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News Release Information

15-1161-PHI
Wednesday, June 17, 2015

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Occupational Employment and Wages in Lancaster – May 2014

Workers in the Lancaster Metropolitan Statistical Area had an average (mean) hourly wage of $19.61 in May 2014, 14 percent below the nationwide average of $22.71, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Sheila Watkins, the Bureau’s regional commissioner, noted that, after testing for statistical significance, wages in the local area were significantly lower than their respective national averages in 13 of the 22 major occupational groups, including computer and mathematical; arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media; and business and financial operations. Three groups had hourly wages that were significantly higher than their respective national averages including protective service and production. (See table A and box note at end of release.)

 

Table A. Occupational employment and wages by major occupational group, United States and the Lancaster Metropolitan Statistical Area, and measures of statistical significance, May 2014
Major occupational groupEmployment share (percent of total)Average (mean) hourly wage
United StatesLancasterSignificant difference (1)United StatesLancasterSignificant difference (1)Percent difference (2)

Total, all occupations

100.00%100.00% $22.71$19.61Yes-14

Management

5.03.3Yes54.0848.48Yes-10

Business and financial operations

5.13.6Yes34.8130.53Yes-12

Computer and mathematical

2.81.6Yes40.3732.66Yes-19

Architecture and engineering

1.81.6No39.1934.10Yes-13

Life, physical, and social science

0.80.4Yes33.6929.36Yes-13

Community and social service

1.41.4No21.7918.89Yes-13

Legal

0.80.3Yes48.6142.73No-12

Education, training, and library

6.24.7Yes25.1023.84No-5

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media

1.31.2No26.8219.44Yes-28

Healthcare practitioners and technical

5.85.5Yes36.5432.95Yes-10

Healthcare support

2.93.6Yes13.8613.98No1

Protective service

2.41.0Yes21.1423.09Yes9

Food preparation and serving related

9.19.2No10.5710.39No-2

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance

3.23.0No12.6812.81No1

Personal care and service

3.13.2No12.0111.98No0

Sales and related

10.511.3Yes18.5917.02Yes-8

Office and administrative support

16.015.1Yes17.0816.07Yes-6

Farming, fishing, and forestry

0.30.3No12.0913.18Yes9

Construction and extraction

3.95.4Yes22.4020.67Yes-8

Installation, maintenance, and repair

3.94.2Yes21.7420.99Yes-3

Production

6.610.8Yes17.0617.46Yes2

Transportation and material moving

6.89.1Yes16.5715.15Yes-9

Footnotes:
(1) Statistical significance testing at the 90-percent confidence level.
(2) A positive percent difference measures how much the mean wage in Lancaster is above the national mean wage, while a negative difference reflects a lower wage.
 

When compared to the nationwide distribution, Lancaster employment shares were significantly higher in 6 of the 22 occupational groups including production, transportation and material moving, and construction and extraction. Conversely, nine groups had employment shares significantly below their national representation including management; business and financial operations; and education, training, and library.

One occupational group—production—was chosen to illustrate the diversity of data available for any of the 22 major occupational categories. Lancaster had 24,280 jobs in production, accounting for 10.8 percent of local area employment, significantly larger than the 6.6-percent share nationally. The average hourly wage for this occupational group locally was $17.46, significantly above the national wage of $17.06.

With employment of 2,070, team assemblers was the largest occupation within the production group, followed by production helpers, with 1,840 jobs. Among the higher-paying jobs were first-line supervisors of production and operating workers and water and wastewater treatment plant and system operators, with mean hourly wages of $27.44 and $22.08, respectively. At the lower end of the wage scale were laundry and dry-cleaning workers ($10.53) and bakers ($12.00). (Detailed occupational data for production are presented in table 1; for a complete listing of detailed occupations available go to www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes_29540.htm.)

