033  Light Truck or Delivery Services Drivers

        Drive a light vehicle, such as a truck or van, with a capacity of less than 26,000 pounds Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW), primarily to deliver or pick up merchandise or to deliver packages. May load and unload vehicle. Excludes "Couriers and Messengers" (43-5021) and "Driver/Sales Workers" (53-3031).

        Illustrative examples: Pharmacy Delivery Driver

    • 53-3040  Taxi Drivers and Chauffeurs
      • 53-3041  Taxi Drivers and Chauffeurs

        Drive automobiles, vans, or limousines to transport passengers. May occasionally carry cargo. Includes hearse drivers. Excludes "Ambulance Drivers and Attendants, Except Emergency Medical Technicians" (53-3011) and "Bus Drivers" (53-3020).

        Illustrative examples: Cab Driver , Courtesy Van Driver , Limousine Driver

    • 53-3090  Miscellaneous Motor Vehicle Operators
      • 53-3099  Motor Vehicle Operators, All Other

        All motor vehicle operators not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Ice-Resurfacing Machine Operators , Motorcycle Deliverer , Street Cleaning Equipment Operator

  • 53-4000  Rail Transportation Workers
    • 53-4010  Locomotive Engineers and Operators
      • 53-4011  Locomotive Engineers

        Drive electric, diesel-electric, steam, or gas-turbine-electric locomotives to transport passengers or freight. Interpret train orders, electronic or manual signals, and railroad rules and regulations.

        Illustrative examples: Railroad Engineer , Train Engineer

      • 53-4012  Locomotive Firers

        Monitor locomotive instruments and watch for dragging equipment, obstacles on rights-of-way, and train signals during run. Watch for and relay traffic signals from yard workers to yard engineer in railroad yard.

        Illustrative examples: Diesel Locomotive Firer , Dinkey Engine Firer , Railroad Firer

      • 53-4013  Rail Yard Engineers, Dinkey Operators, and Hostlers

        Drive switching or other locomotive or dinkey engines within railroad yard, industrial plant, quarry, construction project, or similar location.

        Illustrative examples: Coal Tram Driver , Railcar Switcher

    • 53-4020  Railroad Brake, Signal, and Switch Operators
      • 53-4021  Railroad Brake, Signal, and Switch Operators

        Operate railroad track switches. Couple or uncouple rolling stock to make up or break up trains. Signal engineers by hand or flagging. May inspect couplings, air hoses, journal boxes, and hand brakes.

        Illustrative examples: Railway Switch Operator , Switch Coupler

    • 53-4030  Railroad Conductors and Yardmasters
      • 53-4031  Railroad Conductors and Yardmasters

        Coordinate activities of switch-engine crew within railroad yard, industrial plant, or similar location. Conductors coordinate activities of train crew on passenger or freight trains. Yardmasters review train schedules and switching orders and coordinate activities of workers engaged in railroad traffic operations, such as the makeup or breakup of trains and yard switching.

        Illustrative examples: Freight Conductor , Yard Conductor

    • 53-4040  Subway and Streetcar Operators
      • 53-4041  Subway and Streetcar Operators

        Operate subway or elevated suburban trains with no separate locomotive, or electric-powered streetcar, to transport passengers. May handle fares.

        Illustrative examples: Light Rail Transit Operator , Tram Operator , Trolley Car Operator

    • 53-4090  Miscellaneous Rail Transportation Workers
      • 53-4099  Rail Transportation Workers, All Other

        All rail transportation workers not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Railway Equipment Operator , Retarder Operator , Transfer Table Operator

  • 53-5000  Water Transportation Workers
    • 53-5010  Sailors and Marine Oilers
      • 53-5011  Sailors and Marine Oilers

        Stand watch to look for obstructions in path of vessel, measure water depth, turn wheel on bridge, or use emergency equipment as directed by captain, mate, or pilot. Break out, rig, overhaul, and store cargo-handling gear, stationary rigging, and running gear. Perform a variety of maintenance tasks to preserve the painted surface of the ship and to maintain line and ship equipment. Must hold government-issued certification and tankerman certification when working aboard liquid-carrying vessels. Includes able seamen and ordinary seamen.

