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Although employment for hundreds of occupations is covered in detail in the Occupational Outlook Handbook, this page presents summary data on additional occupations for which employment projections are prepared but detailed occupational information is not developed. For each occupation, the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) code, the occupational definition, 2019 employment, the May 2019 median annual wage, the projected employment change and growth rate from 2019 to 2029, and education and training categories are presented. In addition, select occupations include links to career videos from CareerOneStop.

Occupational Groups (Note—click a link below to scroll the page to the occupational group):

Management occupations

Business and financial operations occupations

Computer and mathematical occupations

Architecture and engineering occupations

Life, physical, and social science occupations

Community and social service occupations

Legal occupations

Educational instruction and library occupations

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

Healthcare support occupations

Protective service occupations

Food preparation and serving related occupations

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

Personal care and service occupations

Sales and related occupations

Office and administrative support occupations

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

Construction and extraction occupations

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

Production occupations

Transportation and material moving occupations

 

Management occupations

Legislators

Develop, introduce, or enact laws and statutes at the local, tribal, state, or federal level. Includes only workers in elected positions.

Transportation, storage, and distribution managers

Plan, direct, or coordinate transportation, storage, or distribution activities in accordance with organizational policies and applicable government laws or regulations. Includes logistics managers.

Education administrators, all other

All education administrators not listed separately.

Postmasters and mail superintendents

Plan, direct, or coordinate operational, administrative, management, and support services of a U.S. post office; or coordinate activities of workers engaged in postal and related work in assigned post office.

Personal service managers, all other; entertainment and recreation managers, except gambling; and managers, all other

This is an OES hybrid and the OES definition can be found by following the OES link below

 

Business and financial operations occupations

Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes

Represent and promote artists, performers, and athletes in dealings with current or prospective employers. May handle contract negotiation and other business matters for clients.

Compliance officers

Examine, evaluate, and investigate eligibility for or conformity with laws and regulations governing contract compliance of licenses and permits, and perform other compliance and enforcement inspection and analysis activities not classified elsewhere. Excludes “Financial Examiners" (13-2061), “Tax Examiners and Collectors, and Revenue Agents” (13-2081), “Occupational Health and Safety Specialists” (19-5011), “Occupational Health and Safety Technicians” (19-5012), “Transportation Security Screeners” (33-9093), “Agricultural Inspectors” (45-2011), “Construction and Building Inspectors” (47-4011), and “Transportation Inspectors” (53-6051).

Farm labor contractors

Recruit and hire seasonal or temporary agricultural laborers. May transport, house, and provide meals for workers.

Project management specialists and business operations specialists, all other

This is an OES hybrid and the OES definition can be found by following the OES link below

Credit analysts

Analyze credit data and financial statements of individuals or firms to determine the degree of risk involved in extending credit or lending money. Prepare reports with credit information for use in decisionmaking. Excludes “Financial Risk Specialists” (13-2054).

Credit counselors

Advise and educate individuals or organizations on acquiring and managing debt. May provide guidance in determining the best type of loan and explain loan requirements or restrictions. May help develop debt management plans or student financial aid packages. May advise on credit issues, or provide budget, mortgage, bankruptcy, or student financial aid counseling.

Tax preparers

Prepare tax returns for individuals or small businesses. Excludes “Accountants and Auditors” (13-2011).

 

Computer and mathematical occupations

Computer occupations, all other

All computer occupations not listed separately. Excludes “Computer and Information Systems Managers” (11-3021), “Computer Hardware Engineers” (17-2061), “Electrical and Electronics Engineers” (17-2070), “Computer Science Teachers, Postsecondary” (25-1021), “Special Effects Artists and Animators” (27-1014), “Graphic Designers” (27-1024), “Health Information Technologists and Medical Registrars” (29-9021), and “Computer, Automated Teller, and Office Machine Repairers” (49-2011).

Data scientists and mathematical science occupations, all other

This is an OES hybrid and the OES definition can be found by following the OES link below

 

Architecture and engineering occupations

Engineers, all other

All engineers not listed separately. Excludes “Sales Engineers” (41-9031), “Locomotive Engineers” (53-4011), and “Ship Engineers” (53-5031).

Calibration technologists and technicians and engineering technologists and technicians, except drafters, all other

This is an OES hybrid and the OES definition can be found by following the OES link below

 

Life, physical, and social science occupations

Biological scientists, all other

All biological scientists not listed separately.

Life scientists, all other

All life scientists not listed separately.

Physical scientists, all other

All physical scientists not listed separately.

Social scientists and related workers, all other

All social scientists and related workers not listed separately.

Social science research assistants

Assist social scientists in laboratory, survey, and other social science research. May help prepare findings for publication and assist in laboratory analysis, quality control, or data management. Excludes “Teaching Assistants, Postsecondary” (25-9044).

Forest and conservation technicians

Provide technical assistance regarding the conservation of soil, water, forests, or related natural resources. May compile data pertaining to size, content, condition, and other characteristics of forest tracts under the direction of foresters, or train and lead forest workers in forest propagation and fire prevention and suppression. May assist conservation scientists in managing, improving, and protecting rangelands and wildlife habitats. Excludes “Conservation Scientists” (19-1031) and “Foresters” (19-1032).

