April 2017 Report 1066

Consumer Expenditures in 2015

Consumer Expenditures in 2015 image

This Consumer Expenditure Survey (CE) Annual Report presents integrated data from the 2015 Diary and Interview portions of the CE, including data tables. The tables show average expenditures, income, and characteristics for consumer units1 classified by the following characteristics: quintiles and deciles of income, before-tax income class, age of the reference person, size of the consumer unit, composition of the consumer unit, number of earners, housing tenure and type of area (urban or rural), region of residence, occupation, highest education level of any consumer-unit member, race, and Hispanic or Latino origin. This report highlights spending patterns for 2015 from the CE, including a brief discussion of expenditure changes for the year, and provides a description of the CE survey.

Consumer spending increased 4.6 percent in 2015, according to annual data from the CE. This follows an increase of 4.7 percent in 2014, previously recorded by the CE. The average annual expenditures by consumer units (CUs) increased from $53,495 in 2014 to $55,978 in 2015. Accompanying the 2015 increase in expenditures was an increase of 4.1 percent in average income before taxes from 2014 ($66,877) to 2015 ($69,627). Prices, as measured by the average annual change in the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U, U.S. city average, all items, base period 1982–1984=100), rose by 0.1 percent in 2015, compared with the 4.6-percent increase in spending. In 2014, prices increased by 1.6 percent, compared with the 4.7-percent increase in spending.

 

Developments in 2015

During 2015, spending increased across the nine largest aggregated categories of expenditures tracked by CE: food, housing, apparel and services, transportation, healthcare, entertainment, education, cash contributions, and personal insurance and pensions. (See table A.) Expenditures on healthcare and cash contributions rose only slightly, up 1.2 and 1.7 percent, respectively. Expenditures on education and personal insurance and pensions rose more noticeably, up 6.4 percent and 10.9 percent, respectively. Expenditures on food, housing, apparel and services, transportation, and entertainment rose between 3.4 and 4.7 percent, continuing the increases observed in 2014.

Consumer confidence levels also increased from 87 in 2014 to 98 in 2015, as published by the Consumer Confidence Index of the Conference Board. (The base year for the Consumer Confidence Index is 1985. Index values of 100 or higher reflect greater consumer optimism than measured in the base year.) The improvement in consumer confidence coincides with the gradual decline in the unemployment rate in 2015. According to the Current Population Survey, the monthly unemployment rate fell steadily throughout the year, from 5.7 percent in January to 5.0 percent in December. The average unemployment rate in 2015 was 5.3 percent, compared with an average of 6.2 percent in 2014. Despite these declines in the unemployment rate, the measure still remained above prerecession levels of 4.6 percent in 2006 and 2007. Although the number of long-term unemployed individuals (those without a job for 27 weeks or more) declined from 3.2 million in 2014 to 2.3 million in 2015, it was still higher than prerecession levels (1.2 million in 2007). In addition, the rise in consumer confidence may reflect the acceleration in the economic recovery, as shown by the 2.4-percent increase in real GDP in 2015, compared with a 1.2-percent increase in 2014.

Table A. Average annual expenditures by major category of all consumer units and percent changes, Consumer Expenditure Survey, 2012–15
Item2012201320142015Percent change
2012–132013–142014–15
Number of consumer units (in thousands)124,416125,670127,006128,437
Consumer unit characteristics       

Income before taxes

$65,596$63,784$66,877$69,627-2.84.84.1

Age of reference person

50.050.150.350.5

Average number in consumer unit

       

People

2.52.52.52.5

Children under 18

0.60.60.60.6

Adults 65 and older

0.30.30.40.4

Earners

1.31.31.31.3

Vehicles

1.91.91.91.9

Percent homeowner

64646362
Average annual expenditures$51,442$51,100$53,495$55,978-0.74.74.6

Food

6,5996,6026,7597,02302.43.9

Food at home

3,9213,9773,9714,0151.4-0.21.1

Cereals and bakery products

5385445195181.1-4.6-0.2

Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs

8528568928960.54.20.4

Dairy products

419414423413-1.22.2-2.4

Fruits and vegetables

7317517567692.70.71.7

Other food at home

1,3801,4121,3821,4192.3-2.12.7

Food away from home

2,6782,6252,7873,008-2.06.27.9

Alcoholic beverages

451445463515-1.34.011.2

Housing

16,88717,14817,79818,4091.53.83.4

Shelter

9,89110,08010,49110,7421.94.12.4

Owned dwellings

6,0566,1086,1496,2100.90.71.0

Rented dwellings

3,1863,3243,6313,8024.39.24.7

Other lodging

64964971073009.42.8

Utilities, fuels, and public services

3,6483,7373,9213,8852.44.9-0.9

Household operations

1,1591,1441,1741,309-1.32.611.5

Housekeeping supplies

6106456326555.7-2.03.6

Household furnishings and equipment

1,5801,5421,5811,818-2.42.515.0

Apparel and services

1,7361,6041,7861,846-7.611.33.4

Transportation

8,9989,0049,0739,5030.10.84.7

Vehicle purchases (net outlay)

3,2103,2713,3013,9971.90.921.1

Gasoline and motor oil

2,7562,6112,4682,090-5.3-5.5-15.3

Other vehicle expenses

2,4902,5842,7232,7563.85.41.2

Public and other transportation

542537581661-0.98.213.8

Healthcare

3,5563,6314,2904,3422.118.11.2

Entertainment

2,6052,4822,7282,842-4.79.94.2

Personal care products and services

628608645683-3.26.15.9

Reading

109102103114-6.41.010.7

Education

1,2071,1381,2361,315-5.78.66.4

Tobacco products and smoking supplies

332330319349-0.6-3.39.4

Miscellaneous

829645782871-22.221.211.4

Cash contributions

1,9131,8341,7881,819-4.1-2.51.7

Personal insurance and pensions

5,5915,5285,7266,349-1.13.610.9

Life and other personal insurance

353319327333-9.62.51.8

Pensions and Social Security

5,2385,2095,3996,016-0.63.611.4
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

 

Expenditure shares

Table B provides the percent distribution of total annual expenditures shares by major expenditure categories for all CUs from 2012 to 2015. Expenditure shares usually do not fluctuate much in the short term and therefore are more useful for identifying spending trends over time. As in previous years, housing was the largest component of overall expenditures, accounting for 32.9 percent of total expenditures in 2015. Housing expenditures were followed by transportation (17.0 percent) and food expenditures (12.5 percent).  

The most notable changes in expenditure shares between 2014 and 2015 were in personal insurance and pensions, and the transportation subcategories of vehicle purchases and gasoline and motor oil. Personal insurance and pensions increased from 10.7 percent to 11.3 percent of expenditures, reversing multiple years of consecutive decline. Although the share for total transportation held steady at 17.0 percent, within that category, vehicle purchases increased from 6.2 percent to 7.1 percent of expenditures, and gasoline declined from 4.6 percent to 3.7 percent of spending. Healthcare decreased from 8.0 percent to 7.8 percent. The shares for all other major categories stayed the same or remained within 0.1 percentage point of their 2014 levels.

Table B. Percent distribution of total annual expenditures by major category for all consumer units, Consumer Expenditure Survey, 2012–15
Spending category2012201320142015
Average annual expenditures100.0100.0100.0100.0

Food

12.812.912.612.5

Food at home

7.67.87.47.2

Food away from home

5.25.15.25.4

Alcoholic beverages

0.90.90.90.9

Housing

32.833.633.332.9

Shelter

19.219.719.619.2

Utilities, fuels, and public services

7.17.37.36.9

Household operations

2.32.22.22.3

Housekeeping supplies

1.21.31.21.2

Household furnishings and equipment

3.13.03.03.2

Apparel and services

3.43.13.33.3

Transportation

17.517.617.017.0

Vehicle purchases (net outlay)

6.26.46.27.1

Gasoline and motor oil

5.45.14.63.7

Other vehicle expenses

4.85.15.14.9

Public and other transportation

1.11.11.11.2

Healthcare

6.97.18.07.8

Entertainment

5.14.95.15.1

Personal care products and services

1.21.21.21.2

Reading

0.20.20.20.2

Education

2.32.22.32.3

Tobacco products and smoking supplies

0.60.60.60.6

Miscellaneous

1.61.31.51.6

Cash contributions

3.73.63.33.2

Personal insurance and pensions

10.910.810.711.3

Life and other personal insurance

0.70.60.60.6

Pensions and Social Security

10.210.210.110.7
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

 

Housing

Average expenditures on mortgage interest and charges for homeowners with a mortgage decreased only slightly in 2015. Homeowners spent 0.2 percent less on this component in 2015 ($7,939) than they did in 2014 ($7,952). By comparison, homeowners with a mortgage spent $8,779 on this component in 2007. This reflects the continuing trend of lower interest rates, which, despite recent increases, has been in place since the recent recession that began in December 2007 and ended in June 2009.

In addition, although the recession led to an overall trend of fewer CUs owning homes, the CE reported a reversal of this trend in 2013, when the number of homeowners increased from 79.9 million in 2012 to 80.1 million in 2013. There has not been much change since then, with homeownership declining to 79.6 million in 2014 and increasing to 80.0 million in 2015, still slightly below the prerecession level of 80.2 million homeowners in 2007 (homeowners made up 66.8 percent of all CUs in that year).

In percentage terms, homeownership dropped again this year to 62.3 percent from 62.7 percent in 2014. According to the CPI-U, rents for primary residences have increased 21.9 percent between 2007 and 2015. During the 2007–15 time span, the average annual rental payments reported in the CE increased 28.0 percent ($9,900 in 2015, compared with $7,732 in 2007), reflecting the increase in demand for rental units.

Also of note is the drop in spending on utilities, fuels, and public services, as a percentage of total expenditures, from 7.3 percent in 2014 to 6.9 percent in 2015. By comparison, expenditures on this item reached 7.6 percent of expenditures in 2010. This decline is partially due to lower expenditures on natural gas and electricity, which declined 4.1 percent and 1.6 percent, respectively, from 2014 to 2015.

 

Gasoline

Average expenditures on gasoline decreased in 2015. CUs spent 16.1 percent less in 2015 ($1,915) than they did in 2014 ($2,284), reflecting how oil and gasoline prices decreased throughout 2015. Chart 1 shows the percent change in expenditures on gasoline and the price of gasoline between 2007 and 2015. For most years, the change in consumer spending is similar to the change in prices. In 2015, the percentage decline in spending on gasoline was smaller (16.1 percent) than the drop in the CPI index for gasoline (27.2 percent).

Gasoline expenditures decreased in every income quintile in 2015. The first (lowest) quintile had the largest percentage decrease in expenditures from 2014 to 2015—a decline of 19.7 percent—from $1,095 to $880. By age of reference person, all age groups decreased spending in 2015. The largest percentage decrease was in the 65­–74 age group (down 19.3 percent to $1,535), followed by the 55­–64 age group (down 18.3 percent to $1,946). 