        Illustrative examples: Deckhand , Merchant Mariner

    • 53-5020  Ship and Boat Captains and Operators
      • 53-5021  Captains, Mates, and Pilots of Water Vessels

        Command or supervise operations of ships and water vessels, such as tugboats and ferryboats. Required to hold license issued by U.S. Coast Guard. Excludes "Motorboat Operators" (53-5022).

        Illustrative examples: Barge Captain , First Mate , Harbor Pilot , Port Captain

      • 53-5022  Motorboat Operators

        Operate small motor-driven boats. May assist in navigational activities.

        Illustrative examples: Launch Operator , Speedboat Operator , Water Taxi Operator

    • 53-5030  Ship Engineers
      • 53-5031  Ship Engineers

        Supervise and coordinate activities of crew engaged in operating and maintaining engines, boilers, deck machinery, and electrical, sanitary, and refrigeration equipment aboard ship.

        Illustrative examples: Barge Engineer , Ferry Engineer , Tugboat Engineer

  • 53-6000  Other Transportation Workers
    • 53-6010  Bridge and Lock Tenders
      • 53-6011  Bridge and Lock Tenders

        Operate and tend bridges, canal locks, and lighthouses to permit marine passage on inland waterways, near shores, and at danger points in waterway passages. May supervise such operations. Includes drawbridge operators, lock operators, and slip bridge operators.

        Illustrative examples: Lighthouse Keeper , Lock and Dam Operator

    • 53-6020  Parking Lot Attendants
      • 53-6021  Parking Lot Attendants

        Park vehicles or issue tickets for customers in a parking lot or garage. May collect fee.

        Illustrative examples: Parking Ramp Attendant , Valet Parker

    • 53-6030  Automotive and Watercraft Service Attendants
      • 53-6031  Automotive and Watercraft Service Attendants

        Service automobiles, buses, trucks, boats, and other automotive or marine vehicles with fuel, lubricants, and accessories. Collect payment for services and supplies. May lubricate vehicle, change motor oil, install antifreeze, or replace lights or other accessories, such as windshield wiper blades or fan belts. May repair or replace tires.

        Illustrative examples: Gas and Oil Servicer , Gas Pump Attendant , Service Station Attendant

    • 53-6040  Traffic Technicians
      • 53-6041  Traffic Technicians

        Conduct field studies to determine traffic volume, speed, effectiveness of signals, adequacy of lighting, and other factors influencing traffic conditions, under direction of traffic engineer.

        Illustrative examples: Highway Traffic Control Technician , Traffic Signal Technician , Transportation Technician

    • 53-6050  Transportation Inspectors
      • 53-6051  Transportation Inspectors

        Inspect equipment or goods in connection with the safe transport of cargo or people. Includes rail transportation inspectors, such as freight inspectors; rail inspectors; and other inspectors of transportation vehicles, not elsewhere classified. Excludes "Transportation Security Screeners" (33-9093).

        Illustrative examples: Aircraft Inspector , Motor Vehicle Emissions Inspector , Railroad Car Inspector

    • 53-6060  Transportation Attendants, Except Flight Attendants
      • 53-6061  Transportation Attendants, Except Flight Attendants

        Provide services to ensure the safety and comfort of passengers aboard ships, buses, trains, or within the station or terminal. Perform duties such as greeting passengers, explaining the use of safety equipment, serving meals or beverages, or answering questions related to travel. Excludes "Baggage Porters and Bellhops" (39-6011).

        Illustrative examples: Ship Steward , Train Attendant

    • 53-6090  Miscellaneous Transportation Workers
  • 53-7000  Material Moving Workers
    • 53-7010  Conveyor Operators and Tenders
      • 53-7011  Conveyor Operators and Tenders

        Control or tend conveyors or conveyor systems that move materials or products to and from stockpiles, processing stations, departments, or vehicles. May control speed and routing of materials or products.