Life, physical, and social science technicians, all other

All life, physical, and social science technicians not listed separately.

 

Community and social service occupations

Counselors, all other

All counselors not listed separately.

Community and social service specialists, all other

All community and social service specialists not listed separately.

Clergy

Conduct religious worship and perform other spiritual functions associated with beliefs and practices of religious faith or denomination. Provide spiritual and moral guidance and assistance to members.

Directors, religious activities and education

Coordinate or design programs and conduct outreach to promote the religious education or activities of a denominational group. May provide counseling, guidance, and leadership relative to marital, health, financial, and religious problems.

Religious workers, all other

All religious workers not listed separately.

 

Legal occupations

Judicial law clerks

Assist judges in court or by conducting research or preparing legal documents. Excludes “Lawyers” (23-1011) and “Paralegals and Legal Assistants” (23-2011).

Title examiners, abstractors, and searchers

Search real estate records, examine titles, or summarize pertinent legal or insurance documents or details for a variety of purposes. May compile lists of mortgages, contracts, and other instruments pertaining to titles by searching public and private records for law firms, real estate agencies, or title insurance companies. Excludes “Loan Officers” (13-2072).

Legal support workers, all other

All legal support workers not listed separately.

 

Educational instruction and library occupations

Family and consumer sciences teachers, postsecondary

Teach courses in childcare, family relations, finance, nutrition, and related subjects pertaining to home management. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.

Recreation and fitness studies teachers, postsecondary

Teach courses pertaining to recreation, leisure, and fitness studies, including exercise physiology and facilities management. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.

Postsecondary teachers, all other

All postsecondary teachers not listed separately.

Special education teachers, all other

All special education teachers not listed separately.

Self-enrichment teachers

Teach or instruct individuals or groups for the primary purpose of self-enrichment or recreation, rather than for an occupational objective, educational attainment, competition, or fitness. Excludes “Coaches and Scouts” (27-2022) and “Exercise Trainers and Group Fitness Instructors” (39-9031). Flight instructors are included with “Aircraft Pilots and Flight Engineers” (53-2010).

Substitute teachers, short-term

Teach students on a short-term basis as a temporary replacement for a regular classroom teacher, typically using the regular teacher’s lesson plan. Excludes long-term substitute teachers who perform all the duties of a regular teacher; these teachers are coded within the 25-1000 or 25-2000 minor groups.

Tutors and teachers and instructors, all other

This is an OES hybrid and the OES definition can be found by following the OES link below

Farm and home management educators

Instruct and advise individuals and families engaged in agriculture, agricultural-related processes, or home management activities. Demonstrate procedures and apply research findings to advance agricultural and home management activities. May develop educational outreach programs. May instruct on either agricultural issues such as agricultural processes and techniques, pest management, and food safety, or on home management issues such as budgeting, nutrition, and child development. Excludes “Dietitians and Nutritionists” (29-1031).

Teaching assistants, postsecondary

Assist faculty or other instructional staff in postsecondary institutions by performing instructional support activities, such as developing teaching materials, leading discussion groups, preparing and giving examinations, and grading examinations or papers. Graduate students who teach one or more full courses should be classified in the 25-1000 minor group.

Educational instruction and library workers, all other

All educational instruction and library workers not listed separately.

 

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

Merchandise displayers and window trimmers

Plan and erect commercial displays, such as those in windows and interiors of retail stores and at trade exhibitions.

Set and exhibit designers

Design special exhibits and sets for film, video, television, and theater productions. May study scripts, confer with directors, and conduct research to determine appropriate architectural styles.

Designers, all other

All designers not listed separately.

Miscellaneous entertainers and performers, sports and related workers

This is an OES hybrid and the OES definition can be found by following the OES link below

Lighting technicians and media and communication equipment workers, all other

This is an OES hybrid and the OES definition can be found by following the OES link below

 

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

Therapists, all other

All therapists not listed separately.

Acupuncturists and healthcare diagnosing or treating practitioners, all other

This is an OES hybrid and the OES definition can be found by following the OES link below

Dietetic technicians

Assist in the provision of food service and nutritional programs, under the supervision of a dietitian. May plan and produce meals based on established guidelines, teach principles of food and nutrition, or counsel individuals.

Ophthalmic medical technicians

Assist ophthalmologists by performing ophthalmic clinical functions. May administer eye exams, administer eye medications, and instruct the patient in care and use of corrective lenses.

Hearing aid specialists

Select and fit hearing aids for customers. Administer and interpret tests of hearing. Assess hearing instrument efficacy. Take ear impressions and prepare, design, and modify ear molds. Excludes “Audiologists” (29-1181).

Health information technologists, medical registrars, surgical assistants, and healthcare practitioners and technical workers, all other

This is an OES hybrid and the OES definition can be found by following the OES link below

 

Healthcare support occupations

Medical equipment preparers

Prepare, sterilize, install, or clean laboratory or healthcare equipment. May perform routine laboratory tasks and operate or inspect equipment.

Pharmacy aides

Record drugs delivered to the pharmacy, store incoming merchandise, and inform the supervisor of stock needs. May operate cash register and accept prescriptions for filling.

Healthcare support workers, all other

All healthcare support workers not listed separately.

