Department of Labor Logo United States Department of Labor
Dot gov

The .gov means it's official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you're on a federal government site.


The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

February 1981

Have employment patterns in recessions changed?

Norman Bowers

A survey of postwar recessions shows that the increasing proportion of service sector jobs has moderated overall employment declines; women in nontraditional jobs, blacks, and youths bear a disproportionate share of job losses.

Download PDF »