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Metal and Plastic Machine Workers

Summary

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Video transcript available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=176-HGCTLqE.
Quick Facts: Metal and Plastic Machine Workers
2020 Median Pay $38,270 per year
$18.40 per hour
Typical Entry-Level Education See How to Become One
Work Experience in a Related Occupation None
On-the-job Training Moderate-term on-the-job training
Number of Jobs, 2020 1,035,400
Job Outlook, 2020-30 -2% (Decline)
Employment Change, 2020-30 -17,800

What Metal and Plastic Machine Workers Do

Metal and plastic machine workers set up and operate equipment that cuts, shapes, and forms metal and plastic materials or pieces.

Work Environment

Metal and plastic machine workers are employed mainly in factories. Workers must adhere to safety standards to protect themselves from workplace hazards. Most work full time, which for some includes evenings and weekends.

How to Become a Metal or Plastic Machine Worker

Metal and plastic workers typically need a high school diploma to enter the occupation and receive 1 year of on-the-job training. Computer numerically controlled (CNC) tool programmers typically need postsecondary training.

Pay

The median annual wage for metal and plastic machine workers was $38,270 in May 2020.

Job Outlook

Overall employment of metal and plastic machine workers is projected to decline 2 percent from 2020 to 2030.

Despite declining employment, about 103,100 openings for metal and plastic machine workers are projected each year, on average, over the decade. All of those openings are expected to result from the need to replace workers who transfer to other occupations or exit the labor force, such as to retire.

State & Area Data

Explore resources for employment and wages by state and area for metal and plastic machine workers.

Similar Occupations

Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and pay of metal and plastic machine workers with similar occupations.

More Information, Including Links to O*NET

Learn more about metal and plastic machine workers by visiting additional resources, including O*NET, a source on key characteristics of workers and occupations.

What Metal and Plastic Machine Workers Do About this section

Metal and plastic machine workers
Metal and plastic machine workers monitor and adjust machines during operation.

Metal and plastic machine workers set up and operate equipment that cuts, shapes, and forms metal and plastic materials or pieces.

Duties

Metal and plastic machine workers typically do the following:

  • Set up and adjust machines according to blueprints
  • Monitor machines status to ensure proper functioning
  • Insert material into machines, either manually or using material handling equipment
  • Operate shaping and forming equipment, such as metal or plastic molding, casting, or coremaking machines
  • Operate stock removal metalworking machines, such as lathes or mills
  • Adjust machine settings for temperature, cycle times, and speed and feed rates
  • Remove finished products and document output in a database
  • Measure, test, and inspect finished workpieces according to blueprints
  • Observe and adjust or replace dull or damaged cutting tools

Metal and plastic machine workers operate equipment that creates the parts for consumer products. In general, these workers are separated into two groups: those who set up machines for operation and those who operate machines during production. However, many workers perform both tasks.

Although many workers both set up and operate machines, some specialize in being either a machine setter or a machine operator and tender.

Machine setters, or setup workers, prepare the machines before production, do test runs, and, if necessary, adjust and make minor repairs to the machinery before and during operation. Computer numerically controlled (CNC) setters upload computer control programs.

After installing the tools into a machine, setup workers often produce the initial batch of goods, inspect the products, and turn over the machine to an operator.

Machine operators and tenders monitor the machinery during production.

After a setter prepares a machine for production, an operator observes the machine and the products it makes. Operators may have to load the machine with materials for production or adjust machine speeds during production. They must periodically inspect the parts that a machine produces to ensure everything works properly, repairing equipment as needed. For example, the parts a machine produces may show defects if the cutting tool inside a machine becomes dull or damaged after extended use. When that happens, it is common for an operator to remove the worn tool and replace it with a new one produced by tool and die makers. Operators may fix minor problems themselves but may have an industrial machinery mechanic fix more serious problems.

Setters, operators, and tenders are usually identified by the type of machine they work with. Job duties generally vary with the size of the manufacturer and the type of machine being operated. Although some workers specialize in one or two types of machines, others are trained to set up or operate a variety of them. Automation often allows machine operators to control multiple machines at the same time.

In addition, production techniques, such as team-oriented “lean” manufacturing, require machine operators to rotate between different machines. Rotating assignments results in more varied work but also requires workers to have a range of skills.

The following are examples of types of metal and plastic machine workers:

Computer numerically controlled tool operators operate CNC equipment or robots to perform functions on metal or plastic workpieces.