 

Protective service occupations

First-line supervisors of correctional officers

Directly supervise and coordinate activities of correctional officers and jailers.

First-line supervisors of police and detectives

Directly supervise and coordinate activities of members of police force.

First-line supervisors of firefighting and prevention workers

Directly supervise and coordinate activities of workers engaged in firefighting and fire prevention and control.

Miscellaneous first-line supervisors, protective service workers

This is an OES hybrid and the OES definition can be found by following the OES link below

Parking enforcement workers

Patrol assigned area, such as public parking lot or city streets to issue tickets to overtime parking violators and illegally parked vehicles.

Animal control workers

Handle animals for the purpose of investigations of mistreatment, or control of abandoned, dangerous, or unattended animals.

Crossing guards and flaggers

Guide or control vehicular or pedestrian traffic at such places as streets, schools, railroad crossings, or construction sites.

Lifeguards, ski patrol, and other recreational protective service workers

Monitor recreational areas, such as pools, beaches, or ski slopes, to provide assistance and protection to participants.

Transportation security screeners

Conduct screening of passengers, baggage, or cargo to ensure compliance with Transportation Security Administration (TSA) regulations. May operate basic security equipment such as x-ray machines and hand wands at screening checkpoints.

School bus monitors and protective service workers, all other

This is an OES hybrid and the OES definition can be found by following the OES link below

 

Food preparation and serving related occupations

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

Directly supervise and coordinate activities of workers engaged in preparing and serving food.

Dishwashers

Clean dishes, kitchen, food preparation equipment, or utensils.

 

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

First-line supervisors of housekeeping and janitorial workers

Directly supervise and coordinate work activities of cleaning personnel in hotels, hospitals, offices, and other establishments.

First-line supervisors of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers

Directly supervise and coordinate activities of workers engaged in landscaping or groundskeeping activities. Work may involve reviewing contracts to ascertain service, machine, and workforce requirements; answering inquiries from potential customers regarding methods, material, and price ranges; and preparing estimates according to labor, material, and machine costs.

Maids and housekeeping cleaners

Perform any combination of light cleaning duties to maintain private households or commercial establishments, such as hotels and hospitals, in a clean and orderly manner. Duties may include making beds, replenishing linens, cleaning rooms and halls, and vacuuming.

Building cleaning workers, all other

All building cleaning workers not listed separately.

 

Personal care and service occupations

First-line supervisors of personal service and entertainment and recreation workers, except gambling services

This is an OES hybrid and the OES definition can be found by following the OES link below

Motion picture projectionists

Set up and operate motion picture projection and related sound reproduction equipment.

Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers

Assist patrons at entertainment events by performing duties, such as collecting admission tickets and passes from patrons, assisting in finding seats, searching for lost articles, and helping patrons locate such facilities as restrooms and telephones.

Amusement and recreation attendants

Perform a variety of attending duties at amusement or recreation facility. May schedule use of recreation facilities, maintain and provide equipment to participants of sporting events or recreational pursuits, or operate amusement concessions and rides.

Costume attendants

Select, fit, and take care of costumes for cast members, and aid entertainers. May assist with multiple costume changes during performances.

Locker room, coatroom, and dressing room attendants

Provide personal items to patrons or customers in locker rooms, dressing rooms, or coatrooms.

Entertainment attendants and related workers, all other

All entertainment attendants and related workers not listed separately.

Embalmers

Prepare bodies for interment in conformity with legal requirements.

Funeral attendants

Perform a variety of tasks during funeral, such as placing casket in parlor or chapel prior to service, arranging floral offerings or lights around casket, directing or escorting mourners, closing casket, and issuing and storing funeral equipment.

Makeup artists, theatrical and performance

Apply makeup to performers to reflect period, setting, and situation of their role.

Shampooers

Shampoo and rinse customers’ hair.

  • 2019 employment: 16,800
  • May 2019 median annual wage: $22,550
  • Projected employment change, 2019–29:
  • Education and training:
    • Typical entry-level education: No formal educational credential
    • Work experience in a related occupation: None
    • Typical on-the-job training: Short-term on-the-job training
  • O*NET links:

Baggage porters and bellhops

Handle baggage for travelers at transportation terminals or for guests at hotels or similar establishments.

Concierges

Assist patrons at hotel, apartment, or office building with personal services. May take messages; arrange or give advice on transportation, business services, or entertainment; or monitor guest requests for housekeeping and maintenance.

Tour and travel guides

This is an OES hybrid and the OES definition can be found by following the OES link below

Residential advisors

Coordinate activities in resident facilities in secondary school and college dormitories, group homes, or similar establishments. Order supplies and determine need for maintenance, repairs, and furnishings. May maintain household records and assign rooms. May assist residents with problem solving or refer them to counseling resources.

Crematory operators and personal care and service workers, all other

This is an OES hybrid and the OES definition can be found by following the OES link below

 

Sales and related occupations

First-line supervisors of retail sales workers

Directly supervise and coordinate activities of retail sales workers in an establishment or department. Duties may include management functions, such as purchasing, budgeting, accounting, and personnel work, in addition to supervisory duties.

First-line supervisors of non-retail sales workers

Directly supervise and coordinate activities of sales workers other than retail sales workers. May perform duties such as budgeting, accounting, and personnel work, in addition to supervisory duties.