Location quotients allow us to explore the occupational make-up of a metropolitan area by comparing the composition of jobs in an area relative to the national average. (See table 1.) For example, a location quotient of 2.0 indicates that an occupation accounts for twice the share of employment in the area as it does nationally. In the Lancaster area, above-average concentrations of employment were found in many of the occupations within the production group. For instance, food batchmakers were employed at over four-and-a-half times the national rate in Lancaster, and print binding and finishing workers, at more than seven times the U.S. average. On the other hand, machinists had a location quotient of 1.2 in Lancaster, indicating that this particular occupation’s local and national employment shares were similar.

These statistics are from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey, a federal-state cooperative program between BLS and State Workforce Agencies, in this case, the Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry.

Note

OES wage and employment data for the 22 major occupational groups in the Lancaster Metropolitan Statistical Area were compared to their respective national averages based on statistical significance testing. Only those occupations with wages or employment shares above or below the national wage or share after testing for significance at the 90-percent confidence level meet the criteria.

NOTE: A value that is statistically different from another does not necessarily mean that the difference has economic or practical significance. Statistical significance is concerned with the ability to make confident statements about a universe based on a sample. It is entirely possible that a large difference between two values is not significantly different statistically, while a small difference is, since both the size and heterogeneity of the sample affect the relative error of the data being tested.


Technical Note

 

The Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey is a semiannual mail survey measuring occupational employment and wage rates for wage and salary workers in nonfarm establishments in the United States. Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands are also surveyed, but their data are not included in the national estimates. OES estimates are constructed from a sample of about 1.2 million establishments. Each year, forms are mailed to two semiannual panels of approximately 200,000 sampled establishments, one panel in May and the other in November. May 2014 estimates are based on responses from six semiannual panels collected over a 3-year period: May 2014, November 2013, May 2013, November 2012, May 2012, and November 2011. The overall national response rate for the six panels is 74.3 percent based on establishments and 70.5 percent based on employment. The sample in the Lancaster Metropolitan Statistical Area included 2,405 establishments with a response rate of 76 percent. For more information about OES concepts and methodology, go to www.bls.gov/news.release/ocwage.tn.htm.

 

The OES survey provides estimates of employment and hourly and annual wages for wage and salary workers in 22 major occupational groups and 821 detailed occupations for the nation, states, metropolitan statistical areas, metropolitan divisions, and nonmetropolitan areas. In addition, employment and wage estimates for 94 minor groups and 458 broad occupations are available in the national data. OES data by state and metropolitan/nonmetropolitan area are available from www.bls.gov/oes/current/oessrcst.htm and www.bls.gov/oes/current/oessrcma.htm, respectively.

 

The May 2014 OES estimates are based on the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system and the 2012 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). Information about the 2010 SOC is available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/soc and information about the 2012 NAICS is available at www.bls.gov/bls/naics.htm.

 

Area definitions

The substate area data published in this release reflect the standards and definitions established by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget.

The Lancaster, Pa. Metropolitan Statistical Area includes Lancaster County in Pennsylvania.

Additional information

OES data are available on our regional web page at www.bls.gov/regions/mid-atlantic. Answers to frequently asked questions about the OES data are available at www.bls.gov/oes/oes_ques.htm. Detailed technical information about the OES survey is available in our Survey Methods and Reliability Statement on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/oes/current/methods_statement.pdf. Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request – Voice phone: 202-691-5200; Federal Relay Service: 1-800-877-8339.

Table 1. Employment and wage data from the Occupational Employment Statistics survey, by occupation, Lancaster Metropolitan Statistical Area, May 2014
Occupation(1)Employment(2)Mean wage
LevelLocation quotient(3)HourlyAnnual(4)
     

