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Atmospheric Scientists, Including Meteorologists

Summary

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Quick Facts: Atmospheric Scientists, Including Meteorologists
2021 Median Pay $94,570 per year
$45.47 per hour
Typical Entry-Level Education Bachelor's degree
Work Experience in a Related Occupation None
On-the-job Training None
Number of Jobs, 2021 9,100
Job Outlook, 2021-31 4% (As fast as average)
Employment Change, 2021-31 300

What Atmospheric Scientists, Including Meteorologists Do

Atmospheric scientists study the weather and climate.

Work Environment

Most atmospheric scientists work indoors in weather stations, offices, or laboratories. Occasionally, they do fieldwork, which means working outdoors to examine the weather. Some atmospheric scientists may have to work extended hours during weather emergencies. 

How to Become an Atmospheric Scientist

Atmospheric scientists typically need a bachelor’s degree in meteorology or a related field to enter the occupation. Those who work in research typically need a master’s degree or a Ph.D.

Pay

The median annual wage for atmospheric scientists, including meteorologists was $94,570 in May 2021.

Job Outlook

Employment of atmospheric scientists, including meteorologists is projected to grow 4 percent from 2021 to 2031, about as fast as the average for all occupations.

About 700 openings for atmospheric scientists, including meteorologists are projected each year, on average, over the decade. Many of those openings are expected to result from the need to replace workers who transfer to different occupations or exit the labor force, such as to retire.

State & Area Data

Explore resources for employment and wages by state and area for atmospheric scientists, including meteorologists.

Similar Occupations

Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and pay of atmospheric scientists, including meteorologists with similar occupations.

More Information, Including Links to O*NET

Learn more about atmospheric scientists, including meteorologists by visiting additional resources, including O*NET, a source on key characteristics of workers and occupations.

What Atmospheric Scientists, Including Meteorologists Do About this section

Atmospheric scientists, including meteorologists
Research meteorologists study atmospheric phenomena such as lightning.

Atmospheric scientists study the weather and climate, and examine how those conditions affect human activity and the earth in general. They may develop forecasts, collect and compile data from the field, assist in the development of new data collection instruments, or advise clients on risks or opportunities caused by weather events and climate change.

Duties

Atmospheric scientists typically do the following:

  • Measure temperature, atmospheric pressure, humidity, wind speed, dew point, and other properties of the atmosphere
  • Use computer models that analyze data about the atmosphere (also called meteorological data)
  • Write computer programs to support their modeling efforts
  • Conduct research to improve understanding of weather phenomena
  • Generate weather graphics for users
  • Report current weather conditions
  • Prepare long- and short-term weather forecasts by using computers, mathematical models, satellites, radar, and local station data
  • Plan, organize, and participate in outreach programs aimed at educating the public about weather
  • Issue warnings to protect life and property when threatened by severe weather, such as hurricanes, tornadoes, and flash floods

Atmospheric scientists use highly developed instruments and computer programs to do their jobs. For example, they use weather balloons, radar systems, and satellites to monitor the weather and collect data. The data they collect and analyze are critical to understanding global warming and other issues. Atmospheric scientists also use graphics software to illustrate their forecasts and reports in order to advise their clients or the public.

Many atmospheric scientists work with other geoscientists or even social scientists to help solve problems in areas such as commerce, energy, transportation, agriculture, and the environment. For example, some atmospheric scientists work closely with hydrologists and government organizations to study the impact climate change may have on water supplies and to manage water resources.

The following are examples of types of atmospheric scientists:

Atmospheric chemists study atmospheric components, reactions, measurement techniques, and processes. They study climates and gases, chemical reactions that occur in clouds, and ultraviolet radiation.

Atmospheric physicists and dynamists study the physical movements and interactions that occur in the atmosphere. They may study how terrain affects weather and causes turbulence, how solar phenomena affect satellite communications and navigation, or they may study the causes and effects of lightning.

Broadcast meteorologists give forecasts to the general public through television, radio, and the Internet. They use graphics software to develop maps and charts that explain their forecasts. Not all weather broadcasters seen on television are meteorologists or atmospheric scientists; reporters, correspondents, and broadcast news analysts present weather conditions and forecasts, but do not have specific training in meteorology.

Climatologists study historical weather patterns to interpret long-term weather patterns or shifts in climate by using primarily statistical methods. Global climate change is the main area of study for climatologists. Paleoclimatology is a specialization within this field. Climatologists who specialize in paleoclimatology may take samples from icebergs and other sources to gather data on the atmosphere that cover very long periods of time.

Climate scientists work on the theoretical foundations and the modeling of climate change. The nature of this work requires the use of complex mathematical models to try to forecast many months, and sometimes longer, into the future. Their studies can be used to design buildings, plan heating and cooling systems, and aid in efficient land use and agricultural production.

