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News Release Information

21-1577-PHI
Thursday, August 26, 2021

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Technical information:
Media contact:

Business Employment Dynamics in Pennsylvania — Fourth Quarter 2020

From September 2020 to December 2020, gross job gains from opening and expanding private-sector establishments in Pennsylvania were 296,607, while gross job losses from closing and contracting private-sector establishments were 257,656, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Regional Commissioner Alexandra Hall Bovee noted that the difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of gross job losses yielded a net employment gain of 38,951 jobs in the private sector during the fourth quarter of 2020. During the previous quarter, gross job gains exceeded gross job losses by 248,310. (See chart 1.)

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of increases and decreases in employment that occur at all private businesses in the economy. Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track these changes in employment at private-sector establishments from the third month of one quarter to the third month of the next. The difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of gross job losses is the net change in employment. (See Technical Note.)

Gross job gains

In the fourth quarter of 2020, gross job gains represented 6.2 percent of private-sector employment in Pennsylvania; nationally, gross job gains accounted for 7.4 percent of private-sector employment. (See chart 2.) Gross job gains are the sum of increases in employment due to expansions at existing establishments and the addition of new jobs at opening establishments. In Pennsylvania, gross job gains at expanding establishments totaled 250,475 in the fourth quarter of 2020, a decrease of 136,187 jobs compared to the previous quarter. Opening establishments accounted for 46,132 jobs gained in the fourth quarter of 2020, a decrease of 52,187 jobs from the previous quarter. (See table 1.)

Gross job losses

In the fourth quarter of 2020, gross job losses represented 5.3 percent of private-sector employment in Pennsylvania; nationally, gross job losses accounted for 5.7 percent of private-sector employment. (See chart 3.) Gross job losses are the result of contractions in employment at existing establishments and the loss of jobs at closing establishments. In Pennsylvania, contracting establishments lost 213,616 jobs in the fourth quarter of 2020, an increase of 15,385 jobs from the prior quarter. Closing establishments lost 44,040 jobs, an increase of 5,600 jobs from the previous quarter.

Industries

Gross job gains exceeded gross job losses in 6 of the 11 industry sectors in Pennsylvania in the fourth quarter of 2020. Professional and business services had the largest over-the-quarter net job increase, with a gain of 23,577 jobs. This was the result of 62,091 gross job gains and 38,514 gross job losses. The transportation and warehousing industry had a net gain of 17,042 jobs. Leisure and hospitality had the largest over-the-quarter net job decrease, with a net loss of 13,065 jobs.

For more information

The BED data series include gross job gains and gross job losses by industry subsector, for the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, as well as gross job gains and gross job losses at the firm level by employer size class. BED data for the states have been included in table 2 of this release. Additional information is available online at www.bls.gov/bdm/.

The Business Employment Dynamics for First Quarter 2021 are scheduled to be released on Wednesday, October 27, 2021 at 10:00 a.m. (ET).

Coronavirus (COVID-19) Effect on Fourth Quarter 2020 Business Employment Dynamics

Data collection and processing methods have been impacted because of the COVID-19 pandemic. More detail can be found at www.bls.gov/covid19/effects-of-covid-19-pandemic-on-business-employment-dynamics.htm.


Technical Note

The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW). The BED data are compiled by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) from existing QCEW records. Most employers in the U.S. are required to file quarterly reports on the employment and wages of workers covered by unemployment insurance (UI) laws, and to pay quarterly UI taxes. The QCEW is based largely on quarterly UI reports which are sent by businesses to the State Workforce Agencies (SWAs). These UI reports are supplemented by two additional BLS data collections to render administrative data into economic statistics. Together these data comprise the QCEW and form the basis of the Bureau’s establishment universe sampling frame.

In the BED program, the QCEW records are linked across quarters to provide a longitudinal history for each establishment. The linkage process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and expanding units and jobs lost at closing and contracting units.

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses in the economy. BED statistics track these changes in employment at private business establishments from the third month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing establishments and the addition of new jobs at opening establishments. Gross job losses are the result of contractions in employment at existing establishments and the loss of jobs at closing establishments. The difference between the number of gross jobs gained and the number of gross jobs lost is the net change in employment.

Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quarters. The rates are calculated for the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to form their respective totals. These rates can be added and subtracted just as their levels can. For instance, the difference between the gross job gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:

Openings. These are either units with positive third month employment for the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or with positive third month employment in the current quarter following zero employment in the previous quarter.