 

Expenditures by income quintile

Spending increased across all five income quintiles in 2015. This continued the trend seen in 2014, when there were also increases in all five income quintiles. (See chart 2.) The third quintile increased spending by 1.1 percent in 2015, while the lower two and upper two quintiles increase spending between 3.2 and 5.9 percent. Table C shows more details on spending by income quintile.

 

All income quintiles showed higher spending on food away from home, housing, transportation, and personal insurance and pensions in 2015 relative to 2014. (See table C.) Among these categories, personal insurance and pensions expenditures rose most significantly, with increases between 9.0 percent and 18.2 percent among the quintiles. Cash contributions expenditures rose for the lowest (up 40.7 percent) and highest quintiles (up 3.1 percent), while the middle three quintiles reduced their expenditures in this category between 1.2 percent and 7.1 percent. Food at home, apparel and services, and healthcare all saw increases in 3 of the 5 quintiles. Four of five quintiles increased spending on entertainment, food, and all other expenditures.

Table C. Dollar change and percent change in average annual expenditures on major categories by income quintile, Consumer Expenditure Survey, 2014–15
ItemLowestSecondThirdFourthHighest
DollarPercentDollarPercentDollarPercentDollarPercentDollarPercent
Average annual expenditure change          
Total7573.215174.55171.132545.461455.9

Food

1002.72685.6-193-3.23865.07556.5

Food at home

-7-0.31334.2-225-6.1441.02714.5

Food away from home

1069.11358.4321.434310.54858.7

Housing

2472.63242.63612.38404.312153.8

Apparel and services

-10-1.3171.5-231-15.11266.840011.0

Transportation

40.12274.03454.14864.510466.2

Healthcare

623.31715.3-61-1.52454.8-171-2.4

Entertainment

16214.617211.0-146-6.2832.82905.2

Cash contributions

20640.7-80-7.1-84-5.9-23-1.21233.1

Personal insurance and pensions

9118.21469.242712.092113.714679.0

All other expenditures

-105-5.127214.2993.81905.2102013.6
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

 

Food

Food expenditures increased for all but the third quintile in 2015. This is similar to 2014, when expenditures increased for all but the second quintile. The highest quintile registered the largest percentage increase in food expenditures, an increase of 6.5 percent, from $11,595 in 2014 to $12,350 in 2015. This reflected a 4.5-percent increase in food-at-home spending and an 8.7-percent increase in food-away-from-home expenditures. Although expenditures on food away from home for the upper two and lower two quintiles increased significantly, with percentage increases ranging from 8.4 to 10.5, no clear pattern emerged for expenditures on food at home. The lowest and third quintile reduced expenditures by 0.3 and 6.1 percent, respectively; the second, fourth, and highest quintiles increased expenditures 4.2, 1.0, and 4.5 percent, respectively.

There was an increase in food expenditures in all but the 65–74 age group (which declined 1.4 percent) in 2015. The under-25 and 35–44 age groups had the highest percentage increase in overall food expenditures in 2015, up 10.6 and 9.7 percent, respectively, outpacing their overall expenditure increases of 1.9 and 4.5 percent. The 45–54 and over-75 age groups also increased overall food expenditures by considerable margins, up 4.6 percent and 4.9 percent, respectively. These increases were similar to their overall expenditure increases of 6.2 percent and 4.0 percent. Increases for the 25–34 and 55–64 age groups were more modest, up 0.1 and 2.8 percent, respectively, which was lower than the rate of increase in their overall expenditures, up 5.1 percent and 4.5 percent, respectively.

Notes

1 A consumer unit consists of either: (1) all members of a particular household who are related by blood, marriage, adoption, or other legal arrangements; (2) a person living alone or sharing a household with others or living as a roomer in a private home or lodging house or in permanent living quarters in a hotel or motel, but who is financially independent; or (3) two or more persons living together who use their income to make joint expenditure decisions.

Statistical Tables

Table 1. Quintiles of income before taxes: average annual expenditures and characteristics, Consumer Expenditure Survey, 2015
Item All consumer units Lowest 20 percent Second 20 percent Third 20 percent Fourth 20 percent Highest 20 percent

Number of consumer units (in thousands)

128,437 25,672 25,562 25,700 25,730 25,773

Lower limit

(1) (1) $19,572 $37,638 $62,587 $103,057

Consumer unit characteristics

           

Income before taxes

$69,627 $10,916 $28,343 $49,606 $80,813 $177,851

Age of reference person

50.5 53.3 53.6 49.3 47.9 48.7

Average number in consumer unit

           

People

2.5 1.7 2.2 2.5 2.9 3.1

Children under 18

.6 .3 .5 .6 .7 .8

Adults 65 and older

.4 .4 .5 .4 .3 .2

Earners

1.3 .5 .8 1.3 1.8 2.0

Vehicles

1.9 .9 1.5 1.9 2.4 2.7

Percent homeowner

62 38 53 60 73 87

Average annual expenditures

$55,978 $24,470 $35,063 $45,912 $63,671 $110,508

Food

7,023 3,767 5,022 5,799 8,165 12,350

Food at home

4,015 2,499 3,271 3,445 4,545 6,310

Cereals and bakery products

518 333 432 450 598 776

Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs

896 590 776 766 1,008 1,338

Dairy products

413 249 329 362 462 662

Fruits and vegetables

769 483 621 643 863 1,233

Other food at home

1,419 843 1,112 1,225 1,614 2,302

Food away from home

3,008 1,268 1,751 2,354 3,620 6,040

Alcoholic beverages

515 195 253 387 578 1,161

Housing

18,409 9,890 12,832 15,809 20,408 33,027

Shelter

10,742 6,033 7,320 8,985 11,786 19,537

Owned dwellings

6,210 1,817 2,906 4,363 7,480 14,437

Rented dwellings

3,802 4,034 4,121 4,267 3,660 2,933

Other lodging

730 182 293 355 647 2,167

Utilities, fuels, and public services

3,885 2,328 3,211 3,768 4,454 5,653

Household operations

1,309 462 714 1,006 1,346 3,006

Housekeeping supplies

655 378 517 563 701 1,113

Household furnishings and equipment

1,818 689 1,070 1,487 2,121 3,717

Apparel and services

1,846 776 1,139 1,303 1,984 4,025

Transportation

9,503 3,559 5,923 8,820 11,330 17,834

Vehicle purchases (net outlay)

3,997 1,136 2,260 3,716 4,995 7,853

Gasoline and motor oil

2,090 939 1,532 2,110 2,632 3,226

Other vehicle expenses

2,756 1,270 1,859 2,538 3,115 4,985

Public and other transportation

661 214 271 455 587 1,769

Healthcare

4,342 1,930 3,423 3,965 5,327 7,048

Entertainment

2,842 1,270 1,738 2,219 3,051 5,919

Personal care products and services

683 307 453 524 797 1,331

Reading

114 37 82 107 134 210

Education

1,315 689 494 614 986 3,779

Tobacco products and smoking supplies

349 308 360 376 372 332

Miscellaneous

871 439 550 674 982 1,706

Cash contributions

1,819 712 1,054 1,335 1,890 4,089

Personal insurance and pensions

6,349 592 1,740 3,980 7,667 17,699

Life and other personal insurance

333 85 132 193 405 846

Pensions and Social Security

6,016 507 1,609 3,787 7,261 16,853

(1) Not applicable.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 2. Deciles of income before taxes: average annual expenditures and characteristics, Consumer Expenditure Survey, 2015
Item All consumer units Lowest 10 percent Second 10 percent Third 10 percent Fourth 10 percent Fifth 10 percent Sixth 10 percent Seventh 10 percent Eight 10 percent Ninth 10 percent Highest 10 percent

Number of consumer units (in thousands)

128,437 12,886 12,787 12,800 12,762 12,853 12,847 12,862 12,867 12,897 12,876

Lower limit

(1) (1) $11,890 $19,572 $27,964 $37,638 $49,452 $62,587 $79,640 $103,057 $144,180

Consumer unit characteristics

                     

Income before taxes

$69,627 $6,063 $15,806 $23,902 $32,797 $43,280 $55,934 $70,812 $90,810 $120,634 $235,160

Age of reference person

50.5 48.1 58.4 55.0 52.3 50.3 48.3 48.2 47.5 48.0 49.4

Average number in consumer unit

                     

People

2.5 1.6 1.7 2.0 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1

Children under 18

.6 .3 .4 .5 .6 .6 .6 .7 .7 .7 .8

Adults 65 and older

.4 .3 .5 .5 .5 .4 .3 .3 .2 .2 .2

Earners

1.3 .5 .5 .7 1.0 1.3 1.4 1.7 1.8 2.0 2.1

Vehicles

1.9 .8 1.0 1.3 1.7 1.8 2.0 2.3 2.5 2.7 2.8

Percent homeowner

62 31 46 52 55 58 63 71 75 84 89

Average annual expenditures

$55,978 $23,705 $25,244 $32,545 $37,586 $42,227 $49,599 $58,398 $68,942 $87,860 $133,180

Food

7,023 3,860 3,674 4,554 5,489 5,312 6,287 7,512 8,817 10,537 14,160

Food at home

4,015 2,566 2,432 2,918 3,623 3,245 3,645 4,246 4,844 5,526 7,092

Cereals and bakery products

518 345 322 384 481 427 473 530 666 683 868

Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs

896 604 577 674 878 746 785 1,000 1,016 1,216 1,460

Dairy products

413 252 247 296 361 328 395 425 498 579 744

Fruits and vegetables

769 499 467 532 710 600 685 808 919 1,045 1,420

Other food at home

1,419 866 819 1,032 1,193 1,144 1,306 1,483 1,745 2,003 2,601

Food away from home

3,008 1,294 1,241 1,636 1,867 2,067 2,641 3,266 3,973 5,010 7,068

Alcoholic beverages

515 226 164 235 271 317 457 461 694 875 1,447

Housing

18,409 9,322 10,463 12,407 13,258 14,991 16,628 18,978 21,837 26,286 39,776

Shelter

10,742 5,727 6,341 7,215 7,426 8,531 9,439 10,898 12,674 15,200 23,882

Owned dwellings

6,210 1,529 2,107 2,767 3,045 3,869 4,858 6,653 8,306 11,281 17,598

Rented dwellings

3,802 4,043 4,024 4,140 4,103 4,329 4,205 3,715 3,604 2,632 3,235

Other lodging

730 155 209 308 279 334 376 530 763 1,287 3,048

Utilities, fuels, and public services

3,885 2,126 2,532 3,056 3,367 3,629 3,907 4,299 4,608 5,252 6,055

Household operations

1,309 451 474 697 731 870 1,142 1,246 1,446 2,186 3,828

Housekeeping supplies

655 356 400 479 554 538 589 626 777 957 1,268

Household furnishings and equipment

1,818 661 717 960 1,180 1,422 1,552 1,910 2,332 2,691 4,743

Apparel and services

1,846 745 807 1,001 1,276 1,198 1,408 1,781 2,186 2,606 5,443

Transportation

9,503 3,616 3,504 5,389 6,459 8,081 9,558 10,795 11,865 16,492 19,178

Vehicle purchases (net outlay)