        Illustrative examples: Conveyor Belt Operator , Grain Elevator Operator

    • 53-7020  Crane and Tower Operators
      • 53-7021  Crane and Tower Operators

        Operate mechanical boom and cable or tower and cable equipment to lift and move materials, machines, or products in many directions. Excludes "Excavating and Loading Machine and Dragline Operators" (53-7032).

        Illustrative examples: Boom Crane Operator , Cherry Picker Operator , Coal Tower Operator

    • 53-7030  Dredge, Excavating, and Loading Machine Operators
      • 53-7031  Dredge Operators

        Operate dredge to remove sand, gravel, or other materials in order to excavate and maintain navigable channels in waterways.

        Illustrative examples: Dredger

      • 53-7032  Excavating and Loading Machine and Dragline Operators

        Operate or tend machinery equipped with scoops, shovels, or buckets, to excavate and load loose materials. Excludes "Dredge Operators" (53-7031).

        Illustrative examples: Backhoe Operator , Payloader Operator , Shovel Operator

      • 53-7033  Loading Machine Operators, Underground Mining

        Operate underground loading machine to load coal, ore, or rock into shuttle or mine car or onto conveyors. Loading equipment may include power shovels, hoisting engines equipped with cable-drawn scraper or scoop, or machines equipped with gathering arms and conveyor.

        Illustrative examples: Coke Loader

    • 53-7040  Hoist and Winch Operators
      • 53-7041  Hoist and Winch Operators

        Operate or tend hoists or winches to lift and pull loads using power-operated cable equipment. Excludes "Crane and Tower Operators" (53-7021).

        Illustrative examples: Winch Derrick Operator

    • 53-7050  Industrial Truck and Tractor Operators
      • 53-7051  Industrial Truck and Tractor Operators

        Operate industrial trucks or tractors equipped to move materials around a warehouse, storage yard, factory, construction site, or similar location. Excludes "Logging Equipment Operators" (45-4022).

        Illustrative examples: Forklift Operator , Stacker Operator

    • 53-7060  Laborers and Material Movers, Hand
      • 53-7061  Cleaners of Vehicles and Equipment

        Wash or otherwise clean vehicles, machinery, and other equipment. Use such materials as water, cleaning agents, brushes, cloths, and hoses. Excludes "Janitors and Cleaners, Except Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners" (37-2011).

        Illustrative examples: Aircraft Cleaner , Auto Detailer , Car Wash Attendant

      • 53-7062  Laborers and Freight, Stock, and Material Movers, Hand

        Manually move freight, stock, or other materials or perform other general labor. Includes all manual laborers not elsewhere classified. Excludes "Material Moving Workers" (53-7011 through 53-7199) who use power equipment. Excludes "Construction Laborers" (47-2061) and "Helpers, Construction Trades (47-3011 through 47-3019).

        Illustrative examples: Cargo Handler , Wharf Laborer

      • 53-7063  Machine Feeders and Offbearers

        Feed materials into or remove materials from machines or equipment that is automatic or tended by other workers.

        Illustrative examples: Hopper Filler , Spinning Doffer

      • 53-7064  Packers and Packagers, Hand

        Pack or package by hand a wide variety of products and materials.

        Illustrative examples: Egg Packer , Gift Wrapper , Grocery Store Bagger

    • 53-7070  Pumping Station Operators
      • 53-7071  Gas Compressor and Gas Pumping Station Operators

        Operate steam, gas, electric motor, or internal combustion engine driven compressors. Transmit, compress, or recover gases, such as butane, nitrogen, hydrogen, and natural gas.

        Illustrative examples: Butane Compressor Operator , Gas Cylinder Processor , Liquid Natural Gas Plant Operator

      • 53-7072  Pump Operators, Except Wellhead Pumpers

        Tend, control, or operate power-driven, stationary, or portable pumps and manifold systems to transfer gases, oil, other liquids, slurries, or powdered materials to and from various vessels and processes.

        Illustrative examples: Brewery Pumper , Fluid Pump Operator

      • 53-7073  Wellhead Pumpers

        Operate power pumps and auxiliary equipment to produce flow of oil or gas from wells in oil field.