Gambling change persons and booth cashiers

Exchange coins, tokens, and chips for patrons’ money. May issue payoffs and obtain customer’s signature on receipt. May operate a booth in the slot machine area and furnish change persons with money bank at the start of the shift, or count and audit money in drawers. Excludes “Cashiers” (41-2011).

Counter and rental clerks

Receive orders, generally in person, for repairs, rentals, and services. May describe available options, compute cost, and accept payment. Excludes “Fast Food and Counter Workers” (35-3023), “Hotel, Motel, and Resort Desk Clerks” (43-4081), “Order Clerks” (43-4151), and “Reservation and Transportation Ticket Agents and Travel Clerks” (43-4181).

Sales representatives of services, except advertising, insurance, financial services, and travel

Sell services to individuals or businesses. May describe options or resolve client problems. Excludes “Advertising Sales Agents” (41-3011), “Insurance Sales Agents” (41-3021), “Securities, Commodities, and Financial Services Sales Agents” (41-3031), “Travel Agents” (41-3041), “Sales Representatives, Wholesale and Manufacturing” (41-4010), and “Telemarketers” (41-9041).

Demonstrators and product promoters

Demonstrate merchandise and answer questions for the purpose of creating public interest in buying the product. May sell demonstrated merchandise.

Telemarketers

Solicit donations or orders for goods or services over the telephone.

Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers

Sell goods or services door-to-door or on the street.

Sales and related workers, all other

All sales and related workers not listed separately.

 

Office and administrative support occupations

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

Directly supervise and coordinate the activities of clerical and administrative support workers.

Switchboard operators, including answering service

Operate telephone business systems equipment or switchboards to relay incoming, outgoing, and interoffice calls. May supply information to callers and record messages.

Telephone operators

Provide information by accessing alphabetical, geographical, or other directories. Assist customers with special billing requests, such as charges to a third party and credits or refunds for incorrectly dialed numbers or bad connections. May handle emergency calls and assist children or people with physical disabilities to make telephone calls.

Communications equipment operators, all other

All communications equipment operators not listed separately.

Financial clerks, all other

All financial clerks not listed separately.

Cargo and freight agents

Expedite and route movement of incoming and outgoing cargo and freight shipments in airline, train, and trucking terminals and shipping docks. Take orders from customers and arrange pickup of freight and cargo for delivery to loading platform. Prepare and examine bills of lading to determine shipping charges and tariffs.

Couriers and messengers

Pick up and deliver messages, documents, packages, and other items between offices or departments within an establishment or directly to other business concerns, traveling by foot, bicycle, motorcycle, automobile, or public conveyance. Excludes “Light Truck Drivers” (53-3033).

Dispatchers, except police, fire, and ambulance

Schedule and dispatch workers, work crews, equipment, or service vehicles for conveyance of materials, freight, or passengers, or for normal installation, service, or emergency repairs rendered outside the place of business. Duties may include using radio, telephone, or computer to transmit assignments and compiling statistics and reports on work progress.

Meter readers, utilities

Read meter and record consumption of electricity, gas, water, or steam.

Data entry keyers

Operate data entry device, such as keyboard or photo composing perforator. Duties may include verifying data and preparing materials for printing. Excludes “Word Processors and Typists” (43-9022).

Word processors and typists

Use word processor, computer, or typewriter to type letters, reports, forms, or other material from rough draft, corrected copy, or voice recording. May perform other clerical duties as assigned. Excludes “Court Reporters and Simultaneous Captioners” (27-3092), “Medical Transcriptionists” (31-9094), “Secretaries and Administrative Assistants” (43-6010), and “Data Entry Keyers” (43-9021).

Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service

Prepare incoming and outgoing mail for distribution. Time-stamp, open, read, sort, and route incoming mail; and address, seal, stamp, fold, stuff, and affix postage to outgoing mail or packages. Duties may also include keeping necessary records and completed forms.

Office machine operators, except computer

Operate one or more of a variety of office machines, such as photocopying, photographic, and duplicating machines, or other office machines. Excludes “Billing and Posting Clerks” (43-3021) and “Mail Clerks and Mail Machine Operators, Except Postal Service” (43-9051).

Proofreaders and copy markers

Read transcript or proof type setup to detect and mark for correction any grammatical, typographical, or compositional errors. Excludes workers whose primary duty is editing copy. Includes proofreaders of braille.

Statistical assistants

Compile and compute data according to statistical formulas for use in statistical studies. May perform actuarial computations and compile charts and graphs for use by actuaries. Includes actuarial clerks.

Office and administrative support workers, all other

All office and administrative support workers not listed separately.

 

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

First-line supervisors of farming, fishing, and forestry workers

Directly supervise and coordinate the activities of agricultural, forestry, aquacultural, and related workers. Excludes “First-Line Supervisors of Landscaping, Lawn Service, and Groundskeeping Workers” (37-1012).

Agricultural inspectors

Inspect agricultural commodities, processing equipment, and facilities, and fish and logging operations, to ensure compliance with regulations and laws governing health, quality, and safety.

