Data Definitions

  1. How does JOLTS define Employment?

  2. How does JOLTS define Job Openings?

  3. How does JOLTS define Hires?

  4. How does JOLTS define Separations?

 

  1. How does JOLTS define Employment?

  2. JOLTS defines Employment as all persons on the payroll who worked during or received pay for the pay period that includes the 12th of the month. This definition is consistent with other BLS establishment-based programs.

    INCLUDES:

    • Full-time and part-time employees
    • Permanent, short-term, and seasonal employees
    • Salaried and hourly workers
    • Employees on paid vacation or other paid leave

    DOES NOT INCLUDE:

    • Proprietors and partners of unincorporated businesses
    • Unpaid family workers
    • Employees on strike for the entire pay period
    • Employees on leave without pay for the entire pay period
    • Employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants. Employees of these types of firms are counted by establishments employing them, not at the site where the work is performed.
  3. How does JOLTS define Job Openings?

  4. JOLTS defines Job Openings as all positions that are open (not filled) on the last business day of the month. A job is "open" only if it meets all three of the following conditions:

    1. A specific position exists and there is work available for that position. The position can be full-time or part-time, and it can be permanent, short-term, or seasonal, and
    2. The job could start within 30 days, whether or not the establishment finds a suitable candidate during that time, and
    3. There is active recruiting for workers from outside the establishment location that has the opening.

    What is "active recruiting?" Active recruiting means the establishment is taking steps to fill a position. It may include advertising in newspapers, on television, or on radio; posting Internet notices; posting "help wanted" signs; networking with colleagues or making "word of mouth" announcements; accepting applications; interviewing candidates; contacting employment agencies; or soliciting employees at job fairs, state or local employment offices, or similar sources.

    DOES NOT INCLUDE:

    • Positions open only to internal transfers, promotions or demotions, or recall from layoffs
    • Openings for positions with start dates more than 30 days in the future
    • Positions for which employees have been hired, but the employees have not yet reported for work
    • Positions to be filled by employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants. A separate form is used to collect information from temporary help/employee leasing firms for these employees.
  5. How does JOLTS define Hires?

  6. JOLTS defines Hires as all additions to the payroll during the month.

    INCLUDES:

    • Newly hired and rehired employees
    • Permanent, short-term, and seasonal employees
    • Full-time and part-time employees
    • On-call or intermittent employees who returned to work after having been formally separated
    • Workers who were hired and separated during the month
    • Transfers from other locations
    • Employees who were recalled to a job at the sampled establishment following a formal layoff lasting more than 7 days

    DOES NOT INCLUDE:

    • Transfers or promotions within the sampled establishment
    • Employees returning from strikes
    • Employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants working at the sampled establishment. A separate form is used to collect information from temporary help and employee leasing firms for these employees.
  7. How does JOLTS define Separations?

JOLTS defines Separations as all employees separated from the payroll during the month.

INCLUDES:

  • Quits: Employees who left voluntarily. Exception: retirements or transfers to other locations are reported with Other Separations.
  • Layoffs & Discharges: Involuntary separations initiated by the employer, including:
    • Layoffs with no intent to rehire
    • Discharges because positions were eliminated
    • Discharges resulting from mergers, downsizing, or plant closings
    • Firings or other discharges for cause
    • Terminations of seasonal employees (whether or not they are expected to return next season)
    • Layoffs (suspensions from pay status) lasting or expected to last more than 7 days. (If the employee was later recalled, they should be reported as a Hire at the time of recall.)
  • Other Separations: retirements; transfers to other locations; deaths; or separations due to employee disability

DOES NOT INCLUDE:

  • Transfers within the sampled establishment
  • Employees on strike
  • Employees of temporary help agencies, employee leasing companies, outside contractors, or consultants working at the sampled establishment. These employees are reported by their employer of record.

 

Last Modified Date: April 11, 2017