3,997 1,170 1,101 1,881 2,641 3,482 3,949 4,828 5,162 7,528 8,178

Gasoline and motor oil

2,090 901 978 1,341 1,725 1,993 2,228 2,493 2,771 3,185 3,267

Other vehicle expenses

2,756 1,346 1,194 1,859 1,860 2,232 2,845 2,972 3,259 4,712 5,260

Public and other transportation

661 199 230 309 234 374 536 502 673 1,067 2,473

Healthcare

4,342 1,508 2,356 3,237 3,610 3,719 4,211 5,073 5,581 6,407 7,691

Entertainment

2,842 1,179 1,361 1,530 1,947 2,042 2,395 2,731 3,372 4,598 7,240

Personal care products and services

683 323 290 424 481 500 547 732 861 1,092 1,569

Reading

114 31 42 77 87 110 104 131 138 161 259

Education

1,315 1,019 356 579 409 507 722 825 1,147 2,237 5,323

Tobacco products and smoking supplies

349 296 320 329 390 380 371 354 390 382 281

Miscellaneous

871 469 409 469 631 583 764 885 1,078 1,338 2,075

Cash contributions

1,819 696 729 1,015 1,093 1,233 1,438 1,833 1,948 2,725 5,454

Personal insurance and pensions

6,349 414 771 1,298 2,184 3,252 4,709 6,306 9,028 12,124 23,283

Life and other personal insurance

333 54 116 105 159 185 201 306 505 515 1,177

Pensions and Social Security

6,016 359 655 1,193 2,025 3,067 4,508 6,000 8,523 11,609 22,106

(1)Not applicable.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 3. Income before taxes: average annual expenditures and characteristics, Consumer Expenditure Survey, 2015
Item All consumer units Less than $5,000 $5,000 to $9,999 $10,000 to $14,999 $15,000 to $19,999 $20,000 to $29,999 $30,000 to $39,999 $40,000 to $49,999 $50,000 to $69,999 $70,000 and more

Number of consumer units (in thousands)

128,437 5,726 4,330 7,889 8,284 14,878 12,536 10,914 18,112 45,768

Consumer unit characteristics

                   

Income before taxes

$69,627 $1,971 $8,103 $12,705 $17,479 $24,927 $34,746 $44,568 $59,293 $137,312

Age of reference person

50.5 45.4 47.8 57.4 58.0 54.7 51.7 49.9 48.5 48.2

Average number in consumer unit

                   

People

2.5 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.5 2.6 3.0

Children under 18

.6 .3 .4 .3 .4 .5 .6 .6 .7 .8

Adults 65 and older

.4 .2 .3 .5 .5 .5 .5 .4 .3 .2

Earners

1.3 .5 .5 .4 .5 .7 1.0 1.3 1.5 1.9

Vehicles

1.9 .9 .9 .8 1.1 1.4 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.6

Percent homeowner

62 27 31 40 49 53 54 58 65 81

Average annual expenditures

$55,978 $24,632 $22,842 $23,019 $26,818 $33,269 $38,634 $42,529 $51,394 $91,251

Food

7,023 4,204 3,432 3,616 3,819 4,705 5,550 5,219 6,595 10,687

Food at home

4,015 2,678 2,247 2,577 2,485 3,037 3,588 3,152 3,864 5,594

Cereals and bakery products

518 366 306 338 325 410 460 427 493 708

Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs

896 660 471 642 583 689 889 706 843 1,205

Dairy products

413 249 237 255 254 306 354 333 412 578

Fruits and vegetables

769 526 433 481 489 555 701 585 724 1,085

Other food at home

1,419 878 801 861 834 1,077 1,185 1,101 1,391 2,019

Food away from home

3,008 1,526 1,185 1,040 1,334 1,668 1,961 2,067 2,731 5,092

Alcoholic beverages

515 262 197 165 175 229 280 369 410 939

Housing

18,409 9,369 9,357 9,693 10,762 12,409 13,714 15,082 17,213 27,795

Shelter

10,742 5,868 5,858 5,890 6,357 7,109 7,772 8,603 9,798 16,323

Owned dwellings

6,210 1,578 1,659 1,765 2,133 2,808 3,217 3,896 5,289 11,566

Rented dwellings

3,802 4,116 4,032 3,941 4,039 4,004 4,254 4,370 4,101 3,231

Other lodging

730 174 167 184 185 297 302 337 408 1,525

Utilities, fuels, and public services

3,885 2,070 2,174 2,288 2,672 3,109 3,447 3,618 4,041 5,143

Household operations

1,309 378 441 484 527 693 735 915 1,164 2,300

Housekeeping supplies

655 349 309 365 424 502 571 515 575 956

Household furnishings and equipment

1,818 704 574 667 782 996 1,188 1,432 1,635 3,073

Apparel and services

1,846 860 702 642 882 1,057 1,279 1,157 1,450 3,207

Transportation

9,503 3,943 3,211 3,131 3,900 5,717 6,494 8,221 9,809 15,158

Vehicle purchases (net outlay)

3,997 1,627 849 737 1,316 2,169 2,421 3,652 4,155 6,684

Gasoline and motor oil

2,090 907 969 848 1,035 1,434 1,757 2,003 2,315 2,984

Other vehicle expenses

2,756 1,149 1,212 1,395 1,287 1,819 2,050 2,197 2,827 4,218

Public and other transportation

661 260 181 151 261 295 266 369 513 1,272

Healthcare

4,342 1,483 1,562 1,989 2,423 3,351 3,587 3,761 4,444 6,344

Entertainment

2,842 1,182 1,246 1,059 1,540 1,618 1,934 2,091 2,431 4,739

Personal care products and services

683 300 264 327 323 432 523 443 604 1,114

Reading

114 40 22 36 43 74 102 117 101 179

Education

1,315 1,415 822 338 554 462 423 586 709 2,590

Tobacco products and smoking supplies

349 337 282 296 302 346 384 384 382 345

Miscellaneous

871 547 430 275 509 466 666 648 720 1,421

Cash contributions

1,819 446 659 904 747 1,031 1,161 1,207 1,432 3,187

Personal insurance and pensions

6,349 245 656 547 839 1,372 2,537 3,244 5,093 13,547

Life and other personal insurance

333 63 40 98 111 107 169 194 222 670

Pensions and Social Security

6,016 182 615 450 728 1,265 2,368 3,050 4,871 12,877

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 4. Income before taxes: average annual expenditures and characteristics, Consumer Expenditure Survey, 2015
Item All consumer units Less than $15,000 $15,000 to $29,999 $30,000 to $39,999 $40,000 to $49,999 $50,000 to $69,999 $70,000 to $99,999 $100,000 to $149,999 $150,000 to $199,999 $200,000 and more

Number of consumer units (in thousands)

128,437 17,946 23,162 12,536 10,914 18,112 18,168 15,616 6,020 5,964

Consumer unit characteristics

                   

Income before taxes

$69,627 $8,169 $22,263 $34,746 $44,568 $59,293 $83,413 $119,828 $170,277 $314,010

Age of reference person

50.5 51.3 55.9 51.7 49.9 48.5 47.6 48.0 49.2 49.6

Average number in consumer unit

                   

People

2.5 1.6 2.0 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2

Children under 18

.6 .3 .5 .6 .6 .7 .7 .7 .8 .9

Adults 65 and older

.4 .4 .5 .5 .4 .3 .3 .2 .2 .2

Earners

1.3 .5 .7 1.0 1.3 1.5 1.8 1.9 2.1 2.1

Vehicles

1.9 .8 1.3 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.4 2.7 2.8 2.8

Percent homeowner

62 34 52 54 58 65 74 84 87 90

Average annual expenditures

$55,978 $23,479 $30,974 $38,634 $42,529 $51,394 $66,008 $86,140 $113,272 $158,731

Food

7,023 3,751 4,394 5,550 5,219 6,595 8,506 10,349 13,433 15,210

Food at home

4,015 2,523 2,843 3,588 3,152 3,864 4,611 5,539 6,858 7,360

Cereals and bakery products

518 338 380 460 427 493 615 691 852 879

Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs

896 603 652 889 706 843 1,013 1,209 1,469 1,494

Dairy products

413 248 288 354 333 412 461 581 716 777

Fruits and vegetables

769 482 532 701 585 724 888 1,050 1,411 1,428

Other food at home

1,419 850 992 1,185 1,101 1,391 1,633 2,008 2,410 2,782

Food away from home

3,008 1,228 1,551 1,961 2,067 2,731 3,895 4,810 6,575 7,850

Alcoholic beverages

515 204 210 280 369 410 605 893 1,188 1,777

Housing

18,409 9,507 11,821 13,714 15,082 17,213 20,871 26,032 33,244 47,927

Shelter

10,742 5,875 6,840 7,772 8,603 9,798 12,105 14,992 19,390 29,557

Owned dwellings

6,210 1,680 2,566 3,217 3,896 5,289 7,763 11,114 14,378 21,500

Rented dwellings

3,802 4,019 4,017 4,254 4,370 4,101 3,650 2,665 3,001 3,669

Other lodging

730 177 257 302 337 408 692 1,213 2,011 4,388

Utilities, fuels, and public services

3,885 2,191 2,953 3,447 3,618 4,041 4,489 5,172 5,813 6,382

Household operations

1,309 439 633 735 915 1,164 1,371 2,107 2,712 5,213

Housekeeping supplies

655 346 475 571 515 575 763 957 1,356 1,139

Household furnishings and equipment

1,818 656 920 1,188 1,432 1,635 2,143 2,803 3,973 5,635

Apparel and services

1,846 725 995 1,279 1,157 1,450 2,132 2,551 4,245 6,957

Transportation

9,503 3,407 5,069 6,494 8,221 9,809 11,857 15,745 16,835 22,003

Vehicle purchases (net outlay)