Graders and sorters, agricultural products

Grade, sort, or classify unprocessed food and other agricultural products by size, weight, color, or condition. Excludes “Agricultural Inspectors” (45-2011).

 

Construction and extraction occupations

First-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workers

Directly supervise and coordinate activities of construction or extraction workers.

Paperhangers

Cover interior walls or ceilings of rooms with decorative wallpaper or fabric, or attach advertising posters on surfaces such as walls and billboards. May remove old materials or prepare surfaces to be papered.

Pipelayers

Lay pipe for storm or sanitation sewers, drains, and water mains. Perform any combination of the following tasks: grade trenches or culverts, position pipe, or seal joints. Excludes “Welders, Cutters, Solderers, and Brazers” (51-4121).

Plasterers and stucco masons

Apply interior or exterior plaster, cement, stucco, or similar materials. May also set ornamental plaster.

Fence erectors

Erect and repair fences and fence gates, using hand and power tools.

Highway maintenance workers

Maintain highways, municipal and rural roads, airport runways, and rights-of-way. Duties include patching broken or eroded pavement and repairing guard rails, highway markers, and snow fences. May also mow or clear brush from along road, or plow snow from roadway. Excludes “Tree Trimmers and Pruners” (37-3013).

Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators

Lay, repair, and maintain track for standard or narrow-gauge railroad equipment used in regular railroad service or in plant yards, quarries, sand and gravel pits, and mines. Includes ballast cleaning machine operators and railroad bed tamping machine operators.

Septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners

Clean and repair septic tanks, sewer lines, or drains. May patch walls and partitions of tank, replace damaged drain tile, or repair breaks in underground piping.

Miscellaneous construction and related workers

This is an OES hybrid and the OES definition can be found by following the OES link below

Derrick operators, oil and gas

Rig derrick equipment and operate pumps to circulate mud or fluid through drill hole.

Rotary drill operators, oil and gas

Set up or operate a variety of drills to remove underground oil and gas, or remove core samples for testing during oil and gas exploration. Excludes “Earth Drillers, Except Oil and Gas” (47-5023).

Service unit operators, oil and gas

Operate equipment to increase oil flow from producing wells or to remove stuck pipe, casing, tools, or other obstructions from drilling wells. Includes fishing-tool technicians.

Continuous mining machine operators

Operate self-propelled mining machines that rip coal, metal and nonmetal ores, rock, stone, or sand from the mine face and load it onto conveyors, shuttle cars, or trucks in a continuous operation.

Roof bolters, mining

Operate machinery to install roof support bolts in underground mine.

Rock splitters, quarry

Separate blocks of rough dimension stone from quarry mass using jackhammers, wedges, or chop saws.

Roustabouts, oil and gas

Assemble or repair oil field equipment using hand and power tools. Perform other tasks as needed.

Helpers--extraction workers

Help extraction craft workers, such as earth drillers, blasters and explosives workers, derrick operators, and mining machine operators, by performing duties requiring less skill. Duties include supplying equipment or cleaning work area. Apprentice workers are classified with the appropriate skilled construction trade occupation (47-2011 through 47-2231).

Earth drillers, except oil and gas; and explosives workers, ordnance handling experts, and blasters

This is an OES hybrid and the OES definition can be found by following the OES link below

Underground mining machine operators and extraction workers, all other

This is an OES hybrid and the OES definition can be found by following the OES link below

 

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

First-line supervisors of mechanics, installers, and repairers

Directly supervise and coordinate the activities of mechanics, installers, and repairers. May also advise customers on recommended services. Excludes team or work leaders.

Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers

Repair, maintain, or install computers, word processing systems, automated teller machines, and electronic office machines, such as duplicating and fax machines.

Radio, cellular, and tower equipment installers and repairers

Repair, install, or maintain mobile or stationary radio transmitting, broadcasting, and receiving equipment, and two-way radio communications systems used in cellular telecommunications, mobile broadband, ship-to-shore, aircraft-to-ground communications, and radio equipment in service and emergency vehicles. May test and analyze network coverage.

Audiovisual equipment installers and repairers

Install, repair, or adjust audio or television receivers, stereo systems, camcorders, video systems, or other electronic entertainment equipment in homes or other venues. May perform routine maintenance. Excludes “Audio and Video Technicians” (27-4011).

Security and fire alarm systems installers

Install, program, maintain, and repair security and fire alarm wiring and equipment. Ensure that work is in accordance with relevant codes. Excludes “Electricians” (47-2111) who do a broad range of electrical wiring.

Bicycle repairers

Repair and service bicycles.

Recreational vehicle service technicians

Diagnose, inspect, adjust, repair, or overhaul recreational vehicles including travel trailers. May specialize in maintaining gas, electrical, hydraulic, plumbing, or chassis/towing systems as well as repairing generators, appliances, and interior components. Includes workers who perform customized van conversions. Excludes “Automotive Service Technicians and Mechanics” (49-3023) and “Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists” (49-3031) who also work on recreation vehicles.

Tire repairers and changers

Repair and replace tires.

Mechanical door repairers

Install, service, or repair automatic door mechanisms and hydraulic doors. Includes garage door mechanics.

Control and valve installers and repairers, except mechanical door

Install, repair, and maintain mechanical regulating and controlling devices, such as electric meters, gas regulators, thermostats, safety and flow valves, and other mechanical governors.

