Department of Labor Logo United States Department of Labor
Dot gov

The .gov means it's official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you're on a federal government site.

Https

The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

News Release Information

21-1025-PHI
Friday, June 04, 2021

Contacts

Technical information:
Media contact:

Business Employment Dynamics in Pennsylvania — Third Quarter 2020

From June 2020 to September 2020, gross job gains from opening and expanding private-sector establishments in Pennsylvania were 484,981, while gross job losses from closing and contracting private-sector establishments were 236,671, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Regional Commissioner Alexandra Hall Bovee noted that the difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of gross job losses yielded a net employment gain of 248,310 jobs in the private sector during the third quarter of 2020. During the previous quarter, gross job losses exceeded gross job gains by 719,604. (See chart 1.)

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of increases and decreases in employment that occur at all private businesses in the economy. Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track these changes in employment at private-sector establishments from the third month of one quarter to the third month of the next. The difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of gross job losses is the net change in employment. (See Technical Note.)

Gross job gains

In the third quarter of 2020, gross job gains represented 10.3 percent of private-sector employment in Pennsylvania; nationally, gross job gains accounted for 9.4 percent of private-sector employment. (See chart 2.) Gross job gains are the sum of increases in employment due to expansions at existing establishments and the addition of new jobs at opening establishments. In Pennsylvania, gross job gains at expanding establishments totaled 386,662 in the third quarter of 2020, an increase of 243,458 jobs compared to the previous quarter. Opening establishments accounted for 98,319 jobs gained in the third quarter of 2020, a decrease of 209 jobs from the previous quarter. (See table 1.)

Gross job losses

In the third quarter of 2020, gross job losses represented 5.0 percent of private-sector employment in Pennsylvania; nationally, gross job losses accounted for 6.0 percent of private-sector employment. (See chart 3.) Gross job losses are the result of contractions in employment at existing establishments and the loss of jobs at closing establishments. In Pennsylvania, contracting establishments lost 198,231 jobs in the third quarter of 2020, a decrease of 560,938 jobs from the prior quarter. Closing establishments lost 38,440 jobs, a decrease of 99,100 jobs from the previous quarter.

Industries

Gross job gains exceeded gross job losses in all 11 industry sectors in Pennsylvania in the third quarter of 2020. Leisure and hospitality had the largest over-the-quarter net job increase, with a gain of 114,101 jobs. This was the result of 141,840 gross job gains and 27,739 gross job losses. The retail trade industry had a net gain of 36,800 jobs and other services showed a net gain of 32,642 jobs. The education and health services industry sector had a net gain of 24,240 jobs.

For more information

The BED data series include gross job gains and gross job losses by industry subsector, for the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, as well as gross job gains and gross job losses at the firm level by employer size class. BED data for the states have been included in table 2 of this release. Additional information is available online at www.bls.gov/bdm/.

The Business Employment Dynamics for Fourth Quarter 2020 are scheduled to be released on Wednesday, July 28, 2021.

Coronavirus (COVID-19) Effect on Third Quarter 2020 Business Employment Dynamics

Data collection and processing methods have been impacted because of the COVID-19 pandemic. More detail can be found at www.bls.gov/covid19/effects-of-covid-19-pandemic-on-business-employment-dynamics.htm.


Technical Note

The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW). The BED data are compiled by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) from existing QCEW records. Most employers in the U.S. are required to file quarterly reports on the employment and wages of workers covered by unemployment insurance (UI) laws, and to pay quarterly UI taxes. The QCEW is based largely on quarterly UI reports which are sent by businesses to the State Workforce Agencies (SWAs). These UI reports are supplemented by two additional BLS data collections to render administrative data into economic statistics. Together these data comprise the QCEW and form the basis of the Bureau’s establishment universe sampling frame.

In the BED program, the QCEW records are linked across quarters to provide a longitudinal history for each establishment. The linkage process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and expanding units and jobs lost at closing and contracting units.

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses in the economy. BED statistics track these changes in employment at private business establishments from the third month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing establishments and the addition of new jobs at opening establishments. Gross job losses are the result of contractions in employment at existing establishments and the loss of jobs at closing establishments. The difference between the number of gross jobs gained and the number of gross jobs lost is the net change in employment.

Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quarters. The rates are calculated for the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to form their respective totals. These rates can be added and subtracted just as their levels can. For instance, the difference between the gross job gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:

Openings. These are either units with positive third month employment for the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or with positive third month employment in the current quarter following zero employment in the previous quarter.

Expansions. These are units with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment over this period.

Closings. These are either units with positive third month employment in the previous quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the current quarter.

Contractions. These are units with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment over this period.

The full Technical Note for the Business Employment Dynamics program, which includes information on coverage, concepts, and methodology, can be found in the current quarterly news release online at www.bls.gov/news.release/cewbd.htm.

Information in this release will be made available to individuals with sensory impairments upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Private-sector gross job gains and losses by industry, Pennsylvania, seasonally adjusted
CategoryGross job gains and job losses
(3 months ended)
Gross job gains and job losses
as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Sept
2019
Dec.
2019
Mar.
2020
June
2020
Sept
2020
Sept
2019
Dec.
2019
Mar.
2020
June
2020
Sept
2020

Total private (1)

Gross job gains

275,857283,898261,356177,105484,9815.25.44.93.610.3

At expanding establishments

232,491241,284227,246143,204386,6624.44.64.32.98.2

At opening establishments

43,36642,61434,11033,90198,3190.80.80.60.72.1

Gross job losses

272,037255,290296,782896,709236,6715.14.95.618.25.0

At contracting establishments

233,189215,429244,119759,169198,2314.44.14.615.44.2

At closing establishments

38,84839,86152,663137,54038,4400.70.81.02.80.8

Net employment change (2)

3,82028,608-35,426-719,604248,3100.10.5-0.7-14.65.3

Construction

Gross job gains

22,54321,32423,48217,26527,4598.78.28.96.811.5

At expanding establishments

18,65917,41119,61714,00821,4727.26.77.45.59.0

At opening establishments

3,8843,9133,8653,2575,9871.51.51.51.32.5

Gross job losses

22,50823,85420,50747,63220,3828.79.17.718.88.5

At contracting establishments

18,26820,12116,98340,23816,8227.17.76.415.97.0

At closing establishments

4,2403,7333,5247,3943,5601.61.41.32.91.5

Net employment change (2)

35-2,5302,975-30,3677,0770.0-0.91.2-12.03.0

Manufacturing

Gross job gains

13,26916,22015,3299,20924,2582.32.92.71.64.5

At expanding establishments

12,22515,18514,7028,47222,5292.12.72.61.54.2

At opening establishments

1,0441,0356277371,7290.20.20.10.10.3

Gross job losses

18,46416,32916,49252,17219,8663.22.92.99.53.7

At contracting establishments

17,23615,17214,82649,46918,2933.02.72.69.03.4

At closing establishments

1,2281,1571,6662,7031,5730.20.20.30.50.3

Net employment change (2)

-5,195-109-1,163-42,9634,392-0.90.0-0.2-7.90.8

Wholesale trade

Gross job gains

8,1167,9477,9795,61811,6033.83.73.72.85.8

At expanding establishments

6,6926,6376,8214,2619,7623.13.13.22.14.9

At opening establishments

1,4241,3101,1581,3571,8410.70.60.50.70.9

Gross job losses

8,1908,4917,99923,6088,0413.73.93.711.44.0

At contracting establishments

6,7886,7666,16421,1376,4973.13.12.910.23.2

At closing establishments

1,4021,7251,8352,4711,5440.60.80.81.20.8

Net employment change (2)

-74-544-20-17,9903,5620.1-0.20.0-8.61.8

Retail trade

Gross job gains

31,32032,11335,50030,43465,9925.25.25.85.311.7

At expanding establishments

27,21528,17732,40227,69656,5924.54.65.34.810.0

At opening establishments

4,1053,9363,0982,7389,4000.70.60.50.51.7

Gross job losses

35,54331,63133,659107,90129,1925.95.25.518.65.2

At contracting establishments

32,13628,41829,15293,94526,2235.34.74.816.24.7

At closing establishments

3,4073,2134,50713,9562,9690.60.50.72.40.5

Net employment change (2)