3,997 1,048 1,864 2,421 3,652 4,155 5,289 7,217 6,715 9,509

Gasoline and motor oil

2,090 896 1,291 1,757 2,003 2,315 2,661 3,126 3,201 3,378

Other vehicle expenses

2,756 1,271 1,631 2,050 2,197 2,827 3,278 4,364 5,276 5,659

Public and other transportation

661 193 283 266 369 513 629 1,039 1,643 3,458

Healthcare

4,342 1,724 3,019 3,587 3,761 4,444 5,436 6,308 7,351 8,185

Entertainment

2,842 1,146 1,590 1,934 2,091 2,431 3,213 4,442 6,588 8,273

Personal care products and services

683 302 393 523 443 604 842 1,082 1,443 1,681

Reading

114 34 63 102 117 101 134 166 209 315

Education

1,315 799 495 423 586 709 1,057 2,077 4,512 6,664

Tobacco products and smoking supplies

349 306 331 384 384 382 354 389 334 215

Miscellaneous

871 399 481 666 648 720 1,018 1,366 1,728 2,486

Cash contributions

1,819 698 929 1,161 1,207 1,432 2,002 2,723 3,594 7,597

Personal insurance and pensions

6,349 477 1,182 2,537 3,244 5,093 7,982 12,018 18,566 29,440

Life and other personal insurance

333 73 109 169 194 222 459 499 1,016 1,413

Pensions and Social Security

6,016 404 1,073 2,368 3,050 4,871 7,522 11,519 17,550 28,027

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 5. Age of reference person: average annual expenditures and characteristics, Consumer Expenditure Survey, 2015
Item All consumer units Under 25 years 25 to 34 years 35 to 44 years 45 to 54 years 55 to 64 years 65 years and older 65 to 74 years 75 years and older

Number of consumer units (in thousands)

128,437 7,605 21,018 21,514 24,252 24,089 29,960 17,336 12,623

Consumer unit characteristics

                 

Income before taxes

$69,627 $31,606 $64,472 $84,938 $95,248 $75,262 $46,627 $54,067 $36,408

Age of reference person

50.5 21.4 29.6 39.5 49.6 59.3 74.3 68.9 81.6

Average number in consumer unit

                 

People

2.5 2.0 2.7 3.3 2.8 2.2 1.7 1.8 1.6

Children under 18

.6 .4 1.0 1.4 .7 .2 .1 .1 (1)

Adults 65 and older

.4 (1) (1) (1) (1) .1 1.4 1.4 1.4

Earners

1.3 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.3 .5 .7 .3

Vehicles

1.9 1.1 1.7 1.9 2.3 2.1 1.7 1.9 1.4

Percent homeowner

62 14 39 57 70 75 79 80 77

Average annual expenditures

$55,978 $32,797 $52,062 $65,334 $69,753 $58,781 $44,664 $49,477 $38,123

Food

7,023 4,890 6,636 8,844 8,406 6,992 5,506 6,214 4,561

Food at home

4,015 2,543 3,539 4,944 4,713 4,200 3,398 3,803 2,859

Cereals and bakery products

518 335 463 642 576 522 470 506 423

Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs

896 599 754 1,113 1,115 940 715 834 557

Dairy products

413 243 378 512 466 427 360 393 316

Fruits and vegetables

769 462 677 988 855 791 678 728 612

Other food at home

1,419 904 1,267 1,688 1,701 1,519 1,174 1,343 950

Food away from home

3,008 2,347 3,097 3,900 3,693 2,792 2,108 2,411 1,702

Alcoholic beverages

515 250 543 697 547 574 362 451 244

Housing

18,409 11,328 18,305 22,204 21,160 18,188 15,529 16,465 14,253

Shelter

10,742 7,410 11,084 13,221 12,468 10,246 8,570 8,940 8,061

Owned dwellings

6,210 1,150 4,378 7,765 8,278 6,872 5,457 6,080 4,601

Rented dwellings

3,802 6,026 6,323 4,852 3,284 2,454 2,218 1,764 2,842

Other lodging

730 233 384 605 906 919 895 1,096 618

Utilities, fuels, and public services

3,885 2,058 3,298 4,283 4,642 4,182 3,624 3,833 3,339

Household operations

1,309 472 1,688 1,979 1,237 948 1,122 1,082 1,176

Housekeeping supplies

655 270 512 650 749 746 722 809 605

Household furnishings and equipment

1,818 1,119 1,723 2,071 2,064 2,067 1,492 1,802 1,072

Apparel and services

1,846 1,271 1,864 2,584 2,605 1,596 1,060 1,331 698

Transportation

9,503 6,320 9,777 10,945 11,781 10,024 6,846 8,028 5,228

Vehicle purchases (net outlay)

3,997 3,085 4,578 4,689 4,857 4,072 2,567 3,011 1,958

Gasoline and motor oil

2,090 1,432 2,152 2,516 2,611 2,138 1,445 1,709 1,083

Other vehicle expenses

2,756 1,479 2,426 2,948 3,572 3,093 2,268 2,651 1,747

Public and other transportation

661 324 621 792 741 721 566 657 440

Healthcare

4,342 978 2,770 3,873 4,669 5,112 5,756 5,715 5,814

Entertainment

2,842 1,354 2,475 3,192 3,317 3,323 2,464 3,005 1,728

Personal care products and services

683 406 611 818 821 714 573 608 526

Reading

114 38 86 95 106 115 175 157 199

Education

1,315 2,572 1,123 1,178 2,659 1,162 263 294 221

Tobacco products and smoking supplies

349 230 364 383 465 401 209 259 142

Miscellaneous

871 198 628 1,142 1,041 849 900 989 779

Cash contributions

1,819 397 874 1,664 2,395 2,066 2,287 2,273 2,306

Personal insurance and pensions

6,349 2,564 6,006 7,716 9,780 7,664 2,733 3,686 1,425

Life and other personal insurance

333 24 127 317 475 482 332 397 243

Pensions and Social Security

6,016 2,540 5,879 7,399 9,305 7,181 2,401 3,289 1,182

(1) Value is too small to display.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 6. Size of consumer unit: average annual expenditures and characteristics, Consumer Expenditure Survey, 2015
Item All consumer units One person Two or more people
Total Two people Three people Four people Five or more people

Number of consumer units (in thousands)

128,437 37,477 90,961 42,943 19,562 16,338 12,117

Consumer unit characteristics

             

Income before taxes

$69,627 $35,522 $83,678 $74,527 $88,483 $95,886 $91,889

Age of reference person

50.5 54.0 49.1 55.0 45.5 42.8 42.4

Average number in consumer unit

             

People

2.5 1.0 3.1 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.7

Children under 18

.6 (1) .8 .1 .7 1.5 2.8

Adults 65 and older

.4 .3 .4 .6 .2 .1 .2

Earners

1.3 .6 1.6 1.2 1.8 2.0 2.2

Vehicles

1.9 1.0 2.2 2.1 2.2 2.4 2.5

Percent homeowner

62 47 69 72 66 68 64

Average annual expenditures

$55,978 $33,508 $65,228 $58,668 $67,702 $75,276 $70,972

Food

7,023 3,989 8,268 7,085 8,526 9,771 10,015

Food at home

4,015 2,185 4,766 3,964 4,929 5,624 6,180

Cereals and bakery products

518 266 621 506 628 741 858

Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs

896 459 1,075 884 1,094 1,274 1,450

Dairy products

413 216 493 409 493 616 626

Fruits and vegetables

769 435 906 752 950 1,077 1,151

Other food at home

1,419 810 1,670 1,414 1,763 1,917 2,096

Food away from home

3,008 1,805 3,502 3,121 3,597 4,148 3,835

Alcoholic beverages

515 393 565 648 569 511 343

Housing

18,409 12,393 20,886 19,059 21,268 24,044 22,504

Shelter

10,742 8,069 11,843 10,903 12,026 13,615 12,495

Owned dwellings

6,210 3,321 7,400 6,699 7,405 8,999 7,723

Rented dwellings

3,802 4,382 3,563 3,111 3,943 3,865 4,146

Other lodging

730 366 880 1,093 678 751 626

Utilities, fuels, and public services

3,885 2,348 4,518 4,062 4,580 5,026 5,353

Household operations

1,309 650 1,580 1,156 1,796 2,371 1,667

Housekeeping supplies

655 375 769 754 764 749 857

Household furnishings and equipment

1,818 951 2,175 2,184 2,103 2,283 2,131

Apparel and services

1,846 957 2,211 1,596 2,230 3,390 2,766

Transportation

9,503 4,960 11,374 9,669 12,216 13,687 12,951

Vehicle purchases (net outlay)

3,997 1,851 4,881 3,877 5,407 6,238 5,763

Gasoline and motor oil

2,090 1,085 2,503 2,085 2,589 3,043 3,121

Other vehicle expenses

2,756 1,632 3,218 2,896 3,474 3,672 3,353

Public and other transportation

661 393 771 812 746 735 714

Healthcare

4,342 2,638 5,044 5,406 4,728 4,943 4,406

Entertainment

2,842 1,711 3,307 3,312 3,219 3,468 3,229

Personal care products and services

683 417 792 729 839 887 814

Reading

114 80 128 151 101 124 94

Education

1,315 735 1,554 991 2,102 2,074 1,963

Tobacco products and smoking supplies

349 253 389 321 449 449 455

Miscellaneous

871 685 948 870 1,003 998 1,069

Cash contributions

1,819 1,400 1,991 2,238 1,791 1,517 2,076

Personal insurance and pensions

6,349 2,897 7,771 6,594 8,662 9,413 8,288

Life and other personal insurance

333 127 418 404 438 408 443

Pensions and Social Security

6,016 2,770 7,353 6,190 8,223 9,005 7,844

(1)Not applicable.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 7. Composition of consumer unit: average annual expenditures and characteristics, Consumer Expenditure Survey, 2015
Item All consumer units Married couple consumer units One parent, at least one child under 18 Single person and other consumer units
Total Married couple only Married couple with children Other married couple consumer units
Total Oldest child under 6 Oldest child 6 to 17 Oldest child 18 or older

Number of consumer units (in thousands)

128,437 62,003 28,007 29,300 5,313 14,374 9,613 4,697 7,400 59,034

Consumer unit characteristics

                   

Income before taxes

$69,627 $96,764 $84,390 $107,586 $99,362 $110,541 $107,713 $103,044 $41,092 $44,701

Age of reference person

50.5 51.3 59.3 43.7 32.9 41.5 53.0 51.2 39.0 51.2

Average number in consumer unit

                   