        Illustrative examples: Oil Well Pumper

    • 53-7080  Refuse and Recyclable Material Collectors
      • 53-7081  Refuse and Recyclable Material Collectors

        Collect and dump refuse or recyclable materials from containers into truck. May drive truck.

        Illustrative examples: Garbage Collector , Recyclable Materials Collector , Trash Collector

    • 53-7110  Mine Shuttle Car Operators
      • 53-7111  Mine Shuttle Car Operators

        Operate diesel or electric-powered shuttle car in underground mine to transport materials from working face to mine cars or conveyor.

        Illustrative examples: Coal Hauler Operator

    • 53-7120  Tank Car, Truck, and Ship Loaders
      • 53-7121  Tank Car, Truck, and Ship Loaders

        Load and unload chemicals and bulk solids, such as coal, sand, and grain into or from tank cars, trucks, or ships using material moving equipment. May perform a variety of other tasks relating to shipment of products. May gauge or sample shipping tanks and test them for leaks.

        Illustrative examples: Barge Loader , Rail Car Loader , Ship Unloader

    • 53-7190  Miscellaneous Material Moving Workers

55-0000 Military Specific Occupations

  • 55-1000  Military Officer Special and Tactical Operations Leaders
    • 55-1010  Military Officer Special and Tactical Operations Leaders
      • 55-1011  Air Crew Officers

        Perform and direct in-flight duties to ensure the successful completion of combat, reconnaissance, transport, and search and rescue missions. Duties include operating aircraft communications and radar equipment, such as establishing satellite linkages and jamming enemy communications capabilities; operating aircraft weapons and defensive systems; conducting pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight inspections of onboard equipment; and directing cargo and personnel drops.

        Illustrative examples: Air Battle Manager , Airdrop Systems Technician , Special Project Airborne Electronics Evaluator

      • 55-1012  Aircraft Launch and Recovery Officers

        Plan and direct the operation and maintenance of catapults, arresting gear, and associated mechanical, hydraulic, and control systems involved primarily in aircraft carrier takeoff and landing operations. Duties include supervision of readiness and safety of arresting gear, launching equipment, barricades, and visual landing aid systems; planning and coordinating the design, development, and testing of launch and recovery systems; preparing specifications for catapult and arresting gear installations; evaluating design proposals; determining handling equipment needed for new aircraft; preparing technical data and instructions for operation of landing aids; and training personnel in carrier takeoff and landing procedures.

        Illustrative examples: Catapult And Arresting Gear Officer , Flight Deck Officer , Landing Signal Officer

      • 55-1013  Armored Assault Vehicle Officers

        Direct the operation of tanks, light armor, and amphibious assault vehicle units during combat situations on land or in aquatic environments. Duties include directing crew members in the operation of targeting and firing systems; coordinating the operation of advanced onboard communications and navigation equipment; directing the transport of personnel and equipment during combat; formulating and implementing battle plans, including the tactical employment of armored vehicle units; and coordinating with infantry, artillery, and air support units.

        Illustrative examples: Assault Amphibious Vehicle (AAV) Officer , Cavalry Officer , Tank Officer

      • 55-1014  Artillery and Missile Officers

        Manage personnel and weapons operations to destroy enemy positions, aircraft, and vessels. Duties include planning, targeting, and coordinating the tactical deployment of field artillery and air defense artillery missile systems units; directing the establishment and operation of fire control communications systems; targeting and launching intercontinental ballistic missiles; directing the storage and handling of nuclear munitions and components; overseeing security of weapons storage and launch facilities; and managing maintenance of weapons systems.

        Illustrative examples: Air Defense Artillery Officer , Naval Surface Fire Support Planner , Targeting Acquisition Officer

      • 55-1015  Command and Control Center Officers

        Manage the operation of communications, detection, and weapons systems essential for controlling air, ground, and naval operations. Duties include managing critical communication links between air, naval, and ground forces; formulating and implementing emergency plans for natural and wartime disasters; coordinating emergency response teams and agencies; evaluating command center information and need for high-level military and government reporting; managing the operation of surveillance and detection systems; providing technical information and advice on capabilities and operational readiness; and directing operation of weapons targeting, firing, and launch computer systems.