Production occupations

24,2801.6$17.46$36,310

First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

1,6901.727.4457,070

Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers

1800.515.1731,550

Electromechanical equipment assemblers

(5)(5)13.9028,910

Structural metal fabricators and fitters

4403.419.4240,380

Team assemblers

2,0701.114.1229,360

Assemblers and fabricators, all other

2800.718.5938,670

Bakers

4101.412.0024,970

Butchers and meat cutters

3201.415.8232,910

Slaughterers and meat packers

3702.513.8728,840

Food batchmakers

9704.819.4540,450
     

Food cooking machine operators and tenders

1302.213.0727,200

Computer-controlled machine tool operators, metal and plastic

3701.517.9637,370

Computer numerically controlled machine tool programmers, metal and plastic

501.223.2048,250

Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

3803.218.4538,380

Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

1803.220.6142,860

Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

6402.017.2735,920

Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

802.814.8730,920

Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

2101.817.8937,220

Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

1101.517.3035,990

Milling and planing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

802.321.6445,020
     

Machinists

8001.218.0637,560

Metal-refining furnace operators and tenders

1103.017.7536,920

Pourers and casters, metal

905.5(5)(5)

Patternmakers, metal and plastic

609.620.6442,930

Foundry mold and coremakers

603.015.6732,590

Molding, coremaking, and casting machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

6302.916.1733,630

Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

2401.418.7038,890

Tool and die makers

2502.021.5644,840

Welders, cutters, solderers, and brazers

1,1501.918.4338,340

Welding, soldering, and brazing machine setters, operators, and tenders

901.014.3229,780
     

Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

1103.218.7338,960

Plating and coating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

1702.817.6436,690

Metal workers and plastic workers, all others

902.417.1035,560

Prepress technicians and workers

1702.819.2740,080

Printing press operators

9703.519.1339,780

Print binding and finishing workers

6107.116.6634,650

Laundry and dry-cleaning workers

3201.010.5321,890

Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials

300.411.3123,520

Sewing machine operators

2200.911.9924,950

Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters

5103.518.3338,130
     

Furniture finishers

1204.816.4634,240

Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood

1802.416.0433,370

Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing

4904.116.7634,860

Stationary engineers and boiler operators

400.726.7455,630

Water and wastewater treatment plant and system operators

2901.622.0845,920

Plant and system operators, all other

502.522.1846,130

Separating, filtering, clarifying, precipitating, and still machine setters, operators, and tenders

500.717.5836,560

Crushing, grinding, and polishing machine setters, operators, and tenders

1102.115.5232,290

Grinding and polishing workers, hand

501.016.7634,870

Mixing and blending machine setters, operators, and tenders

2901.415.5532,340
     

Cutters and trimmers, hand

(5)(5)14.6730,500

Cutting and slicing machine setters, operators, and tenders

1501.514.0029,110

Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders

1601.5(5)(5)

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

1,0201.217.4036,190

Dental laboratory technicians

601.116.1633,620

Medical appliance technicians

703.316.3834,060

Ophthalmic laboratory technicians

(5)(5)16.3934,090

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

9201.416.3634,020

Coating, painting, and spraying machine setters, operators, and tenders

4002.617.0735,510

Painters, transportation equipment

500.621.7845,300
     

Painting, coating, and decorating workers

301.316.8435,030

Photographic process workers and processing machine operators

501.114.6730,500

Adhesive bonding machine operators and tenders

401.3(5)(5)

Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators and tenders

702.615.0531,300

Cooling and freezing equipment operators and tenders

(5)(5)15.1331,470

Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic

2504.314.7530,680

Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders

2501.616.3133,920

Helpers--production workers

1,8402.614.9131,020

Production workers, all other

2300.715.5732,390

Footnotes:
(1) For a complete listing of all detailed occupations in the Lancaster MSA, see www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes_29540.htm.
(2) Estimates for detailed occupations do not sum to the totals because the totals include occupations not shown separately. Estimates do not include self-employed workers.
(3) The location quotient is the ratio of the area concentration of occupational employment to the national average concentration. A location quotient greater than one indicates the occupation has a higher share of employment than average, and a location quotient less than one indicates the occupation is less prevalent in the area than average.
(4) Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a 'year-round, full-time' hours figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations where there is not an hourly mean wage published, the annual wage has been directly calculated from the reported survey data.
(5) Estimates not released.
 

 

Last Modified Date: Wednesday, June 17, 2015