People

2.5 3.2 2.0 4.0 3.5 4.2 3.9 5.0 2.9 1.7

Children under 18

.6 .8 (1) 1.5 1.5 2.2 .6 1.4 1.7 .2

Adults 65 and older

.4 .4 .8 .1 (1) (2) .2 .6 (2) .3

Earners

1.3 1.6 1.1 2.0 1.7 1.8 2.5 2.4 1.0 1.0

Vehicles

1.9 2.5 2.4 2.5 2.0 2.4 3.0 2.9 1.2 1.3

Percent homeowner

62 79 84 74 64 73 82 75 37 48

Average annual expenditures

$55,978 $73,344 $65,534 $80,741 $74,838 $81,612 $82,782 $74,292 $45,745 $38,899

Food

7,023 9,142 7,733 10,555 8,961 10,766 11,143 9,069 6,112 4,850

Food at home

4,015 5,169 4,273 6,003 5,059 6,139 6,328 5,481 3,786 2,797

Cereals and bakery products

518 667 532 789 647 828 809 729 537 355

Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs

896 1,147 939 1,336 980 1,379 1,474 1,241 851 630

Dairy products

413 540 436 637 591 658 630 570 387 279

Fruits and vegetables

769 1,000 838 1,145 1,023 1,129 1,242 1,098 656 532

Other food at home

1,419 1,815 1,530 2,095 1,819 2,146 2,174 1,843 1,356 1,001

Food away from home

3,008 3,974 3,460 4,552 3,902 4,627 4,814 3,587 2,326 2,053

Alcoholic beverages

515 620 701 564 591 531 603 486 249 434

Housing

18,409 22,901 20,508 25,198 27,153 26,132 22,737 22,846 16,829 13,869

Shelter

10,742 12,925 11,554 14,334 14,755 15,324 12,622 12,305 9,837 8,564

Owned dwellings

6,210 9,017 8,098 10,063 9,519 10,943 9,049 7,964 3,898 3,552

Rented dwellings

3,802 2,783 2,013 3,414 4,794 3,442 2,609 3,433 5,560 4,652

Other lodging

730 1,125 1,442 857 442 939 964 908 379 359

Utilities, fuels, and public services

3,885 4,814 4,374 5,092 4,067 5,147 5,577 5,705 3,717 2,930

Household operations

1,309 1,811 1,239 2,417 5,191 2,270 1,103 1,438 1,562 749

Housekeeping supplies

655 893 890 904 797 884 997 846 418 426

Household furnishings and equipment

1,818 2,459 2,450 2,451 2,342 2,508 2,438 2,553 1,296 1,200

Apparel and services

1,846 2,287 1,650 2,913 2,931 2,987 2,802 2,307 1,806 1,377

Transportation

9,503 12,691 10,852 14,196 12,997 13,628 15,747 14,268 7,983 6,334

Vehicle purchases (net outlay)

3,997 5,494 4,382 6,441 6,309 6,140 6,963 6,214 3,499 2,487

Gasoline and motor oil

2,090 2,735 2,260 3,085 2,629 3,030 3,420 3,388 1,753 1,453

Other vehicle expenses

2,756 3,560 3,254 3,819 3,420 3,491 4,571 3,771 2,356 1,950

Public and other transportation

661 901 956 851 639 966 792 896 374 444

Healthcare

4,342 6,077 6,692 5,529 4,778 5,435 6,083 5,833 2,371 2,765

Entertainment

2,842 3,807 3,811 3,897 2,998 4,325 3,751 3,263 2,144 1,906

Personal care products and services

683 875 811 928 815 967 931 928 641 483

Reading

114 152 183 134 91 143 147 79 57 80

Education

1,315 1,794 957 2,533 924 2,194 3,927 2,177 1,108 837

Tobacco products and smoking supplies

349 341 270 346 228 340 420 726 232 373

Miscellaneous

871 1,032 961 1,091 1,062 1,026 1,204 1,087 849 704

Cash contributions

1,819 2,419 2,823 2,150 1,303 2,372 2,285 1,690 1,294 1,254

Personal insurance and pensions

6,349 9,206 7,582 10,706 10,006 10,766 11,003 9,532 4,071 3,633

Life and other personal insurance

333 545 535 548 356 589 593 590 167 131

Pensions and Social Security

6,016 8,661 7,048 10,158 9,650 10,177 10,410 8,942 3,904 3,503

(1) No data reported.

(2) Value is too small to display.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 8. Number of earners in consumer unit: average annual expenditures and characteristics, Consumer Expenditure Survey, 2015
Item All consumer units Single consumers Consumer units of two or more people
No earner One earner No earner One earner Two earners Three or more earners

Number of consumer units (in thousands)

128,437 16,018 21,459 13,198 26,013 40,675 11,075

Consumer unit characteristics

             

Income before taxes

$69,627 $18,958 $47,887 $33,542 $63,614 $103,808 $116,617

Age of reference person

50.5 67.5 44.0 66.2 48.7 44.1 48.0

Average number in consumer unit

             

People

2.5 1.0 1.0 2.3 3.0 3.0 4.3

Children under 18

.6 (1) (1) .3 1.1 .8 1.0

Adults 65 and older

.4 .7 .1 1.3 .3 .1 .2

Earners

1.3 (1) 1.0 (1) 1.0 2.0 3.3

Vehicles

1.9 .9 1.2 1.8 1.9 2.3 3.1

Percent homeowner

62 54 41 75 61 70 75

Average annual expenditures

$55,978 $25,975 $39,117 $43,102 $56,354 $73,178 $84,242

Food

7,023 3,272 4,516 5,956 7,530 8,940 10,774

Food at home

4,015 2,143 2,215 3,947 4,585 4,871 6,005

Cereals and bakery products

518 289 249 540 601 628 768

Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs

896 459 458 906 1,046 1,073 1,413

Dairy products

413 222 212 399 485 504 611

Fruits and vegetables

769 438 432 759 846 932 1,173

Other food at home

1,419 736 865 1,343 1,606 1,735 2,040

Food away from home

3,008 1,129 2,301 2,009 2,945 4,069 4,770

Alcoholic beverages

515 170 556 334 428 715 647

Housing

18,409 10,767 13,607 14,639 19,380 23,283 23,148

Shelter

10,742 6,589 9,174 7,489 11,001 13,535 12,800

Owned dwellings

6,210 2,882 3,648 4,739 6,209 8,771 8,337

Rented dwellings

3,802 3,437 5,088 2,045 3,945 3,812 3,562

Other lodging

730 270 438 705 847 952 901

Utilities, fuels, and public services

3,885 2,291 2,391 3,901 4,227 4,575 5,730

Household operations

1,309 654 647 1,019 1,367 1,982 1,272

Housekeeping supplies

655 429 336 757 728 761 934

Household furnishings and equipment

1,818 805 1,059 1,472 2,058 2,429 2,412

Apparel and services

1,846 707 1,142 902 2,006 2,607 2,995

Transportation

9,503 3,379 6,141 7,021 9,334 12,515 17,302

Vehicle purchases (net outlay)

3,997 1,112 2,402 2,962 3,623 5,433 8,097

Gasoline and motor oil

2,090 706 1,368 1,523 2,157 2,733 3,645

Other vehicle expenses

2,756 1,295 1,883 2,105 2,842 3,481 4,604

Public and other transportation

661 266 488 432 712 868 956

Healthcare

4,342 2,937 2,415 6,139 4,517 4,947 5,322

Entertainment

2,842 1,448 1,907 2,801 2,833 3,687 3,675

Personal care products and services

683 355 463 531 717 883 969

Reading

114 91 72 179 111 123 116

Education

1,315 482 923 403 1,048 1,785 3,270

Tobacco products and smoking supplies

349 236 265 317 383 358 608

Miscellaneous

871 543 790 768 846 1,011 1,171

Cash contributions

1,819 1,154 1,584 2,148 1,849 2,018 2,036

Personal insurance and pensions

6,349 435 4,735 964 5,373 10,304 12,209

Life and other personal insurance

333 116 135 418 307 465 504

Pensions and Social Security

6,016 319 4,600 546 5,066 9,840 11,706

(1)Not applicable.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 9. Housing tenure and type of area: average annual expenditures and characteristics, Consumer Expenditure Survey, 2015
Item All consumer units Housing tenure Type of area
Homeowner Renter Urban Rural
Total Homeowner with mortgage Homeowner without mortgage Total Central City Other Urban

Number of consumer units (in thousands)

128,437 80,049 45,453 34,596 48,388 116,906 45,975 70,930 11,532

Consumer unit characteristics

                 

Income before taxes

$69,627 $85,254 $101,721 $63,619 $43,774 $71,578 $62,517 $77,451 $49,841

Age of reference person

50.5 55.1 49.2 63.0 42.9 50.0 48.0 51.3 55.7

Average number in consumer unit

                 

People

2.5 2.6 2.9 2.2 2.3 2.5 2.4 2.5 2.5

Children under 18

.6 .6 .8 .3 .6 .6 .6 .6 .6

Adults 65 and older

.4 .5 .2 .8 .2 .3 .3 .4 .5

Earners

1.3 1.4 1.7 1.0 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.1

Vehicles

1.9 2.3 2.5 2.1 1.2 1.8 1.5 2.1 2.4

Percent homeowner

62 100 100 100 (1) 61 48 69 79

Average annual expenditures

$55,978 $65,656 $75,486 $52,198 $39,937 $57,059 $50,175 $61,494 $45,031

Food

7,023 8,000 8,622 6,899 5,392 7,133 6,438 7,573 5,909

Food at home

4,015 4,569 4,767 4,200 3,089 4,043 3,596 4,325 3,731

Cereals and bakery products

518 592 613 552 394 524 460 565 455

Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs

896 1,003 1,048 917 717 897 827 942 879

Dairy products

413 474 489 445 310 413 358 449 406

Fruits and vegetables

769 866 899 803 606 781 711 826 640

Other food at home

1,419 1,634 1,717 1,483 1,061 1,426 1,239 1,544 1,351

Food away from home

3,008 3,431 3,856 2,699 2,303 3,090 2,842 3,248 2,178

Alcoholic beverages

515 591 679 431 389 536 505 556 299

Housing

18,409 20,353 24,964 14,269 15,187 19,035 17,605 19,958 12,063

Shelter

10,742 11,018 14,691 6,193 10,286 11,284 10,882 11,546 5,245

Owned dwellings

6,210 9,920 13,512 5,202 72 6,456 4,955 7,429 3,713

Rented dwellings

3,802 116 106 128 9,901 4,069 5,260 3,296 1,099

Other lodging

730 982 1,073 863 313 759 666 820 433

Utilities, fuels, and public services

3,885 4,634 4,981 4,177 2,647 3,885 3,429 4,180 3,887

Household operations

1,309 1,605 1,931 1,174 819 1,367 1,195 1,478 719

Housekeeping supplies

655 804 802 809 404 651 561 708 692

Household furnishings and equipment

1,818 2,292 2,559 1,917 1,031 1,848 1,538 2,047 1,520

Apparel and services

1,846 2,165 2,555 1,477 1,314 1,915 1,714 2,041 1,151

Transportation

9,503 11,332 12,812 9,419 6,474 9,425 7,723 10,524 10,294

Vehicle purchases (net outlay)