-4,2234821,841-77,46736,800-0.70.00.3-13.36.5

Transportation and warehousing

Gross job gains

17,69122,34116,02916,02924,3916.68.05.76.09.4

At expanding establishments

14,95020,64214,63114,59619,9675.67.45.25.57.7

At opening establishments

2,7411,6991,3981,4334,4241.00.60.50.51.7

Gross job losses

10,78710,44819,97338,66116,1954.03.87.214.66.3

At contracting establishments

9,4649,13518,02635,71014,9603.53.36.513.55.8

At closing establishments

1,3231,3131,9472,9511,2350.50.50.71.10.5

Net employment change (2)

6,90411,893-3,944-22,6328,1962.64.2-1.5-8.63.1

Information

Gross job gains

3,6394,5323,9542,3166,2984.15.24.52.87.8

At expanding establishments

3,1643,6623,3961,7705,1633.64.23.92.16.4

At opening establishments

4758705585461,1350.51.00.60.71.4

Gross job losses

3,8714,1064,59112,5923,5414.54.75.215.14.4

At contracting establishments

3,2093,3163,96110,4242,7983.73.84.512.53.5

At closing establishments

6627906302,1687430.80.90.72.60.9

Net employment change (2)

-232426-637-10,2762,757-0.40.5-0.7-12.33.4

Financial activities

Gross job gains

11,40011,85211,0498,90213,8873.43.53.42.74.3

At expanding establishments

9,3579,4039,5367,03511,2022.82.82.92.13.5

At opening establishments

2,0432,4491,5131,8672,6850.60.70.50.60.8

Gross job losses

11,88910,95310,73321,71411,2653.63.33.26.63.4

At contracting establishments

9,9679,0398,48918,7819,1723.02.72.55.72.8

At closing establishments

1,9221,9142,2442,9332,0930.60.60.70.90.6

Net employment change (2)

-489899316-12,8122,622-0.20.20.2-3.90.9

Professional and business services

Gross job gains

52,01651,69142,27634,39358,8706.46.35.24.57.9

At expanding establishments

42,93542,48935,15826,26847,8005.35.24.33.46.4

At opening establishments

9,0819,2027,1188,12511,0701.11.10.91.11.5

Gross job losses

45,04548,46250,630113,19646,3855.55.96.314.76.2

At contracting establishments

37,73438,99840,208100,41237,3544.64.75.013.05.0

At closing establishments

7,3119,46410,42212,7849,0310.91.21.31.71.2

Net employment change (2)

6,9713,229-8,354-78,80312,4850.90.4-1.1-10.21.7

Education and health services

Gross job gains

44,75943,22442,58622,96462,4803.73.53.41.95.4

At expanding establishments

38,99338,38538,96718,25752,2713.23.13.11.54.5

At opening establishments

5,7664,8393,6194,70710,2090.50.40.30.40.9

Gross job losses

40,18936,24742,994114,88138,2403.22.93.49.63.3

At contracting establishments

34,75130,68034,976101,44533,2112.82.52.88.52.9

At closing establishments

5,4385,5678,01813,4365,0290.40.40.61.10.4

Net employment change (2)

4,5706,977-408-91,91724,2400.50.60.0-7.72.1

Leisure and hospitality

Gross job gains

53,89056,22047,61919,609141,8409.39.78.24.336.8

At expanding establishments

44,43445,93938,86813,120113,5497.77.96.72.929.5

At opening establishments

9,45610,2818,7516,48928,2911.61.81.51.47.3

Gross job losses

57,61947,93869,607285,91627,73910.18.212.062.67.2

At contracting establishments

48,59639,54856,092236,47820,7308.56.89.751.85.4

At closing establishments

9,0238,39013,51549,4387,0091.61.42.310.81.8

Net employment change (2)

-3,7298,282-21,988-266,307114,101-0.81.5-3.8-58.329.6

Other services (3)

Gross job gains

12,61912,34411,6016,86043,3246.46.25.94.027.8

At expanding establishments

10,1249,9369,6384,79622,4115.15.04.92.814.4

At opening establishments

2,4952,4081,9632,06420,9131.31.21.01.213.4

Gross job losses

12,68511,27114,75769,80010,6826.45.77.541.26.8

At contracting establishments

10,3489,47611,05243,0217,8555.24.85.625.45.0

At closing establishments

2,3371,7953,70526,7792,8271.20.91.915.81.8

Net employment change (2)

-661,073-3,156-62,94032,6420.00.5-1.6-37.221.0

Footnotes:
(1) Includes unclassified sector not shown separately.
(2) The net employment change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses. See the Technical Note for further information.
(3) Except public administration.