Forensic meteorologists use historical weather data to reconstruct the weather conditions for a specific location and time. They investigate what role weather played in unusual events such as traffic accidents and fires. Forensic meteorologists may be called as experts to testify in court.

Research meteorologists develop new methods of data collection, observation, and forecasting. They also conduct studies to improve basic understandings of climate, weather, and other aspects of the atmosphere. For example, some research meteorologists study severe weather patterns that produce hurricanes and tornadoes to understand why cyclones form and to develop better ways of predicting them. Others focus on environmental problems, such as air pollution. Research meteorologists often work with scientists in other fields. For example, they may work with computer scientists to develop new forecasting software or with oceanographers to study interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere. They may also work with engineers to develop new instruments so that they can collect the data they need.

Weather forecasters use computer and mathematical models to produce weather reports and short-term forecasts that can range from a few minutes to more than a week. They develop forecasts for the general public and for specific customers such as airports, water transportation, shippers, farmers, utility companies, insurance companies, and other businesses. For example, they may provide forecasts to power suppliers so that the suppliers can plan for events, such as heat waves, that would cause a change in electricity demand. They also issue advanced warnings for potentially severe weather, such as blizzards and hurricanes. Some forecasters prepare long-range outlooks to predict whether temperatures and precipitation levels will be above or below average in a particular month or season. These workers become familiar with general weather patterns, atmospheric predictability, precipitation, and forecasting techniques.

Some people with an atmospheric science background may become professors or postsecondary teachers.

Work Environment About this section

Atmospheric scientists, including meteorologists
Many atmospheric scientists work at weather stations located throughout the country.

Atmospheric scientists, including meteorologists held about 9,100 jobs in 2021. The largest employers of atmospheric scientists, including meteorologists were as follows:

Federal government, excluding postal service 34%
Television broadcasting 17
Research and development in the physical, engineering, and life sciences 15
Management, scientific, and technical consulting services 2

In the federal government, most atmospheric scientists work as weather forecasters with the National Weather Service of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in weather stations throughout the United States—at airports, in or near cities, and in isolated and remote areas. In smaller stations, they often work alone; in larger ones, they work as part of a team. In addition, hundreds of members of the Armed Forces are involved in atmospheric science.

Atmospheric scientists involved in professional, scientific, and technical services or research often work in offices and laboratories. Some may travel frequently to collect data in the field and to observe weather events, such as tornadoes, up close. They also observe actual weather conditions from the ground or from an aircraft.

Broadcast meteorologists present their reports to the general public from television and radio studios. They also may broadcast from outdoor locations to tell audiences about current weather conditions.

Atmospheric scientists who work in private industry may have to travel to meet with clients or to gather information in the field. For example, forensic meteorologists may need to collect information from the scene of an accident as part of their investigation.

Work Schedules

Most atmospheric scientists work full time. Weather conditions can change quickly, so weather forecasters need to continuously monitor conditions. Many, especially entry-level staff at field stations, work rotating shifts to ensure staff coverage for all 24 hours in a day. For this reason, they may work nights, weekends, and holidays. In addition, they may work extended hours during severe weather, such as hurricanes. Some work more than 40 hours per week. Other atmospheric scientists have a standard workweek, although researchers may work nights and weekends on particular projects. 

How to Become an Atmospheric Scientist About this section

Atmospheric scientists, including meteorologists
Atmospheric scientists issue warnings for severe weather.

Atmospheric scientists typically need a bachelor’s degree in meteorology or a related field to enter the occupation. For research positions, these scientists typically need a master’s degree or a Ph.D.

Education

Atmospheric scientists typically need a bachelor’s degree in meteorology or a related physical science. In addition to meteorology and atmospheric science, course requirements may include physics, mathematics, and computer programming.

Atmospheric scientists who work in research typically need at least a master’s degree or a Ph.D. in atmospheric science or a related field. Graduate programs may not require program applicants to have a bachelor’s degree in atmospheric science; a bachelor's degree in mathematics, physics, or engineering is usually acceptable.

Important Qualities

Analytical skills. Atmospheric scientists must be able to focus for many hours, working with computer models and massive amounts of data to prepare analyses on their findings.

Communication skills. Atmospheric scientists need to be able to write and speak clearly so that their knowledge about the weather can be used effectively by communities and individuals.

Critical-thinking skills. Atmospheric scientists need to be able to analyze the results of their computer models and forecasts to determine the most likely outcome.

Math skills. Atmospheric scientists use calculus, statistics, and other advanced topics in mathematics to develop models used to forecast the weather. They also use mathematical calculations to study the relationship between properties of the atmosphere, such as how changes in air pressure may affect air temperature.