3,997 4,947 5,808 3,816 2,425 3,866 2,971 4,446 5,324

Gasoline and motor oil

2,090 2,408 2,725 1,992 1,563 2,068 1,714 2,297 2,313

Other vehicle expenses

2,756 3,203 3,479 2,872 2,012 2,790 2,329 3,086 2,404

Public and other transportation

661 773 800 738 474 701 709 696 253

Healthcare

4,342 5,534 5,375 5,749 2,369 4,313 3,590 4,780 4,641

Entertainment

2,842 3,541 3,854 3,097 1,683 2,850 2,286 3,214 2,756

Personal care products and services

683 793 890 642 498 705 628 754 452

Reading

114 139 134 153 73 119 109 125 66

Education

1,315 1,482 1,799 1,060 1,038 1,396 1,332 1,437 494

Tobacco products and smoking supplies

349 333 330 338 376 330 300 349 549

Miscellaneous

871 1,027 1,111 917 613 873 723 970 852

Cash contributions

1,819 2,366 2,313 2,435 913 1,859 1,552 2,058 1,409

Personal insurance and pensions

6,349 8,000 10,048 5,309 3,617 6,571 5,669 7,156 4,094

Life and other personal insurance

333 466 543 364 113 338 288 370 279

Pensions and Social Security

6,016 7,534 9,504 4,946 3,504 6,233 5,380 6,786 3,815

(1)Not applicable.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 10. Region of residence: average annual expenditures and characteristics, Consumer Expenditure Survey, 2015
Item All consumer units Northeast Midwest South West

Number of consumer units (in thousands)

128,437 23,426 27,674 49,104 28,233

Consumer unit characteristics

         

Income before taxes

$69,627 $79,482 $67,760 $61,792 $76,905

Age of reference person

50.5 51.8 50.7 50.7 49.1

Average number in consumer unit

         

People

2.5 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.7

Children under 18

.6 .5 .6 .6 .7

Adults 65 and older

.4 .4 .3 .4 .3

Earners

1.3 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.4

Vehicles

1.9 1.6 2.0 1.9 2.0

Percent homeowner

62 61 65 65 56

Average annual expenditures

$55,978 $58,976 $55,071 $52,020 $61,244

Food

7,023 6,882 7,090 6,613 7,776

Food at home

4,015 3,939 4,152 3,756 4,387

Cereals and bakery products

518 542 533 481 546

Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs

896 879 946 869 907

Dairy products

413 426 439 365 458

Fruits and vegetables

769 823 757 690 870

Other food at home

1,419 1,268 1,478 1,351 1,607

Food away from home

3,008 2,943 2,938 2,857 3,389

Alcoholic beverages

515 562 523 421 630

Housing

18,409 20,817 17,370 16,518 20,716

Shelter

10,742 12,814 9,886 8,939 12,999

Owned dwellings

6,210 7,684 6,115 5,224 6,796

Rented dwellings

3,802 4,277 3,076 3,032 5,460

Other lodging

730 853 695 683 744

Utilities, fuels, and public services

3,885 4,210 3,775 3,954 3,604

Household operations

1,309 1,575 1,121 1,176 1,503

Housekeeping supplies

655 594 702 662 648

Household furnishings and equipment

1,818 1,624 1,887 1,789 1,962

Apparel and services

1,846 1,792 1,716 1,656 2,343

Transportation

9,503 9,026 9,597 9,598 9,640

Vehicle purchases (net outlay)

3,997 3,570 3,996 4,527 3,431

Gasoline and motor oil

2,090 1,827 2,058 2,123 2,279

Other vehicle expenses

2,756 2,656 2,965 2,495 3,086

Public and other transportation

661 972 578 453 844

Healthcare

4,342 4,328 4,616 4,264 4,221

Entertainment

2,842 2,754 2,859 2,682 3,177

Personal care products and services

683 699 673 615 794

Reading

114 130 117 89 142

Education

1,315 2,021 1,343 973 1,295

Tobacco products and smoking supplies

349 318 418 388 240

Miscellaneous

871 877 926 698 1,113

Cash contributions

1,819 1,667 1,563 1,896 2,059

Personal insurance and pensions

6,349 7,103 6,260 5,608 7,098

Life and other personal insurance

333 409 323 291 353

Pensions and Social Security

6,016 6,694 5,937 5,317 6,746

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 11. Occupation of reference person: average annual expenditures and characteristics, Consumer Expenditure Survey, 2015
Item All consumer units Self-employed workers Wage and salary earners Retired All other, including not reporting
Total wage and salary earners Managers and professionals Technical, sales and clerical workers Service workers Construction workers and mechanics Operators, fabricators and laborers

Number of consumer units (in thousands)

128,437 7,953 77,591 31,036 20,214 15,256 3,455 7,630 24,986 17,908

Consumer unit characteristics

                   

Income before taxes

$69,627 $110,918 $82,008 $111,909 $67,902 $53,779 $63,869 $62,406 $38,947 $40,449

Age of reference person

50.5 50.5 43.9 44.4 42.9 43.7 44.5 44.7 73.5 47.3

Average number in consumer unit

                   

People

2.5 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.7 2.7 2.7 1.7 2.7

Children under 18

.6 .7 .7 .7 .7 .7 .7 .7 .1 .8

Adults 65 and older

.4 .3 .1 .1 .1 .2 .1 .1 1.2 .2

Earners

1.3 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.8 .2 .6

Vehicles

1.9 2.2 2.0 2.1 1.9 1.7 2.3 2.1 1.7 1.5

Percent homeowner

62 72 59 69 55 47 60 57 79 48

Average annual expenditures

$55,978 $78,132 $61,634 $78,813 $54,270 $46,337 $49,941 $48,287 $42,478 $40,759

Food

7,023 8,382 7,645 9,502 6,999 5,989 6,547 6,142 5,265 6,301

Food at home

4,015 4,648 4,155 4,873 3,989 3,446 3,863 3,454 3,334 4,094

Cereals and bakery products

518 609 526 609 511 474 453 393 452 534

Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs

896 1,051 918 981 931 789 988 873 711 990

Dairy products

413 502 420 515 386 338 365 346 357 419

Fruits and vegetables

769 892 801 969 755 665 753 578 655 742

Other food at home

1,419 1,595 1,491 1,800 1,405 1,181 1,305 1,263 1,158 1,409

Food away from home

3,008 3,734 3,490 4,629 3,009 2,543 2,684 2,687 1,930 2,207

Alcoholic beverages

515 725 603 840 474 408 567 437 367 274

Housing

18,409 23,419 19,960 24,919 18,047 15,918 15,403 15,189 14,947 14,318

Shelter

10,742 14,233 11,800 14,760 10,715 9,525 8,902 8,492 8,169 8,200

Owned dwellings

6,210 9,396 6,764 9,528 5,689 4,112 4,897 4,519 5,146 3,878

Rented dwellings

3,802 3,565 4,284 4,000 4,491 5,046 3,619 3,675 2,265 3,962

Other lodging

730 1,272 751 1,232 535 367 385 297 758 360

Utilities, fuels, and public services

3,885 4,388 4,034 4,469 3,837 3,573 3,843 3,796 3,551 3,481

Household operations

1,309 1,591 1,509 2,210 1,207 947 871 876 1,052 676

Housekeeping supplies

655 779 641 788 552 479 467 735 732 557

Household furnishings and equipment

1,818 2,428 1,976 2,691 1,736 1,395 1,320 1,290 1,443 1,404

Apparel and services

1,846 3,958 1,979 2,570 1,696 1,675 1,199 1,440 1,031 1,518

Transportation

9,503 11,643 10,865 12,860 10,118 8,545 10,818 9,438 6,838 6,401

Vehicle purchases (net outlay)

3,997 4,302 4,741 5,669 4,445 3,579 5,011 3,956 2,614 2,566

Gasoline and motor oil

2,090 2,497 2,364 2,500 2,271 2,098 2,687 2,445 1,420 1,653

Other vehicle expenses

2,756 3,788 3,028 3,556 2,875 2,385 2,769 2,732 2,278 1,811

Public and other transportation

661 1,056 731 1,135 527 484 351 306 526 370

Healthcare

4,342 5,871 4,001 5,067 3,600 2,955 3,208 3,197 5,811 3,092

Entertainment

2,842 3,967 2,998 4,081 2,400 2,173 1,952 2,398 2,525 2,121

Personal care products and services

683 856 745 1,010 641 541 460 530 568 503

Reading

114 113 106 167 66 69 53 70 171 68

Education

1,315 1,916 1,639 2,372 1,207 985 1,560 1,150 214 1,180

Tobacco products and smoking supplies

349 353 347 252 392 367 516 492 225 534

Miscellaneous

871 1,528 914 1,126 765 822 724 706 788 515

Cash contributions

1,819 2,948 1,797 2,640 1,361 1,138 1,167 1,129 2,140 961

Personal insurance and pensions

6,349 12,452 8,035 11,407 6,503 4,752 5,769 5,969 1,588 2,972

Life and other personal insurance

333 858 313 464 234 176 204 232 353 157

Pensions and Social Security

6,016 11,595 7,722 10,943 6,269 4,575 5,565 5,737 1,235 2,816

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 12. Highest education level of any member: average annual expenditures and characteristics, Consumer Expenditure Survey, 2015
Item All consumer units Less than college graduate College graduate
Total Less than high school graduate High school graduate High school graduate with some college Associate's degree Total Bachelor's degree Master's, professional, doctoral degree

Number of consumer units (in thousands)

128,437 76,988 9,382 25,760 28,263 13,582 51,450 30,405 21,044

Consumer unit characteristics

                 

Income before taxes

$69,627 $46,470 $26,359 $40,082 $51,118 $62,806 $104,277 $90,594 $124,046

Age of reference person

50.5 51.4 56.0 53.6 48.8 49.5 49.2 48.0 51.0

Average number in consumer unit

                 