Expansions. These are units with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment over this period.

Closings. These are either units with positive third month employment in the previous quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the current quarter.

Contractions. These are units with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment over this period.

The full Technical Note for the Business Employment Dynamics program, which includes information on coverage, concepts, and methodology, can be found in the current quarterly news release online at www.bls.gov/news.release/cewbd.htm.

Information in this release will be made available to individuals with sensory impairments upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, Pennsylvania, seasonally adjusted
Category Gross job gains and job losses
(3 months ended)
Gross job gains and job losses
as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Dec.
2019
Mar.
2020
June
2020
Sept
2020
Dec.
2020
Dec.
2019
Mar.
2020
June
2020
Sept
2020
Dec.
2020

Total private (1)

Gross job gains

283,898 261,356 177,105 484,981 296,607 5.4 4.9 3.6 10.3 6.2

At expanding establishments

241,284 227,246 143,204 386,662 250,475 4.6 4.3 2.9 8.2 5.2

At opening establishments

42,614 34,110 33,901 98,319 46,132 0.8 0.6 0.7 2.1 1.0

Gross job losses

255,290 296,782 896,709 236,671 257,656 4.9 5.6 18.2 5.0 5.3

At contracting establishments

215,429 244,119 759,169 198,231 213,616 4.1 4.6 15.4 4.2 4.4

At closing establishments

39,861 52,663 137,540 38,440 44,040 0.8 1.0 2.8 0.8 0.9

Net employment change (2)

28,608 -35,426 -719,604 248,310 38,951 0.5 -0.7 -14.6 5.3 0.9

Construction

Gross job gains

21,324 23,482 17,265 27,459 24,531 8.2 8.9 6.8 11.5 9.9

At expanding establishments

17,411 19,617 14,008 21,472 20,139 6.7 7.4 5.5 9.0 8.1

At opening establishments

3,913 3,865 3,257 5,987 4,392 1.5 1.5 1.3 2.5 1.8

Gross job losses

23,854 20,507 47,632 20,382 19,323 9.1 7.7 18.8 8.5 7.8

At contracting establishments

20,121 16,983 40,238 16,822 15,395 7.7 6.4 15.9 7.0 6.2

At closing establishments

3,733 3,524 7,394 3,560 3,928 1.4 1.3 2.9 1.5 1.6

Net employment change (2)

-2,530 2,975 -30,367 7,077 5,208 -0.9 1.2 -12.0 3.0 2.1

Manufacturing

Gross job gains

16,220 15,329 9,209 24,258 19,583 2.9 2.7 1.6 4.5 3.6

At expanding establishments

15,185 14,702 8,472 22,529 18,351 2.7 2.6 1.5 4.2 3.4

At opening establishments

1,035 627 737 1,729 1,232 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.2

Gross job losses

16,329 16,492 52,172 19,866 14,882 2.9 2.9 9.5 3.7 2.8

At contracting establishments

15,172 14,826 49,469 18,293 13,830 2.7 2.6 9.0 3.4 2.6

At closing establishments

1,157 1,666 2,703 1,573 1,052 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.2

Net employment change (2)

-109 -1,163 -42,963 4,392 4,701 0.0 -0.2 -7.9 0.8 0.8

Wholesale trade

Gross job gains

7,947 7,979 5,618 11,603 9,844 3.7 3.7 2.8 5.8 4.8

At expanding establishments

6,637 6,821 4,261 9,762 8,382 3.1 3.2 2.1 4.9 4.1

At opening establishments

1,310 1,158 1,357 1,841 1,462 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.9 0.7

Gross job losses

8,491 7,999 23,608 8,041 7,274 3.9 3.7 11.4 4.0 3.6

At contracting establishments

6,766 6,164 21,137 6,497 5,607 3.1 2.9 10.2 3.2 2.8

At closing establishments

1,725 1,835 2,471 1,544 1,667 0.8 0.8 1.2 0.8 0.8

Net employment change (2)