Home appliance repairers

Repair, adjust, or install all types of electric or gas household appliances, such as refrigerators, washers, dryers, and ovens.

Refractory materials repairers, except brickmasons

Build or repair equipment such as furnaces, kilns, cupolas, boilers, converters, ladles, soaking pits, and ovens, using refractory materials.

Camera and photographic equipment repairers

Repair and adjust cameras and photographic equipment, including commercial video and motion picture camera equipment.

Musical instrument repairers and tuners

Repair percussion, stringed, reed, or wind instruments. May specialize in one area, such as piano tuning. Excludes “Audiovisual Equipment Installers and Repairers" (49-2097) who repair electrical and electronic musical instruments.

Watch and clock repairers

Repair, clean, and adjust mechanisms of timing instruments, such as watches and clocks. Includes watchmakers, watch technicians, and mechanical timepiece repairers. Excludes "Timing Device Assemblers and Adjusters” (51-2061).

Precision instrument and equipment repairers, all other

All precision instrument and equipment repairers not listed separately.

Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers

Install, service, adjust, or repair coin, vending, or amusement machines including video games, juke boxes, pinball machines, or slot machines.

Commercial divers

Work below surface of water, using surface-supplied air or scuba equipment to inspect, repair, remove, or install equipment and structures. May use a variety of power and hand tools, such as drills, sledgehammers, torches, and welding equipment. May conduct tests or experiments, rig explosives, or photograph structures or marine life. Excludes “Athletes and Sports Competitors” (27-2021), “Police and Sheriff’s Patrol Officers” (33-3051), and “Fishing and Hunting Workers” (45-3031).

Locksmiths and safe repairers

Repair and open locks, make keys, change locks and safe combinations, and install and repair safes.

Manufactured building and mobile home installers

Move or install mobile homes or prefabricated buildings.

Riggers

Set up or repair rigging for construction projects, manufacturing plants, logging yards, ships and shipyards, or for the entertainment industry.

Signal and track switch repairers

Install, inspect, test, maintain, or repair electric gate crossings, signals, signal equipment, track switches, section lines, or intercommunications systems within a railroad system.

Helpers--installation, maintenance, and repair workers

Help installation, maintenance, and repair workers in maintenance, parts replacement, and repair of vehicles, industrial machinery, and electrical and electronic equipment. Perform duties such as furnishing tools, materials, and supplies to other workers; cleaning work area, machines, and tools; and holding materials or tools for other workers.

Installation, maintenance, and repair workers, all other

All installation, maintenance, and repair workers not listed separately.

 

Production occupations

First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

Directly supervise and coordinate the activities of production and operating workers, such as inspectors, precision workers, machine setters and operators, assemblers, fabricators, and plant and system operators. Excludes team or work leaders.

Meat, poultry, and fish cutters and trimmers

Use hands or hand tools to perform routine cutting and trimming of meat, poultry, and seafood.

Slaughterers and meat packers

Perform nonroutine or precision functions involving the preparation of large portions of meat. Work may include specialized slaughtering tasks, cutting standard or premium cuts of meat for marketing, making sausage, or wrapping meats. Work typically occurs in slaughtering, meat packing, or wholesale establishments. Excludes “Meat, Poultry, and Fish Cutters and Trimmers” (51-3022) who perform routine meat cutting.

Layout workers, metal and plastic

Lay out reference points and dimensions on metal or plastic stock or workpieces, such as sheets, plates, tubes, structural shapes, castings, or machine parts, for further processing. Includes shipfitters.

Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners

Perform precision smoothing, sharpening, polishing, or grinding of metal objects.

Metal workers and plastic workers, all other

All metal workers and plastic workers not listed separately.

Prepress technicians and workers

Format and proof text and images submitted by designers and clients into finished pages that can be printed. Includes digital and photo typesetting. May produce printing plates.

Printing press operators

Set up and operate digital, letterpress, lithographic, flexographic, gravure, or other printing machines. Includes short-run offset printing presses.

Print binding and finishing workers

Bind books and other publications or finish printed products by hand or machine. May set up binding and finishing machines.

Laundry and dry-cleaning workers

Operate or tend washing or dry-cleaning machines to wash or dry-clean industrial or household articles, such as cloth garments, suede, leather, furs, blankets, draperies, linens, rugs, and carpets. Includes spotters and dyers of these articles.

Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials

Press or shape articles by hand or machine.

Sewing machine operators

Operate or tend sewing machines to join, reinforce, decorate, or perform related sewing operations in the manufacture of garment or nongarment products.

Shoe and leather workers and repairers

Construct, decorate, or repair leather and leather-like products, such as luggage, shoes, and saddles. May use hand tools.

Shoe machine operators and tenders

Operate or tend a variety of machines to join, decorate, reinforce, or finish shoes and shoe parts.

Sewers, hand

Sew, join, reinforce, or finish, usually with needle and thread, a variety of manufactured items. Includes weavers and stitchers.

Tailors, dressmakers, and custom sewers

Design, make, alter, repair, or fit garments.

Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders

Operate or tend machines to bleach, shrink, wash, dye, or finish textiles or synthetic or glass fibers.

Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders

Set up, operate, or tend machines that cut textiles.

Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders

Set up, operate, or tend machines that knit, loop, weave, or draw in textiles. Excludes “Sewing Machine Operators” (51-6031).

Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders

Set up, operate, or tend machines that wind or twist textiles; or draw out and combine sliver, such as wool, hemp, or synthetic fibers. Includes slubber machine and drawing frame operators.

Extruding and forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, synthetic and glass fibers

Set up, operate, or tend machines that extrude and form continuous filaments from synthetic materials, such as liquid polymer, rayon, and fiberglass.

Fabric and apparel patternmakers

Draw and construct sets of precision master fabric patterns or layouts. May also mark and cut fabrics and apparel.

Upholsterers

Make, repair, or replace upholstery for household furniture or transportation vehicles.

Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers, all other

All textile, apparel, and furnishings workers not listed separately.

Model makers, wood

Construct full-size and scale wooden precision models of products. Includes wood jig builders and loft workers.

Patternmakers, wood

Plan, lay out, and construct wooden unit or sectional patterns used in forming sand molds for castings.

Woodworkers, all other

All woodworkers not listed separately.

Chemical plant and system operators

Control or operate entire chemical processes or system of machines.

Gas plant operators

Distribute or process gas for utility companies and others by controlling compressors to maintain specified pressures on main pipelines.

Petroleum pump system operators, refinery operators, and gaugers

Operate or control petroleum refining or processing units. May specialize in controlling manifold and pumping systems, gauging or testing oil in storage tanks, or regulating the flow of oil into pipelines.

Plant and system operators, all other

All plant and system operators not listed separately.

Chemical equipment operators and tenders

Operate or tend equipment to control chemical changes or reactions in the processing of industrial or consumer products. Equipment used includes devulcanizers, steam-jacketed kettles, and reactor vessels. Excludes “Chemical Plant and System Operators” (51-8091).

Separating, filtering, clarifying, precipitating, and still machine setters, operators, and tenders

Set up, operate, or tend continuous flow or vat-type equipment; filter presses; shaker screens; centrifuges; condenser tubes; precipitating, fermenting, or evaporating tanks; scrubbing towers; or batch stills. These machines extract, sort, or separate liquids, gases, or solids from other materials to recover a refined product. Includes dairy processing equipment operators. Excludes “Chemical Equipment Operators and Tenders” (51-9011).

Crushing, grinding, and polishing machine setters, operators, and tenders

Set up, operate, or tend machines to crush, grind, or polish materials, such as coal, glass, grain, stone, food, or rubber.

Grinding and polishing workers, hand

Grind, sand, or polish, using hand tools or hand-held power tools, a variety of metal, wood, stone, clay, plastic, or glass objects. Includes chippers, buffers, and finishers.

Mixing and blending machine setters, operators, and tenders

Set up, operate, or tend machines to mix or blend materials, such as chemicals, tobacco, liquids, color pigments, or explosive ingredients. Excludes “Food Batchmakers” (51-3092).

Cutters and trimmers, hand

Use hand tools or hand-held power tools to cut and trim a variety of manufactured items, such as carpet, fabric, stone, glass, or rubber.

Cutting and slicing machine setters, operators, and tenders

Set up, operate, or tend machines that cut or slice materials, such as glass, stone, cork, rubber, tobacco, food, paper, or insulating material. Excludes “Cutting, Punching, and Press Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic” (51-4031), “Textile Cutting Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders” (51-6062), and “Woodworking Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders” (51-7040).

Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders

Set up, operate, or tend machines, such as glass-forming machines, plodder machines, and tuber machines, to shape and form products such as glassware, food, rubber, soap, brick, tile, clay, wax, tobacco, or cosmetics. Excludes “Shoe Machine Operators and Tenders” (51-6042) and “Paper Goods Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders” (51-9196).

Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders

Operate or tend heating equipment other than basic metal, plastic, or food processing equipment. Includes activities such as annealing glass, drying lumber, curing rubber, removing moisture from materials, or boiling soap.

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

Operate or tend machines to prepare industrial or consumer products for storage or shipment. Includes cannery workers who pack food products.

Semiconductor processing technicians

Perform any or all of the following functions in the manufacture of electronic semiconductors: load semiconductor material into furnace; saw formed ingots into segments; load individual segment into crystal growing chamber and monitor controls; locate crystal axis in ingot using x-ray equipment and saw ingots into wafers; and clean, polish, and load wafers into series of special purpose furnaces, chemical baths, and equipment used to form circuitry and change conductive properties.

Photographic process workers and processing machine operators

Perform work involved in developing and processing photographic images from film or digital media. May perform precision tasks such as editing photographic negatives and prints.

Adhesive bonding machine operators and tenders

Operate or tend bonding machines that use adhesives to join items for further processing or to form a completed product. Processes include joining veneer sheets into plywood; gluing paper; or joining rubber and rubberized fabric parts, plastic, simulated leather, or other materials. Excludes “Shoe Machine Operators and Tenders” (51-6042).

Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators and tenders

Operate or tend machines to wash or clean products, such as barrels or kegs, glass items, tin plate, food, pulp, coal, plastic, or rubber, to remove impurities.