People

2.5 2.4 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.5 2.6

Children under 18

.6 .6 .7 .6 .6 .6 .6 .6 .6

Adults 65 and older

.4 .4 .5 .4 .4 .3 .3 .3 .4

Earners

1.3 1.1 .7 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.5

Vehicles

1.9 1.7 1.0 1.6 1.9 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.1

Percent homeowner

62 56 44 56 55 66 71 68 77

Average annual expenditures

$55,978 $41,715 $26,766 $36,381 $45,991 $53,144 $76,988 $69,373 $87,927

Food

7,023 5,568 4,278 4,959 5,988 6,688 9,051 8,405 9,951

Food at home

4,015 3,422 3,126 3,123 3,590 3,835 4,834 4,564 5,207

Cereals and bakery products

518 448 392 423 463 503 614 576 665

Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs

896 813 770 747 862 868 1,009 987 1,040

Dairy products

413 339 299 303 358 397 514 484 555

Fruits and vegetables

769 614 595 551 649 678 981 903 1,089

Other food at home

1,419 1,206 1,069 1,100 1,259 1,389 1,716 1,614 1,857

Food away from home

3,008 2,147 1,152 1,835 2,398 2,853 4,217 3,841 4,744

Alcoholic beverages

515 324 163 271 383 409 782 659 951

Housing

18,409 14,140 10,429 12,831 15,118 17,139 24,750 22,231 28,379

Shelter

10,742 7,977 6,265 7,156 8,613 9,395 14,879 13,286 17,182

Owned dwellings

6,210 3,910 1,953 3,275 4,383 5,483 9,652 8,250 11,677

Rented dwellings

3,802 3,729 4,196 3,665 3,794 3,392 3,911 4,012 3,766

Other lodging

730 338 116 216 436 520 1,316 1,024 1,739

Utilities, fuels, and public services

3,885 3,544 2,594 3,418 3,643 4,232 4,396 4,183 4,704

Household operations

1,309 796 390 668 910 1,082 2,074 1,680 2,643

Housekeeping supplies

655 530 450 462 563 641 826 747 935

Household furnishings and equipment

1,818 1,294 730 1,127 1,389 1,790 2,574 2,335 2,915

Apparel and services

1,846 1,234 846 959 1,452 1,561 2,704 2,576 2,890

Transportation

9,503 7,723 4,127 6,766 8,788 9,796 12,153 11,605 12,948

Vehicle purchases (net outlay)

3,997 3,259 1,478 2,896 3,800 4,054 5,101 4,934 5,342

Gasoline and motor oil

2,090 1,887 1,178 1,747 2,021 2,366 2,392 2,383 2,405

Other vehicle expenses

2,756 2,286 1,255 1,919 2,651 2,923 3,447 3,385 3,541

Public and other transportation

661 290 216 204 317 453 1,213 903 1,660

Healthcare

4,342 3,434 2,358 3,203 3,600 4,269 5,696 5,097 6,560

Entertainment

2,842 2,112 1,103 1,725 2,359 3,017 3,906 3,398 4,628

Personal care products and services

683 501 308 414 566 658 944 858 1,065

Reading

114 72 39 65 83 84 175 143 219

Education

1,315 539 199 198 846 784 2,472 2,160 2,923

Tobacco products and smoking supplies

349 458 332 499 484 414 186 227 127

Miscellaneous

871 723 309 580 836 1,044 1,091 1,093 1,090

Cash contributions

1,819 1,107 646 839 1,269 1,595 2,884 2,165 3,922

Personal insurance and pensions

6,349 3,778 1,627 3,073 4,217 5,688 10,195 8,755 12,275

Life and other personal insurance

333 191 100 164 217 250 545 499 612

Pensions and Social Security

6,016 3,587 1,527 2,909 4,000 5,438 9,650 8,256 11,663

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 13. Race of reference person: average annual expenditures and characteristics, Consumer Expenditure Survey, 2015
Item All consumer units White and all other races, Asian Black or African-American
Total White and all other races (1) Asian

Number of consumer units (in thousands)

128,437 111,771 106,176 5,595 16,667

Consumer unit characteristics

         

Income before taxes

$69,627 $72,781 $71,750 $92,364 $48,469

Age of reference person

50.5 51.0 51.3 44.2 47.9

Average number in consumer unit

         

People

2.5 2.5 2.5 2.8 2.4

Children under 18

.6 .6 .6 .7 .6

Adults 65 and older

.4 .4 .4 .3 .3

Earners

1.3 1.3 1.3 1.5 1.2

Vehicles

1.9 2.0 2.0 1.5 1.2

Percent homeowner

62 65 66 54 41

Average annual expenditures

$55,978 $58,281 $57,997 $63,672 $40,372

Food

7,023 7,365 7,302 8,515 4,644

Food at home

4,015 4,190 4,180 4,375 2,792

Cereals and bakery products

518 538 536 574 376

Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs

896 916 913 977 752

Dairy products

413 439 441 403 230

Fruits and vegetables

769 806 789 1,117 510

Other food at home

1,419 1,491 1,501 1,303 923

Food away from home

3,008 3,175 3,122 4,140 1,851

Alcoholic beverages

515 561 573 362 193

Housing

18,409 18,883 18,711 22,170 15,213

Shelter

10,742 10,998 10,795 14,856 9,024

Owned dwellings

6,210 6,618 6,525 8,386 3,476

Rented dwellings

3,802 3,595 3,485 5,694 5,189

Other lodging

730 786 786 776 358

Utilities, fuels, and public services

3,885 3,916 3,934 3,567 3,678

Household operations

1,309 1,383 1,371 1,612 811

Housekeeping supplies

655 687 697 505 429

Household furnishings and equipment

1,818 1,898 1,913 1,631 1,271

Apparel and services

1,846 1,903 1,889 2,149 1,453

Transportation

9,503 9,810 9,790 10,174 7,436

Vehicle purchases (net outlay)

3,997 4,136 4,158 3,723 3,065

Gasoline and motor oil

2,090 2,149 2,151 2,097 1,694

Other vehicle expenses

2,756 2,831 2,822 3,003 2,244

Public and other transportation

661 695 660 1,351 432

Healthcare

4,342 4,645 4,686 3,876 2,305

Entertainment

2,842 3,039 3,075 2,371 1,500

Personal care products and services

683 698 698 696 574

Reading

114 124 125 97 48

Education

1,315 1,399 1,347 2,380 747

Tobacco products and smoking supplies

349 363 374 146 260

Miscellaneous

871 922 932 718 530

Cash contributions

1,819 1,892 1,926 1,245 1,328

Personal insurance and pensions

6,349 6,678 6,567 8,773 4,142

Life and other personal insurance

333 346 346 334 247

Pensions and Social Security

6,016 6,332 6,221 8,440 3,895

(1)All other races includes Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, American Indian or Alaska Native, and approximately 1 percent reporting more than one race.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 14. Hispanic or Latino origin of reference person: average annual expenditures and characteristics, Consumer Expenditure Survey, 2015
Item All consumer units Hispanic or Latino Not Hispanic or Latino
Total White and all other races Black or African-American

Number of consumer units (in thousands)

128,437 16,728 111,710 95,409 16,301

Consumer unit characteristics

         

Income before taxes

$69,627 $54,746 $71,855 $75,864 $48,387

Age of reference person

50.5 43.9 51.5 52.2 47.9

Average number in consumer unit

         

People

2.5 3.1 2.4 2.4 2.4

Children under 18

.6 1.0 .5 .5 .6

Adults 65 and older

.4 .2 .4 .4 .3

Earners

1.3 1.6 1.2 1.3 1.2

Vehicles

1.9 1.7 1.9 2.0 1.3

Percent homeowner

62 45 65 69 41

Average annual expenditures

$55,978 $47,663 $57,223 $60,072 $40,421

Food

7,023 6,929 7,037 7,437 4,632

Food at home

4,015 4,182 3,990 4,190 2,785

Cereals and bakery products

518 526 517 541 372

Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs

896 1,080 868 888 752

Dairy products

413 396 415 446 229

Fruits and vegetables

769 857 756 796 510

Other food at home

1,419 1,323 1,434 1,519 922

Food away from home

3,008 2,747 3,047 3,247 1,847

Alcoholic beverages

515 354 539 596 195

Housing

18,409 16,855 18,641 19,222 15,228

Shelter

10,742 10,257 10,815 11,120 9,030

Owned dwellings

6,210 4,256 6,503 7,015 3,501

Rented dwellings

3,802 5,695 3,519 3,237 5,169

Other lodging

730 305 794 868 359

Utilities, fuels, and public services

3,885 3,567 3,933 3,974 3,694

Household operations

1,309 1,000 1,355 1,451 793

Housekeeping supplies

655 575 666 706 429

Household furnishings and equipment

1,818 1,457 1,872 1,971 1,282

Apparel and services

1,846 2,035 1,818 1,881 1,444

Transportation

9,503 9,101 9,563 9,915 7,501

Vehicle purchases (net outlay)

3,997 3,718 4,039 4,198 3,106

Gasoline and motor oil

2,090 2,208 2,072 2,134 1,707

Other vehicle expenses

2,756 2,700 2,764 2,849 2,262

Public and other transportation

661 475 688 733 426

Healthcare

4,342 2,632 4,598 4,987 2,318

Entertainment

2,842 1,771 3,002 3,256 1,499

Personal care products and services

683 604 694 714 575

Reading

114 48 124 137 48

Education

1,315 825 1,388 1,500 732

Tobacco products and smoking supplies

349 154 379 398 264

Miscellaneous

871 619 909 973 531

Cash contributions

1,819 923 1,953 2,059 1,332

Personal insurance and pensions

6,349 4,814 6,579 6,998 4,122

Life and other personal insurance

333 157 359 379 242

Pensions and Social Security

6,016 4,657 6,219 6,619 3,881

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 15. Higher income before taxes: average annual expenditures and characteristics, Consumer Expenditure Survey, 2015
Item All consumer units Less than $70,000 $70,000 to $79,999 $80,000 to $99,999 $100,000 and more $100,000 to $199,999 $120,000 to $149,999 $150,000 and more

Number of consumer units (in thousands)

128,437 82,669 7,258 10,910 27,600 8,231 7,385 11,984

Consumer unit characteristics

               

Income before taxes

$69,627 $32,154 $74,690 $89,216 $172,793 $108,541 $132,409 $241,806

Age of reference person

50.5 51.8 47.7 47.5 48.6 48.3 47.6 49.4

Average number in consumer unit

               

People

2.5 2.2 2.8 2.9 3.1 3.0 3.1 3.1

Children under 18

.6 .5 .7 .7 .8 .7 .8 .8

Adults 65 and older

.4 .4 .3 .3 .2 .2 .2 .2

Earners

1.3 .9 1.7 1.8 2.0 1.9 2.0 2.1

Vehicles

1.9 1.5 2.3 2.5 2.7 2.5 2.8 2.8

Percent homeowner

62 52 72 75 86 82 87 89

Average annual expenditures

$55,978 $36,513 $61,367 $69,154 $107,869 $80,286 $92,746 $135,988

Food

7,023 5,023 7,827 8,989 12,122 9,846 10,971 14,354

Food at home

4,015 3,154 4,254 4,867 6,242 5,417 5,691 7,122

Cereals and bakery products

518 415 529 676 769 688 694 866

Meats, poultry, fish, and eggs

896 728 1,037 996 1,331 1,201 1,219 1,482

Dairy products

413 322 409 499 655 573 592 748

Fruits and vegetables

769 597 825 934 1,214 1,034 1,070 1,420

Other food at home

1,419 1,093 1,454 1,762 2,273 1,921 2,116 2,606

Food away from home

3,008 1,869 3,573 4,122 5,881 4,429 5,280 7,232

Alcoholic beverages

515 283 575 626 1,160 893 895 1,496

Housing

18,409 13,220 19,595 21,726 32,352 24,375 27,895 40,561

Shelter

10,742 7,653 11,305 12,637 19,099 14,073 16,017 24,450

Owned dwellings

6,210 3,245 7,043 8,242 14,070 10,110 12,233 17,922

Rented dwellings

3,802 4,118 3,680 3,631 2,955 2,931 2,368 3,334

Other lodging

730 290 582 765 2,073 1,032 1,415 3,194

Utilities, fuels, and public services

3,885 3,189 4,293 4,620 5,574 4,970 5,398 6,096

Household operations

1,309 760 1,285 1,429 2,911 1,833 2,414 3,958

Housekeeping supplies

655 490 736 783 1,083 874 1,062 1,241

Household furnishings and equipment

1,818 1,128 1,976 2,257 3,686 2,625 3,004 4,816

Apparel and services

1,846 1,103 2,035 2,201 3,915 2,447 2,674 5,638

Transportation

9,503 6,376 11,415 12,153 17,331 14,646 16,961 19,394

Vehicle purchases (net outlay)