        Illustrative examples: Combat Information Center Officer , Command And Control Officer , Command And Control Systems Integrator

      • 55-1016  Infantry Officers

        Direct, train, and lead infantry units in ground combat operations. Duties include directing deployment of infantry weapons, vehicles, and equipment; directing location, construction, and camouflage of infantry positions and equipment; managing field communications operations; coordinating with armor, artillery, and air support units; performing strategic and tactical planning, including battle plan development; and leading basic reconnaissance operations.

        Illustrative examples: Infantry Officer , Infantry Weapons Officer

      • 55-1017  Special Forces Officers

        Lead elite teams that implement unconventional operations by air, land, or sea during combat or peacetime. These activities include offensive raids, demolitions, reconnaissance, search and rescue, and counterterrorism. In addition to their combat training, special forces officers often have specialized training in swimming, diving, parachuting, survival, emergency medicine, and foreign languages. Duties include directing advanced reconnaissance operations and evaluating intelligence information; recruiting, training, and equipping friendly forces; leading raids and invasions on enemy territories; training personnel to implement individual missions and contingency plans; performing strategic and tactical planning for politically sensitive missions; and operating sophisticated communications equipment.

        Illustrative examples: Parachute/Combatant Diver Officer , Sea-Air-Land Officer , Special Forces Officer

      • 55-1019  Military Officer Special and Tactical Operations Leaders, All Other

        All military officer special and tactical operations leaders not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Chemical, Biological, Radiological, And Nuclear (CBRN) Officer , Joint Strategic Plans And Policy Officer , Special Technical Operations Officer

  • 55-2000  First-Line Enlisted Military Supervisors
    • 55-2010  First-Line Enlisted Military Supervisors
      • 55-2011  First-Line Supervisors of Air Crew Members

        Supervise and coordinate the activities of air crew members. Supervisors may also perform the same activities as the workers they supervise.

        Illustrative examples: Airborne Mission Systems Superintendent , In-Flight Refueling Manager

      • 55-2012  First-Line Supervisors of Weapons Specialists/Crew Members

        Supervise and coordinate the activities of weapons specialists/crew members. Supervisors may also perform the same activities as the workers they supervise.

        Illustrative examples: Armor Senior Sergeant , Field Artillery Senior Sergeant , Infantry Unit Leader

      • 55-2013  First-Line Supervisors of All Other Tactical Operations Specialists

        Supervise and coordinate the activities of all other tactical operations specialists not classified separately above. Supervisors may also perform the same activities as the workers they supervise.

        Illustrative examples: Command Post Superintendent , Intelligence Chief , Surface Ship USW Supervisor

  • 55-3000  Military Enlisted Tactical Operations and Air/Weapons Specialists and Crew Members
    • 55-3010  Military Enlisted Tactical Operations and Air/Weapons Specialists and Crew Members
      • 55-3011  Air Crew Members

        Perform in-flight duties to ensure the successful completion of combat, reconnaissance, transport, and search and rescue missions. Duties include operating aircraft communications and detection equipment, including establishing satellite linkages and jamming enemy communications capabilities; conducting pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight inspections of onboard equipment; operating and maintaining aircraft weapons and defensive systems; operating and maintaining aircraft in-flight refueling systems; executing aircraft safety and emergency procedures; computing and verifying passenger, cargo, fuel, and emergency and special equipment weight and balance data; and conducting cargo and personnel drops.

        Illustrative examples: Airborne And Air Delivery Specialist , Aviation Electronic Warfare Operator , In-Flight Refueling Craftsman

      • 55-3012  Aircraft Launch and Recovery Specialists

        Operate and maintain catapults, arresting gear, and associated mechanical, hydraulic, and control systems involved primarily in aircraft carrier takeoff and landing operations. Duties include installing and maintaining visual landing aids; testing and maintaining launch and recovery equipment using electric and mechanical test equipment and hand tools; activating airfield arresting systems, such as crash barriers and cables, during emergency landing situations; directing aircraft launch and recovery operations using hand or light signals; and maintaining logs of airplane launches, recoveries, and equipment maintenance.