-544 -20 -17,990 3,562 2,570 -0.2 0.0 -8.6 1.8 1.2

Retail trade

Gross job gains

32,113 35,500 30,434 65,992 32,497 5.2 5.8 5.3 11.7 5.7

At expanding establishments

28,177 32,402 27,696 56,592 29,189 4.6 5.3 4.8 10.0 5.1

At opening establishments

3,936 3,098 2,738 9,400 3,308 0.6 0.5 0.5 1.7 0.6

Gross job losses

31,631 33,659 107,901 29,192 31,628 5.2 5.5 18.6 5.2 5.5

At contracting establishments

28,418 29,152 93,945 26,223 27,251 4.7 4.8 16.2 4.7 4.7

At closing establishments

3,213 4,507 13,956 2,969 4,377 0.5 0.7 2.4 0.5 0.8

Net employment change (2)

482 1,841 -77,467 36,800 869 0.0 0.3 -13.3 6.5 0.2

Transportation and warehousing

Gross job gains

22,341 16,029 16,029 24,391 29,173 8.0 5.7 6.0 9.4 10.6

At expanding establishments

20,642 14,631 14,596 19,967 24,670 7.4 5.2 5.5 7.7 9.0

At opening establishments

1,699 1,398 1,433 4,424 4,503 0.6 0.5 0.5 1.7 1.6

Gross job losses

10,448 19,973 38,661 16,195 12,131 3.8 7.2 14.6 6.3 4.4

At contracting establishments

9,135 18,026 35,710 14,960 10,407 3.3 6.5 13.5 5.8 3.8

At closing establishments

1,313 1,947 2,951 1,235 1,724 0.5 0.7 1.1 0.5 0.6

Net employment change (2)

11,893 -3,944 -22,632 8,196 17,042 4.2 -1.5 -8.6 3.1 6.2

Information

Gross job gains

4,532 3,954 2,316 6,298 3,696 5.2 4.5 2.8 7.8 4.6

At expanding establishments

3,662 3,396 1,770 5,163 2,837 4.2 3.9 2.1 6.4 3.5

At opening establishments

870 558 546 1,135 859 1.0 0.6 0.7 1.4 1.1

Gross job losses

4,106 4,591 12,592 3,541 4,408 4.7 5.2 15.1 4.4 5.4

At contracting establishments

3,316 3,961 10,424 2,798 3,506 3.8 4.5 12.5 3.5 4.3

At closing establishments

790 630 2,168 743 902 0.9 0.7 2.6 0.9 1.1

Net employment change (2)

426 -637 -10,276 2,757 -712 0.5 -0.7 -12.3 3.4 -0.8

Financial activities

Gross job gains

11,852 11,049 8,902 13,887 11,186 3.5 3.4 2.7 4.3 3.5

At expanding establishments

9,403 9,536 7,035 11,202 9,016 2.8 2.9 2.1 3.5 2.8

At opening establishments

2,449 1,513 1,867 2,685 2,170 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.8 0.7

Gross job losses

10,953 10,733 21,714 11,265 11,803 3.3 3.2 6.6 3.4 3.7

At contracting establishments

9,039 8,489 18,781 9,172 9,615 2.7 2.5 5.7 2.8 3.0

At closing establishments

1,914 2,244 2,933 2,093 2,188 0.6 0.7 0.9 0.6 0.7

Net employment change (2)

899 316 -12,812 2,622 -617 0.2 0.2 -3.9 0.9 -0.2

Professional and business services

Gross job gains

51,691 42,276 34,393 58,870 62,091 6.3 5.2 4.5 7.9 8.1

At expanding establishments

42,489 35,158 26,268 47,800 52,607 5.2 4.3 3.4 6.4 6.9

At opening establishments

9,202 7,118 8,125 11,070 9,484 1.1 0.9 1.1 1.5 1.2

Gross job losses

48,462 50,630 113,196 46,385 38,514 5.9 6.3 14.7 6.2 5.0

At contracting establishments

38,998 40,208 100,412 37,354 29,354 4.7 5.0 13.0 5.0 3.8

At closing establishments

9,464 10,422 12,784 9,031 9,160 1.2 1.3 1.7 1.2 1.2

Net employment change (2)

3,229 -8,354 -78,803 12,485 23,577 0.4 -1.1 -10.2 1.7 3.1

Education and health services

Gross job gains

43,224 42,586 22,964 62,480 41,337 3.5 3.4 1.9 5.4 3.5

At expanding establishments

38,385 38,967 18,257 52,271 36,506 3.1 3.1 1.5 4.5 3.1

At opening establishments

4,839 3,619 4,707 10,209 4,831 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.9 0.4