3,997 2,509 5,187 5,356 7,603 6,600 7,904 8,105

Gasoline and motor oil

2,090 1,594 2,487 2,777 3,197 2,964 3,306 3,289

Other vehicle expenses

2,756 1,950 3,163 3,354 4,837 4,201 4,536 5,452

Public and other transportation

661 323 578 665 1,695 881 1,214 2,548

Healthcare

4,342 3,235 5,176 5,611 6,941 5,934 6,727 7,765

Entertainment

2,842 1,796 2,844 3,465 5,744 4,513 4,351 7,426

Personal care products and services

683 446 765 895 1,293 969 1,215 1,563

Reading

114 79 131 136 208 153 182 262

Education

1,315 609 899 1,162 3,600 1,656 2,547 5,583

Tobacco products and smoking supplies

349 352 318 378 339 391 387 275

Miscellaneous

871 567 1,007 1,027 1,687 1,256 1,493 2,106

Cash contributions

1,819 1,061 2,086 1,946 3,966 2,388 3,098 5,586

Personal insurance and pensions

6,349 2,363 6,694 8,838 17,211 10,821 13,352 23,978

Life and other personal insurance

333 146 338 540 809 420 588 1,213

Pensions and Social Security

6,016 2,217 6,355 8,298 16,402 10,401 12,764 22,764

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Technical Notes

Starting in 1888, the Consumer Expenditure Survey (CE) was collected approximately every 10 years until 1973; annual collection began in late 1979. The CE’s principal objective is to collect information on the buying habits of U.S. consumers. Consumer expenditure data are used in a variety of research activities by government, business, labor, and academic analysts. In addition, the data are required for the regular revision of the Consumer Price Index (CPI) market basket. The CE, which is conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics, consists of two survey instruments with independent samples: a Diary Survey completed by participating consumer units (CUs) for two consecutive 1-week periods, and an Interview Survey in which expenditures of consumer units are obtained in four interviews over the course of a year, conducted at 3-month intervals. Results in this report are based on integrated data from both surveys. Survey participants record dollar amounts for goods and services purchased during the reporting period, regardless of whether payment is made at the time of purchase. Expenditure amounts include all sales and excise taxes for items purchased by the consumer unit. All business-related expenditures are excluded from both surveys, as are expenditures for which the CU is reimbursed.

Each survey queries an independent sample of CUs that are representative of the U.S. population. For the Diary Survey, about 7,000 consumer units are sampled each year. Each CU keeps a diary for two 1-week periods, yielding approximately 14,000 diaries a year. The Interview Survey, selected on a rotating panel basis, collects data from about 7,000 CUs each quarter. With the rotating panel, some CUs rotate out of the survey each quarter, while others rotate in. Each consumer unit is interviewed once per quarter, for four consecutive quarters. Data are collected on an ongoing basis in 91 geographic areas of the United States. The Interview Survey is designed to capture expenditure data that respondents can reasonably recall for a period of 3 months or longer. In general, these expenditures are relatively large, such as expenditures for real property, automobiles, and major appliances, or they occur on a regular basis, such as rent, utility payments, and insurance premiums. The Interview Survey also collects data on expenditures incurred on leisure trips. Including broad estimates of food spending, it is estimated that about 95 percent of expenditures are covered in the Interview Survey. Nonprescription drugs, household supplies, and personal care items are excluded. The Diary Survey is designed to capture expenditures on small, frequently purchased items that are normally more difficult for respondents to recall buying over an extended period. Detailed entries of expenses are kept for food and beverages—consumed either at home or in eating places—and for tobacco, housekeeping supplies, nonprescription drugs, personal care products and services, most apparel, and any other goods or services purchased within the period. Expenditures incurred by members of the CU while away from home overnight or longer are excluded from the Diary Survey. Although this survey was designed to collect information on expenditures that could not be recalled easily over an extended period, respondents are asked to report all expenses (except those spent while traveling overnight that the consumer unit incurs during the survey week.)

Integrated data from the Diary and Interview Surveys provide a complete accounting of consumer expenditures and income that neither survey is designed to do on its own. Data on some expenditure items are collected in only one of the surveys. For example, the Diary Survey does not collect information on reimbursements, whereas the Interview Survey does. Examples of expenditures for which reimbursements are excluded from the Diary Survey are medical care; automobile repairs; and construction, repairs, alterations, and maintenance of property. For items that are unique to one survey or the other, the choice of which survey to use as the source of data is obvious. However, there is considerable overlap in coverage between the surveys, and integrating the data involves a determination of the appropriate survey from which to select specific expenditure items. When data are available from both surveys, the more reliable of the two as determined by statistical methods is selected. As a result, some items are selected from the Interview Survey, others from the Diary Survey. Because of the overlap in the item coverage between the two surveys, the survey source is reviewed every 2 years and statistical methods are used to select the best source. See “CE Source Selection for Publication Tables” in the Consumer Expenditure Survey Anthology, 2011 (BLS Report, no. 1030) for source selection details.  

The population and spending coverage of the CE differs from those used by the CPI. The CE data cover the total population including rural areas, whereas the CPI covers only the population in urban and metropolitan areas. Definitions of components also differ between the CE and CPI. For example, homeownership is treated differently in the two surveys: actual expenditures of homeownership are reported in the CE, whereas the CPI uses a rental equivalence approach that estimates the change in the cost of obtaining, in the rental marketplace, services equivalent to those provided by owner-occupied homes.

 

Interpreting the data

Expenditures are averages for CUs with specified characteristics, regardless of whether a particular unit incurred an expense for a specific item during the recordkeeping period. The average expenditure for an item may be considerably lower than the expenditure by the consumer units that purchased the item. The less frequently an item is purchased, the greater the difference between the average for all consumer units and the average for those purchasing the item. Similarly, an individual consumer unit may spend more or less than the average, depending on its particular characteristics. Factors such as income, age of family members, geographic location, and personal preference also influence expenditures. In addition, even within groups with similar characteristics, the distribution of expenditures varies substantially. These points should be considered when comparing reported averages to individual circumstances. Users of these survey data should also keep in mind that prices for many goods and services have risen since the survey was conducted. For example, all prices, as measured by the CPI-U, increased 1.3 percent from 2015 (annual average index) to 2016 (not seasonally adjusted). In addition, sample surveys are subject to two types of error: sampling and nonsampling. Sampling errors occur because the data are collected from a sample representing the population, rather than from the entire population. Nonsampling errors result from the inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide correct information, differences in interviewers’ abilities, mistakes in recording or coding, and other processing errors.

 

Tables and data

Tables in this report include integrated data from both the Diary and Interview components of the CE, enabling data users to associate the full range of expenditures with consumers’ demographic characteristics. Tables show data classified by income quintile, income decile, income class, age of the reference person, size of the consumer unit, composition of the consumer unit, number of earners, housing tenure, type of area (urban or rural), race, Hispanic origin, region of residence, occupation, and highest education level of any consumer-unit member. Tables for the aforementioned classifications, but with more detail than is given in this report, can be accessed on the CE page of the BLS website. Also available are tables showing average annual data over a 2-year period for

1. income before taxes, cross-tabulated by age, consumer unit size, or region

2. single consumers by gender, cross-tabulated by either income or age

3. selected metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs).

Data are available for 1984–2015. Other survey information available on the website includes answers to frequently asked questions, a glossary of terms, and order forms for survey products. Beginning with the 2000 data, estimates of standard errors for integrated Diary and Interview Survey data are also available.

The CE also produces prepublication tables, which are more detailed and contain additional subcategories of spending, but also have larger variances. They are available upon request to CEXInfo@bls.gov. Prepublication tables for all CUs are now available.

 

Other available data

The 2015 CE public-use microdata, including Interview Survey data, Diary Survey data, and paradata (information about the survey process), are available on the CE website for free electronic download. The Interview Survey files contain expenditure data in two different formats: MTBI files that present monthly values by coding items based on the CPI pricing scheme, and EXPN files that organize expenditures by the section of the Interview Survey questionnaire in which they are collected. Expenditure values on EXPN files cover different time periods depending on the specific questions asked, and the files also contain relevant nonexpenditure information not found on the MTBI files. Beginning with the 2013 public-use microdata, the new estimates of local, state, and federal tax liabilities are included. The CE introduced these estimates to improve the quality of the surveyed tax liabilities, which suffered from low response rates. The surveyed public-use tax data were still available for 2013, after which they were no longer collected. For more information on the improvements, see Improving Data Quality in the Consumer Expenditure Survey with TAXSIM, and for new applications of the tax estimates see New and Improved Estimates of Personal Income Taxes have Tripled the Tax Data.

Free public-use microdata are available online from the years 1996 to 2015. For releases published before 1996, users can continue to purchase USB flash drives using the public-use microdata order form. Future releases of public-use microdata will be available online for free download.

The Consumer Expenditure program also publishes Beyond the Numbers articles. These reports include analyses of expenditure data as they apply to various topics of interest, as well as methodological and research articles pertaining to a number of survey topics. As of February 2017, the most recent of these reports are Spending habits of urban consumers and “blue-collar” consumers living in urban areas, 1984 and 2015, and What the Consumer Expenditure Survey Tells Us About Mortgage Instruments Before And After The Housing Collapse. Additional data also are presented in articles in the Monthly Labor Review.

Information on the methodology used to calculate and collect CE data is available online. Also included are general articles and research papers using CE data, including documents in the CE research library.

For more detailed information on the availability of current and earlier data, contact the Division of Consumer Expenditure Surveys, Office of Prices and Living Conditions, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2 Massachusetts Avenue, NE, Washington, DC 20212-0001; call (202) 691-6900; email: cexinfo@bls.gov; or visit us online. Information in this publication is in the public domain and, with appropriate credit, may be reproduced without permission. Upon request, the information in this report will be made available to individuals who are sensory-impaired individuals. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200. Federal Relay Service: 1-800-877-8339.