Table 2. Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted
CategoryGross job gains as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Gross job losses as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Sept.
2019
Dec.
2019
Mar.
2020
June
2020
Sept.
2020
Sept.
2019
Dec.
2019
Mar.
2020
June
2020
Sept.
2020

United States(1)

5.96.25.54.89.45.85.56.117.06.0

Alabama

5.86.25.54.87.85.95.55.912.65.9

Alaska

9.610.39.26.912.210.110.29.524.59.9

Arizona

6.36.45.65.77.94.95.25.911.76.2

Arkansas

5.66.55.14.87.55.84.95.512.05.6

California

6.36.86.15.28.76.06.06.718.67.3

Colorado

6.66.76.35.810.06.46.27.014.96.3

Connecticut

5.55.55.24.311.25.85.65.919.75.1

Delaware

6.26.76.24.910.36.36.26.617.76.3

District of Columbia

5.55.45.23.38.35.34.75.322.45.8

Florida

6.66.65.46.19.55.85.96.213.96.8

Georgia

6.26.55.65.49.26.05.55.915.06.4

Hawaii

5.65.75.23.67.45.25.25.829.812.7

Idaho

7.07.77.66.48.46.86.36.111.26.5

Illinois

5.05.65.04.69.75.65.26.018.45.6

Indiana

5.46.04.94.78.35.65.16.013.75.4

Iowa

5.35.85.24.47.45.75.55.913.05.6

Kansas

5.66.35.45.07.95.75.76.013.36.0

Kentucky

5.96.25.34.68.85.75.66.115.35.0

Louisiana

5.95.95.34.58.86.15.76.316.97.2

Maine

6.57.36.45.412.07.36.97.021.76.0

Maryland

6.26.45.74.711.06.35.96.721.95.9

Massachusetts

5.35.85.23.712.55.95.66.024.25.6

Michigan

5.15.85.04.010.95.95.35.720.74.8

Minnesota

5.45.85.04.39.05.85.65.617.65.4

Mississippi

5.76.25.65.18.75.75.66.212.95.5

Missouri

5.86.25.24.78.55.85.35.714.35.7

Montana

7.48.67.76.89.97.77.27.713.87.2

Nebraska

5.76.25.84.98.15.55.86.112.15.9

Nevada

6.16.85.45.312.85.55.06.329.26.4

New Hampshire

5.86.66.04.511.96.66.06.418.85.1

New Jersey

6.06.55.74.615.76.25.86.328.15.8

New Mexico

6.87.06.14.58.36.16.36.517.66.0

New York

5.86.05.53.913.35.95.76.426.95.9

North Carolina

5.86.35.84.88.56.05.45.714.55.6

North Dakota

6.56.76.85.28.87.16.67.017.26.9

Ohio

5.35.75.14.57.75.95.35.614.45.3

Oklahoma

6.46.55.45.66.86.26.26.712.36.4

Oregon

6.26.76.25.09.06.25.86.518.46.2

Pennsylvania

5.25.44.93.610.35.14.95.618.25.0

Rhode Island

6.06.56.14.512.96.25.96.525.25.3

South Carolina

6.06.55.55.18.85.95.96.614.96.1

South Dakota

5.96.46.05.18.66.05.86.611.65.5

Tennessee

5.55.74.94.48.15.15.05.313.75.4

Texas

5.96.05.04.77.25.35.15.513.66.0

Utah

6.86.86.66.59.16.36.36.410.96.2

Vermont

6.36.95.84.612.37.66.47.618.55.7

Virginia

5.56.55.64.710.26.35.56.118.25.3

Washington

6.16.67.44.98.96.15.87.416.96.2

West Virginia

5.96.26.05.18.86.77.16.813.87.0

Wisconsin

4.85.45.04.47.65.95.05.314.45.2

Wyoming

8.69.48.66.410.78.98.79.318.17.7

Puerto Rico

5.95.45.04.011.05.54.95.216.95.1

Virgin Islands

12.010.37.25.38.46.47.38.319.812.3

Footnotes
(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

 

Last Modified Date: Friday, June 04, 2021