Computer numerically controlled tool programmers develop computer programs to control the machining or processing of metal or plastic parts by automatic machine tools, equipment, or systems.

Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders set up or operate machines to saw, cut, shear, notch, bend, or straighten metal or plastic materials.

Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders set up or operate drilling machines to drill, bore, mill, or countersink metal or plastic workpieces.

Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders set up or operate machines to extrude (pull out) thermoplastic or metal materials in the form of tubes, rods, hoses, wire, bars, or structural shapes.

Forging machine setters, operators, and tenders set up or operate machines that shape or form metal or plastic into parts.

Foundry mold and coremakers make or form wax or sand cores or molds used in the production of metal castings in foundries.

Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders set up or operate grinding and related machine tools that remove excess material from surfaces, sharpen edges or corners, or buff or polish metal or plastic workpieces.

Heat-treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders set up or operate heating equipment, such as heat-treating furnaces, flame-hardening machines, induction machines, soaking pits, or vacuum equipment, to temper, harden, anneal, or heat treat metal or plastic objects.

Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders set up or operate lathe and turning machines to turn, bore, thread, or form metal or plastic materials, such as bars, rods, and castings.

Metal-refining furnace operators and tenders operate or tend furnaces, such as gas, oil, coal, electric-arc or electric-induction, and oxygen furnaces. These furnaces may be used to melt and refine metal before casting.

Milling and planing machine setters, operators, and tenders set up or operate milling or planing machines to shape, groove, or profile metal or plastic workpieces.

Model makers set up and operate machines, such as milling and engraving machines, to make working models of metal or plastic objects. They may also use 3D printing technology.

Molding, coremaking, and casting machine setters, operators, and tenders set up or operate metal or plastic molding, casting, or coremaking machines to mold or cast metal or thermoplastic parts or products.

Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders set up or operate two or more types of cutting or forming machine tool or robot.

Patternmakers lay out, machine, fit, and assemble castings and parts to metal or plastic foundry patterns and core molds.

Plating machine setters, operators, and tenders set up or operate plating machines and perform chemical checks for coating metal or plastic products with zinc, copper, nickel, or some other metal to protect or decorate surfaces.

Pourers and casters operate computer- or hand-controlled machines to pour and regulate the flow of molten metal into molds to produce castings or ingots.

Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders set up or operate machines to roll steel or plastic or to flatten, temper, or reduce the thickness of materials.

Welding, soldering, and brazing machine setters, operators, and tenders (including workers who operate laser cutters or laser-beam machines) set up or operate welding, soldering, or brazing machines or robots that weld, braze, solder, or heat treat metal products, components, or assemblies.

Work Environment About this section

Metal and plastic machine workers
Metal and plastic machine workers usually wear protective equipment, such as safety glasses.

Metal and plastic machine workers held about 1.0 million jobs in 2020. Employment in the detailed occupations that make up metal and plastic machine workers was distributed as follows:

Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 182,000
Computer numerically controlled tool operators 158,400
Molding, coremaking, and casting machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 157,700
Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 138,400
Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 70,500
Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 69,400
Plating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 39,300
Welding, soldering, and brazing machine setters, operators, and tenders 35,100
Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 34,500
Computer numerically controlled tool programmers 27,100
Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 23,700
Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 16,900
Foundry mold and coremakers 15,800
Milling and planing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 15,700
Metal-refining furnace operators and tenders 15,100
Forging machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 13,700
Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 9,100
Pourers and casters, metal 7,100
Model makers, metal and plastic 3,400
Patternmakers, metal and plastic 2,400

The largest employers of metal and plastic machine workers were as follows:

Fabricated metal product manufacturing 26%
Plastics and rubber products manufacturing 16
Transportation equipment manufacturing 14
Primary metal manufacturing 12
Machinery manufacturing 11

Injuries and Illnesses

These workers often operate powerful, high-speed machines that can be dangerous and must observe safety rules. Operators usually wear protective equipment, such as safety glasses, earplugs, and steel-toed boots, to guard against flying particles of metal or plastic, machine noise, and heavy objects, respectively.

Other required safety equipment varies by work setting and machine. For example, respirators are common for those in the plastics industry who work near materials that emit dangerous fumes or dust.

Welding, soldering, and brazing machine setters, operators, and tenders have one of the highest rates of injuries and illnesses of all occupations.

Work Schedules

Most metal and plastic machine workers are employed full time. Some work more than 40 hours per week. Because many manufacturers run their machinery for extended periods, evening and weekend work is also common.