Training

Atmospheric scientists and meteorologists who find employment in the National Weather Service will need to take training when they begin employment to be able to use equipment needed to issue warnings of severe weather.

Other experience

The National Weather Service offers opportunities for students through internship, fellowship, volunteer, and scholarship programs.

Pay About this section

Atmospheric Scientists, Including Meteorologists

Median annual wages, May 2021

Atmospheric and space scientists

$94,570

Physical scientists

$82,090

Total, all occupations

$45,760

 

The median annual wage for atmospheric scientists, including meteorologists was $94,570 in May 2021. The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $48,600, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $150,760.

In May 2021, the median annual wages for atmospheric scientists, including meteorologists in the top industries in which they worked were as follows:

Federal government, excluding postal service $108,060
Research and development in the physical, engineering, and life sciences 101,180
Management, scientific, and technical consulting services 74,870
Television broadcasting 72,800

Most atmospheric scientists work full time. Weather conditions can change quickly, so weather forecasters need to continuously monitor conditions. Many, especially entry-level staff at field stations, work rotating shifts to ensure staff coverage for all 24 hours in a day, and they may work on nights, weekends, and holidays. In addition, they may work extended hours during severe weather, such as hurricanes. Some work more than 40 hours per week. Other atmospheric scientists have a standard workweek, although researchers may work nights and weekends on particular projects. 

Job Outlook About this section

Atmospheric Scientists, Including Meteorologists

Percent change in employment, projected 2021-31

Physical scientists

5%

Total, all occupations

5%

Atmospheric and space scientists

4%

 

Employment of atmospheric scientists, including meteorologists is projected to grow 4 percent from 2021 to 2031, about as fast as the average for all occupations.

About 700 openings for atmospheric scientists, including meteorologists are projected each year, on average, over the decade. Many of those openings are expected to result from the need to replace workers who transfer to different occupations or exit the labor force, such as to retire.

Employment

New types of computer models have vastly improved the accuracy of forecasts, allowing atmospheric scientists to tailor forecasts to specific purposes. This should support demand for atmospheric scientists as businesses require more specialized weather information.

Businesses increasingly rely on just-in-time delivery to avoid the expenses incurred by traditional inventory management methods. Severe weather can interrupt ground or air transportation and delay inventory delivery. Businesses have begun to maintain forecasting teams around the clock to advise delivery personnel, and this availability helps them stay on schedule. In addition, severe weather patterns have become widely recognizable, and industries have become increasingly concerned about their impact, which will create demand for work in atmospheric science.

As utility companies continue to adopt wind and solar power, they depend more heavily on weather forecasting to arrange for buying and selling power.

Employment projections data for atmospheric scientists, including meteorologists, 2021-31
Occupational Title SOC Code Employment, 2021 Projected Employment, 2031 Change, 2021-31 Employment by Industry
Percent Numeric

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program

Atmospheric and space scientists

19-2021 9,100 9,400 4 300 Get data

State & Area Data About this section

Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics (OEWS)

The Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics (OEWS) program produces employment and wage estimates annually for over 800 occupations. These estimates are available for the nation as a whole, for individual states, and for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas. The link(s) below go to OEWS data maps for employment and wages by state and area.

Projections Central

Occupational employment projections are developed for all states by Labor Market Information (LMI) or individual state Employment Projections offices. All state projections data are available at www.projectionscentral.com. Information on this site allows projected employment growth for an occupation to be compared among states or to be compared within one state. In addition, states may produce projections for areas; there are links to each state’s websites where these data may be retrieved.

CareerOneStop

CareerOneStop includes hundreds of occupational profiles with data available by state and metro area. There are links in the left-hand side menu to compare occupational employment by state and occupational wages by local area or metro area. There is also a salary info tool to search for wages by zip code.

Similar Occupations About this section

This table shows a list of occupations with job duties that are similar to those of atmospheric scientists, including meteorologists.

Occupation Job Duties ENTRY-LEVEL EDUCATION Help on Entry-Level Education 2021 MEDIAN PAY Help on Median Pay
Computer programmers Computer Programmers

Computer programmers write, modify, and test code and scripts that allow computer software and applications to function properly.

Bachelor's degree $93,000
Environmental engineers Environmental Engineers

Environmental engineers use the principles of engineering, soil science, biology, and chemistry to develop solutions to environmental problems.

Bachelor's degree $96,820
Environmental scientists and specialists Environmental Scientists and Specialists

Environmental scientists and specialists use their knowledge of the natural sciences to protect the environment and human health.

Bachelor's degree $76,530
Geoscientists Geoscientists

Geoscientists study the physical aspects of the Earth.

Bachelor's degree $83,680
Hydrologists Hydrologists

Hydrologists study how water moves across and through the Earth’s crust.