Cooling and freezing equipment operators and tenders

Operate or tend equipment such as cooling and freezing units, refrigerators, batch freezers, and freezing tunnels, to cool or freeze products, food, blood plasma, and chemicals.

Etchers and engravers

Engrave or etch metal, wood, rubber, or other materials. Includes such workers as etcher-circuit processors, pantograph engravers, and silk screen etchers. Photoengravers are included in “Prepress Technicians and Workers” (51-5111).

Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic

Mold, shape, form, cast, or carve products such as food products, figurines, tile, pipes, and candles consisting of clay, glass, plaster, concrete, stone, or combinations of materials.

Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders

Set up, operate, or tend paper goods machines that perform a variety of functions, such as converting, sawing, corrugating, banding, wrapping, boxing, stitching, forming, or sealing paper or paperboard sheets into products.

Tire builders

Operate machines to build tires.

Helpers--production workers

Help production workers by performing duties requiring less skill. Duties include supplying or holding materials or tools, and cleaning work area and equipment. Apprentice workers are classified in the appropriate production occupations (51-0000).

Production workers, all other

All production workers not listed separately. Excludes “Packers and Packagers, Hand” (53-7064).

 

Transportation and material moving occupations

Aircraft cargo handling supervisors

Supervise and coordinate the activities of ground crew in the loading, unloading, securing, and staging of aircraft cargo or baggage. May determine the quantity and orientation of cargo and compute aircraft center of gravity. May accompany aircraft as member of flight crew and monitor and handle cargo in flight, and assist and brief passengers on safety and emergency procedures. Includes loadmasters.

First-line supervisors of transportation and material-moving workers, except aircraft cargo handling supervisors

This is an OES hybrid and the OES definition can be found by following the OES link below

Airfield operations specialists

Ensure the safe takeoff and landing of commercial and military aircraft. Duties include coordination between air-traffic control and maintenance personnel, dispatching, using airfield landing and navigational aids, implementing airfield safety procedures, monitoring and maintaining flight records, and applying knowledge of weather information.

Ambulance drivers and attendants, except emergency medical technicians

Drive ambulance or assist ambulance driver in transporting sick, injured, or convalescent persons. Assist in lifting patients.

Motor vehicle operators, all other

All motor vehicle operators not listed separately.

Subway and streetcar operators

Operate subway or elevated suburban trains with no separate locomotive, or electric-powered streetcar, to transport passengers. May handle fares.

Rail transportation workers, all other

All rail transportation workers not listed separately.

Bridge and lock tenders

Operate and tend bridges, canal locks, and lighthouses to permit marine passage on inland waterways, near shores, and at danger points in waterway passages. May supervise such operations. Includes drawbridge operators, lock operators, and slip bridge operators.

Parking attendants

Park vehicles or issue tickets for customers in a parking lot or garage. May park or tend vehicles in environments such as a car dealership or rental car facility. May collect fee.

Automotive and watercraft service attendants

Service automobiles, buses, trucks, boats, and other automotive or marine vehicles with fuel, lubricants, and accessories. Collect payment for services and supplies. May lubricate vehicle, change motor oil, refill antifreeze, or replace lights or other accessories, such as windshield wiper blades or fan belts. May repair or replace tires. Excludes “Cashiers” (41-2011).

Traffic technicians

Conduct field studies to determine traffic volume, speed, effectiveness of signals, adequacy of lighting, and other factors influencing traffic conditions, under direction of traffic engineer.

Transportation inspectors

Inspect equipment or goods in connection with the safe transport of cargo or people. Includes rail transportation inspectors, such as freight inspectors, rail inspectors, and other inspectors of transportation vehicles not elsewhere classified. Excludes “Transportation Security Screeners” (33-9093).

Passenger attendants

Provide services to ensure the safety of passengers aboard ships, buses, trains, or within the station or terminal. Perform duties such as explaining the use of safety equipment, serving meals or beverages, or answering questions related to travel. Excludes “Baggage Porters and Bellhops” (39-6011) and “Flight Attendants” (53-2031).

Aircraft service attendants and transportation workers, all other

This is an OES hybrid and the OES definition can be found by following the OES link below

Gas compressor and gas pumping station operators

Operate steam-, gas-, electric motor-, or internal combustion-engine driven compressors. Transmit, compress, or recover gases, such as butane, nitrogen, hydrogen, and natural gas.

Pump operators, except wellhead pumpers

Tend, control, or operate power-driven, stationary, or portable pumps and manifold systems to transfer gases, oil, other liquids, slurries, or powdered materials to and from various vessels and processes.

Wellhead pumpers

Operate power pumps and auxiliary equipment to produce flow of oil or gas from wells in oil field.

Tank car, truck, and ship loaders

Load and unload chemicals and bulk solids, such as coal, sand, and grain, into or from tank cars, trucks, or ships, using material moving equipment. May perform a variety of other tasks relating to shipment of products. May gauge or sample shipping tanks and test them for leaks.

Material moving workers, all other

All material moving workers not listed separately.

 
Suggested citation:

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, Data for Occupations Not Covered in Detail,
on the Internet at https://www.bls.gov/ooh/about/data-for-occupations-not-covered-in-detail.htm (visited September 01, 2020).

Last Modified Date: Tuesday, September 1, 2020