How to Become a Metal or Plastic Machine Worker About this section

Metal and plastic machine workers
Metal and plastic machine workers must be able to stand for long periods and perform repetitive work.

Metal and plastic workers typically need a high school diploma to enter the occupation and receive 1 year of on-the-job training. Computer numerically controlled (CNC) tool programmers typically need postsecondary education.

Education

Although metal and plastic machine workers typically need a high school diploma, CNC tool programmers usually need coursework beyond high school. Some community colleges and other schools offer courses and certificate programs in operating metal and plastics machines including CNC programming.

For metal and plastic machine workers, high school classes in computer programming, math, and vocational technology may be useful.

Training

Machine operator trainees usually begin by watching and helping experienced workers on the job. Under supervision, they may supply materials, start and stop the machines, or remove finished products. Then, they advance to operators’ more difficult tasks, such as adjusting feeds and speeds, replacing tools, and measuring finished products for conformance. Eventually, some operators develop the skills and experience to set up machines.

The complexity of the equipment usually determines the time required to become an operator. Some operators and tenders are trained on basic machine operations and functions in a few months. Others, such as CNC tool operators, may need training for up to 1 year.

Because of the prevalence of computerized machines in manufacturing, training on computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), and CNC equipment may be helpful.

Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations

Certification can show competence and can be helpful for advancement. The National Institute for Metalworking Skills  (NIMS) offers certification in numerous metalworking specializations.

Advancement

With skill and experience, workers may advance to positions that offer higher pay and more responsibility. It is common for machine operators to move into setup or machinery maintenance positions. Setup workers may become industrial machinery mechanics and maintenance workers, machinists, or tool and die makers.

Experienced workers with good communication and analytical skills may advance to supervisory positions.

Important Qualities

Computer skills. Metal and plastic machine workers must be able to use programmable devices, computers, and robots on the factory floor.

Mechanical skills. These workers must be comfortable with machines and have a good understanding of how all the parts work.

Physical stamina. Metal and plastic machine workers must be able to stand for long periods and do repetitive tasks.

Physical strength. Metal and plastic machine workers must be able to secure and tighten heavy fixtures into place.

Pay About this section

Metal and Plastic Machine Workers

Median annual wages, May 2020

Total, all occupations

$41,950

Metal and plastic machine workers

$38,270

Production occupations

$37,440

 

The median annual wage for metal and plastic machine workers was $38,270 in May 2020. The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $26,460, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $60,010.

Median annual wages for metal and plastic machine workers in May 2020 were as follows:

Computer numerically controlled tool programmers $57,740
Model makers, metal and plastic 54,780
Patternmakers, metal and plastic 48,160
Metal-refining furnace operators and tenders 44,610
Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 43,600
Milling and planing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 43,150
Computer numerically controlled tool operators 42,260
Forging machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 41,430
Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 41,380
Pourers and casters, metal 40,170
Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 39,780
Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 39,530
Welding, soldering, and brazing machine setters, operators, and tenders 39,410
Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 37,530
Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 37,510
Foundry mold and coremakers 37,140
Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 36,980
Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 36,880
Plating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 34,850
Molding, coremaking, and casting machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 33,100

In May 2020, the median annual wages for metal and plastic machine workers in the top industries in which they worked were as follows:

Machinery manufacturing $41,380
Primary metal manufacturing 40,580
Transportation equipment manufacturing 40,520
Fabricated metal product manufacturing 38,500
Plastics and rubber products manufacturing 33,910

Most metal and plastic machine workers are employed full time. Some work more than 40 hours per week. Because many manufacturers run their machinery for extended periods, evening and weekend work also is common.

Job Outlook About this section

Metal and Plastic Machine Workers

Percent change in employment, projected 2020-30

Total, all occupations

8%

Production occupations

0%

Metal and plastic machine workers

-2%

 

Overall employment of metal and plastic machine workers is projected to decline 2 percent from 2020 to 2030.

Despite declining employment, about 103,100 openings for metal and plastic machine workers are projected each year, on average, over the decade. All of those openings are expected to result from the need to replace workers who transfer to other occupations or exit the labor force, such as to retire.

Employment

One of the most important factors influencing employment of these occupations is the use of labor-saving machinery. Many firms are adopting technologies such as computer numerically controlled (CNC) tools and robots to improve quality and lower production costs. The switch to CNC equipment requires computer programmers instead of machine setters, operators, and tenders. Therefore, demand for manual tool operators and tenders is likely to be reduced while demand for CNC programmers is expected to be strong.