Bachelor's degree $84,030
Mathematicians Mathematicians and Statisticians

Mathematicians and statisticians analyze data and apply computational techniques to solve problems.

Master's degree $96,280
Physicists and astronomers Physicists and Astronomers

Physicists and astronomers study the interactions of matter and energy.

Doctoral or professional degree $147,450
Postsecondary teachers Postsecondary Teachers

Postsecondary teachers instruct students in a variety of academic subjects beyond the high school level.

See How to Become One $79,640

Contacts for More Information About this section

For more information about atmospheric scientists, including a list of colleges and universities offering atmospheric science programs, visit

American Meteorological Society

For a broad range of information concerning atmospheric scientists within the geosciences perspective, visit

American Geosciences Institute

For more information about atmospheric science careers in research, visit

University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

For more information about federal government education requirements for atmospheric science positions, visit

U.S. Office of Personnel Management

For more information about the COMET training program, visit

MetEd

To find job openings for atmospheric scientists in the federal government, visit

USAJOBS

For more information about federal government atmospheric science careers in the National Weather Service, visit

National Weather Service

O*NET

Atmospheric and Space Scientists

Suggested citation:

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, Atmospheric Scientists, Including Meteorologists,
at https://www.bls.gov/ooh/life-physical-and-social-science/atmospheric-scientists-including-meteorologists.htm (visited October 04, 2022).

Last Modified Date: Friday, September 30, 2022

What They Do

The What They Do tab describes the typical duties and responsibilities of workers in the occupation, including what tools and equipment they use and how closely they are supervised. This tab also covers different types of occupational specialties.

Work Environment

The Work Environment tab includes the number of jobs held in the occupation and describes the workplace, the level of physical activity expected, and typical hours worked. It may also discuss the major industries that employed the occupation. This tab may also describe opportunities for part-time work, the amount and type of travel required, any safety equipment that is used, and the risk of injury that workers may face.

How to Become One

The How to Become One tab describes how to prepare for a job in the occupation. This tab can include information on education, training, work experience, licensing and certification, and important qualities that are required or helpful for entering or working in the occupation.

Pay

The Pay tab describes typical earnings and how workers in the occupation are compensated—annual salaries, hourly wages, commissions, tips, or bonuses. Within every occupation, earnings vary by experience, responsibility, performance, tenure, and geographic area. For most profiles, this tab has a table with wages in the major industries employing the occupation. It does not include pay for self-employed workers, agriculture workers, or workers in private households because these data are not collected by the Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics (OEWS) survey, the source of BLS wage data in the OOH.

State & Area Data

The State and Area Data tab provides links to state and area occupational data from the Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics (OEWS) program, state projections data from Projections Central, and occupational information from the Department of Labor's CareerOneStop.

Job Outlook

The Job Outlook tab describes the factors that affect employment growth or decline in the occupation, and in some instances, describes the relationship between the number of job seekers and the number of job openings.

Similar Occupations

The Similar Occupations tab describes occupations that share similar duties, skills, interests, education, or training with the occupation covered in the profile.

Contacts for More Information

The More Information tab provides the Internet addresses of associations, government agencies, unions, and other organizations that can provide additional information on the occupation. This tab also includes links to relevant occupational information from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET).

2021 Median Pay

The wage at which half of the workers in the occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. Median wage data are from the BLS Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics survey. In May 2021, the median annual wage for all workers was $45,760.

On-the-job Training

Additional training needed (postemployment) to attain competency in the skills needed in this occupation.

Entry-level Education

Typical level of education that most workers need to enter this occupation.

Work experience in a related occupation

Work experience that is commonly considered necessary by employers, or is a commonly accepted substitute for more formal types of training or education.

Number of Jobs, 2021

The employment, or size, of this occupation in 2021, which is the base year of the 2021-31 employment projections.

Job Outlook, 2021-31

The projected percent change in employment from 2021 to 2031. The average growth rate for all occupations is 5 percent.

Employment Change, 2021-31

The projected numeric change in employment from 2021 to 2031.

Entry-level Education

Typical level of education that most workers need to enter this occupation.

On-the-job Training

Additional training needed (postemployment) to attain competency in the skills needed in this occupation.

Employment Change, projected 2021-31

The projected numeric change in employment from 2021 to 2031.

Growth Rate (Projected)

The percent change of employment for each occupation from 2021 to 2031.

Projected Number of New Jobs

The projected numeric change in employment from 2021 to 2031.

Projected Growth Rate

The projected percent change in employment from 2021 to 2031.

2021 Median Pay

The wage at which half of the workers in the occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. Median wage data are from the BLS Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics survey. In May 2021, the median annual wage for all workers was $45,760.