        Illustrative examples: Aircraft Launch And Recovery Equipment Maintenance Technician , C-13 Catapult Operator , Expeditionary Airfield Systems Technician

      • 55-3013  Armored Assault Vehicle Crew Members

        Operate tanks, light armor, and amphibious assault vehicles during combat situations on land or in aquatic environments. Duties include driving armored vehicles which require specialized training; operating and maintaining targeting and firing systems; operating and maintaining advanced onboard communications and navigation equipment; transporting personnel and equipment in a combat environment; and operating and maintaining auxiliary weapons, including machine guns and grenade launchers.

        Illustrative examples: Assault Boat Coxswain , Bradley Linebacker Crewmember , M1A1 Tank Crewman

      • 55-3014  Artillery and Missile Crew Members

        Target, fire, and maintain weapons used to destroy enemy positions, aircraft, and vessels. Field artillery crew members predominantly use guns, cannons, and howitzers in ground combat operations, while air defense artillery crew members predominantly use missiles and rockets. Naval artillery crew members predominantly use torpedoes and missiles launched from a ship or submarine. Duties include testing, inspecting, and storing ammunition, missiles, and torpedoes; conducting preventive and routine maintenance on weapons and related equipment; establishing and maintaining radio and wire communications; and operating weapons targeting, firing, and launch computer systems.

        Illustrative examples: Air And Missile Defense (AMD) Crewmember , Field Artillery Fire Control Man , Gunner's Mate

      • 55-3015  Command and Control Center Specialists

        Operate and monitor communications, detection, and weapons systems essential for controlling air, ground, and naval operations. Duties include maintaining and relaying critical communications between air, naval, and ground forces; implementing emergency plans for natural and wartime disasters; relaying command center information to high-level military and government decision makers; monitoring surveillance and detection systems, such as air defense; interpreting and evaluating tactical situations and making recommendations to superiors; and operating weapons targeting, firing, and launch computer systems.

        Illustrative examples: Air Defense Command, Control, Communications, Computers And Intelligence Tactical Operations Center Enhanced Operator/Maintainer , C2 Tactical Analysis Technician , Command Post Craftsman

      • 55-3016  Infantry

        Operate weapons and equipment in ground combat operations. Duties include operating and maintaining weapons, such as rifles, machine guns, mortars, and hand grenades; locating, constructing, and camouflaging infantry positions and equipment; evaluating terrain and recording topographical information; operating and maintaining field communications equipment; assessing need for and directing supporting fire; placing explosives and performing minesweeping activities on land; and participating in basic reconnaissance operations.

        Illustrative examples: Infantryman , Machine Gunner , Mortarman

      • 55-3017  Radar and Sonar Technicians

        Operate equipment using radio or sound wave technology to identify, track, and analyze objects or natural phenomena of military interest. Include airborne, shipboard, and terrestrial positions. May perform minor maintenance.

        Illustrative examples: Field Artillery Radar Operator , Sonar Subsystem Equipment Operator , Space Systems Operations Craftsman

      • 55-3018  Special Forces

        Implement unconventional operations by air, land, or sea during combat or peacetime as members of elite teams. These activities include offensive raids, demolitions, reconnaissance, search and rescue, and counterterrorism. In addition to their combat training, special forces members often have specialized training in swimming, diving, parachuting, survival, emergency medicine, and foreign languages. Duties include conducting advanced reconnaissance operations and collecting intelligence information; recruiting, training, and equipping friendly forces; conducting raids and invasions on enemy territories; laying and detonating explosives for demolition targets; locating, identifying, defusing, and disposing of ordnance; and operating and maintaining sophisticated communications equipment.

        Illustrative examples: Combatant Swimmer (SEAL) , Pararescue Craftsman , Special Forces Weapons Sergeant

      • 55-3019  Military Enlisted Tactical Operations and Air/Weapons Specialists and Crew Members, All Other

        All military enlisted tactical operations and air/weapons specialists and crewmembers not listed separately.

        Illustrative examples: Electronic Warfare Specialist , Landing Support Specialist , Psychological Operations Specialist

 

Last Modified Date: June 20, 2018