The demand for metal and plastic machine workers is also affected by the demand for the parts they produce. Both the plastic and metal manufacturing industries face foreign competition that limits the orders for parts produced in this country. Some U.S. manufacturers have moved their production to foreign countries, reducing jobs for machine setters and operators. However, some companies are bringing jobs back to the United States from overseas, and this is expected to continue over the coming decade.

Employment projections data for metal and plastic machine workers, 2020-30
Occupational Title SOC Code Employment, 2020 Projected Employment, 2030 Change, 2020-30 Employment by Industry
Percent Numeric

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program

Metal and plastic machine workers

1,035,400 1,017,600 -2 -17,800

Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4021 70,500 65,200 -8 -5,300 Get data

Forging machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4022 13,700 11,900 -13 -1,800 Get data

Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4023 34,500 32,400 -6 -2,100 Get data

Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4031 182,000 177,500 -2 -4,500 Get data

Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4032 9,100 7,700 -15 -1,400 Get data

Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4033 69,400 67,100 -3 -2,300 Get data

Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4034 23,700 22,700 -4 -1,000 Get data

Milling and planing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4035 15,700 13,300 -15 -2,400 Get data

Metal-refining furnace operators and tenders

51-4051 15,100 15,500 3 400 Get data

Pourers and casters, metal

51-4052 7,100 6,700 -5 -400 Get data

Model makers, metal and plastic

51-4061 3,400 3,300 -5 -200 Get data

Patternmakers, metal and plastic

51-4062 2,400 2,300 -3 -100 Get data

Foundry mold and coremakers

51-4071 15,800 15,300 -3 -500 Get data

Molding, coremaking, and casting machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4072 157,700 148,200 -6 -9,600 Get data

Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4081 138,400 150,200 9 11,800 Get data

Welding, soldering, and brazing machine setters, operators, and tenders

51-4122 35,100 34,700 -1 -300 Get data

Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4191 16,900 16,200 -4 -700 Get data

Plating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

51-4193 39,300 38,200 -3 -1,100 Get data

Computer numerically controlled tool operators

51-9161 158,400 154,500 -2 -3,900 Get data

Computer numerically controlled tool programmers

51-9162 27,100 34,500 27 7,400 Get data

State & Area Data About this section

Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics (OEWS)

The Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics (OEWS) program produces employment and wage estimates annually for over 800 occupations. These estimates are available for the nation as a whole, for individual states, and for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas. The link(s) below go to OEWS data maps for employment and wages by state and area.

Projections Central

Occupational employment projections are developed for all states by Labor Market Information (LMI) or individual state Employment Projections offices. All state projections data are available at www.projectionscentral.com. Information on this site allows projected employment growth for an occupation to be compared among states or to be compared within one state. In addition, states may produce projections for areas; there are links to each state’s websites where these data may be retrieved.

CareerOneStop

CareerOneStop includes hundreds of occupational profiles with data available by state and metro area. There are links in the left-hand side menu to compare occupational employment by state and occupational wages by local area or metro area. There is also a salary info tool to search for wages by zip code.

Similar Occupations About this section

This table shows a list of occupations with job duties that are similar to those of metal and plastic machine workers.

Occupation Job Duties ENTRY-LEVEL EDUCATION Help on Entry-Level Education 2020 MEDIAN PAY Help on Median Pay
Assemblers and fabricators Assemblers and Fabricators

Assemblers and fabricators build finished products and the parts that go into them.

High school diploma or equivalent $34,970
Computer programmers Computer Programmers

Computer programmers write and test code that allows computer applications and software programs to function properly.

Bachelor's degree $89,190
Industrial machinery mechanics and maintenance workers Industrial Machinery Mechanics, Machinery Maintenance Workers, and Millwrights

Industrial machinery mechanics, machinery maintenance workers, and millwrights install, maintain, and repair factory equipment and other industrial machinery.

High school diploma or equivalent $54,920
Machinists and tool and die makers Machinists and Tool and Die Makers

Machinists and tool and die makers set up and operate machine tools to produce precision metal parts, instruments, and tools.

See How to Become One $47,040
Painting and coating workers Painting and Coating Workers

Painting and coating workers apply finishes, often using machines, to a range of products.

See How to Become One $38,740

Contacts for More Information About this section

For more information about metal and plastic machine workers, including training and certification, visit 

Fabricators & Manufacturers Association, International (FMA)

National Institute for Metalworking Skills (NIMS)

For information about manufacturing careers, machinery, and equipment, visit

Association for Manufacturing Technology (AMT)

National Tooling and Machining Association (NTMA)

Precision Machined Products Association (PMPA)

Precision Metalforming Association (PMA)

O*NET

Computer Numerically Controlled Tool Operators

Computer Numerically Controlled Tool Programmers

Cutting, Punching, and Press Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic

Drilling and Boring Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic

Extruding and Drawing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic

Forging Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic

Foundry Mold and Coremakers

Grinding, Lapping, Polishing, and Buffing Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic

Heat Treating Equipment Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic

Lathe and Turning Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic

Metal-Refining Furnace Operators and Tenders

Milling and Planing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic

Model Makers, Metal and Plastic

Molding, Coremaking, and Casting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic

Multiple Machine Tool Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic

Patternmakers, Metal and Plastic

Plating Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic

Pourers and Casters, Metal

Rolling Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic

Welding, Soldering, and Brazing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders

Suggested citation:

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, Metal and Plastic Machine Workers,
at https://www.bls.gov/ooh/production/metal-and-plastic-machine-workers.htm (visited December 02, 2021).

Last Modified Date: Wednesday, September 8, 2021

What They Do

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Work Environment

The Work Environment tab includes the number of jobs held in the occupation and describes the workplace, the level of physical activity expected, and typical hours worked. It may also discuss the major industries that employed the occupation. This tab may also describe opportunities for part-time work, the amount and type of travel required, any safety equipment that is used, and the risk of injury that workers may face.

How to Become One

The How to Become One tab describes how to prepare for a job in the occupation. This tab can include information on education, training, work experience, licensing and certification, and important qualities that are required or helpful for entering or working in the occupation.

Pay

The Pay tab describes typical earnings and how workers in the occupation are compensated—annual salaries, hourly wages, commissions, tips, or bonuses. Within every occupation, earnings vary by experience, responsibility, performance, tenure, and geographic area. For most profiles, this tab has a table with wages in the major industries employing the occupation. It does not include pay for self-employed workers, agriculture workers, or workers in private households because these data are not collected by the Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics (OEWS) survey, the source of BLS wage data in the OOH.

State & Area Data

The State and Area Data tab provides links to state and area occupational data from the Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics (OEWS) program, state projections data from Projections Central, and occupational information from the Department of Labor's CareerOneStop.

Job Outlook

The Job Outlook tab describes the factors that affect employment growth or decline in the occupation, and in some instances, describes the relationship between the number of job seekers and the number of job openings.

Similar Occupations

The Similar Occupations tab describes occupations that share similar duties, skills, interests, education, or training with the occupation covered in the profile.

Contacts for More Information

The More Information tab provides the Internet addresses of associations, government agencies, unions, and other organizations that can provide additional information on the occupation. This tab also includes links to relevant occupational information from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET).

2020 Median Pay

The wage at which half of the workers in the occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. Median wage data are from the BLS Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics survey. In May 2020, the median annual wage for all workers was $41,950.

On-the-job Training

Additional training needed (postemployment) to attain competency in the skills needed in this occupation.

Entry-level Education

Typical level of education that most workers need to enter this occupation.

Work experience in a related occupation

Work experience that is commonly considered necessary by employers, or is a commonly accepted substitute for more formal types of training or education.

Number of Jobs, 2020

The employment, or size, of this occupation in 2020, which is the base year of the 2020-30 employment projections.

Job Outlook, 2020-30

The projected percent change in employment from 2020 to 2030. The average growth rate for all occupations is 8 percent.

Employment Change, 2020-30

The projected numeric change in employment from 2020 to 2030.

Entry-level Education

Typical level of education that most workers need to enter this occupation.

On-the-job Training

Additional training needed (postemployment) to attain competency in the skills needed in this occupation.

Employment Change, projected 2020-30

The projected numeric change in employment from 2020 to 2030.

Growth Rate (Projected)

The percent change of employment for each occupation from 2020 to 2030.

Projected Number of New Jobs

The projected numeric change in employment from 2020 to 2030.

Projected Growth Rate

The projected percent change in employment from 2020 to 2030.

2020 Median Pay

The wage at which half of the workers in the occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. Median wage data are from the BLS Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics survey. In May 2020, the median annual wage for all workers was $41,950.