Gross job losses

36,247 42,994 114,881 38,240 42,077 2.9 3.4 9.6 3.3 3.6

At contracting establishments

30,680 34,976 101,445 33,211 36,341 2.5 2.8 8.5 2.9 3.1

At closing establishments

5,567 8,018 13,436 5,029 5,736 0.4 0.6 1.1 0.4 0.5

Net employment change (2)

6,977 -408 -91,917 24,240 -740 0.6 0.0 -7.7 2.1 -0.1

Leisure and hospitality

Gross job gains

56,220 47,619 19,609 141,840 45,062 9.7 8.2 4.3 36.8 10.8

At expanding establishments

45,939 38,868 13,120 113,549 35,324 7.9 6.7 2.9 29.5 8.5

At opening establishments

10,281 8,751 6,489 28,291 9,738 1.8 1.5 1.4 7.3 2.3

Gross job losses

47,938 69,607 285,916 27,739 58,127 8.2 12.0 62.6 7.2 13.9

At contracting establishments

39,548 56,092 236,478 20,730 48,630 6.8 9.7 51.8 5.4 11.6

At closing establishments

8,390 13,515 49,438 7,009 9,497 1.4 2.3 10.8 1.8 2.3

Net employment change (2)

8,282 -21,988 -266,307 114,101 -13,065 1.5 -3.8 -58.3 29.6 -3.1

Other services (3)

Gross job gains

12,344 11,601 6,860 43,324 12,887 6.2 5.9 4.0 27.8 7.6

At expanding establishments

9,936 9,638 4,796 22,411 9,607 5.0 4.9 2.8 14.4 5.7

At opening establishments

2,408 1,963 2,064 20,913 3,280 1.2 1.0 1.2 13.4 1.9

Gross job losses

11,271 14,757 69,800 10,682 13,236 5.7 7.5 41.2 6.8 7.8

At contracting establishments

9,476 11,052 43,021 7,855 10,162 4.8 5.6 25.4 5.0 6.0

At closing establishments

1,795 3,705 26,779 2,827 3,074 0.9 1.9 15.8 1.8 1.8

Net employment change (2)

1,073 -3,156 -62,940 32,642 -349 0.5 -1.6 -37.2 21.0 -0.2

Footnotes:
(1) Includes unclassified sector not shown separately.
(2) The net employment change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses. See the Technical Note for further information.
(3) Except public administration.

Table 2. Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted
Category Gross job gains as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Gross job losses as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Dec.
2019
Mar.
2020
June
2020
Sept.
2020
Dec.
2020
Dec.
2019
Mar.
2020
June
2020
Sept.
2020
Dec.
2020

United States(1)

6.2 5.5 4.8 9.4 7.4 5.5 6.1 17.0 6.0 5.7

Alabama

6.2 5.5 4.8 7.8 7.8 5.5 5.9 12.6 5.9 5.0

Alaska

10.3 9.2 6.9 12.2 13.4 10.2 9.5 24.5 9.9 7.7

Arizona

6.4 5.6 5.7 7.9 7.4 5.2 5.9 11.7 6.2 4.9

Arkansas

6.5 5.1 4.8 7.5 7.1 4.9 5.5 12.0 5.6 5.1

California

6.8 6.1 5.2 8.7 8.4 6.0 6.7 18.6 7.3 6.2

Colorado

6.7 6.3 5.8 10.0 7.5 6.2 7.0 14.9 6.3 7.2

Connecticut

5.5 5.2 4.3 11.2 6.5 5.6 5.9 19.7 5.1 5.8

Delaware

6.7 6.2 4.9 10.3 6.7 6.2 6.6 17.7 6.3 5.7

District of Columbia

5.4 5.2 3.3 8.3 5.2 4.7 5.3 22.4 5.8 5.5

Florida

6.6 5.4 6.1 9.5 7.6 5.9 6.2 13.9 6.8 5.6

Georgia

6.5 5.6 5.4 9.2 7.8 5.5 5.9 15.0 6.4 5.2

Hawaii

5.7 5.2 3.6 7.4 14.7 5.2 5.8 29.8 12.7 4.6

Idaho

7.7 7.6 6.4 8.4 8.7 6.3 6.1 11.2 6.5 6.1

Illinois

5.6 5.0 4.6 9.7 6.5 5.2 6.0 18.4 5.6 6.1

Indiana

6.0 4.9 4.7 8.3 6.9 5.1 6.0 13.7 5.4 5.0

Iowa

5.8 5.2 4.4 7.4 6.8 5.5 5.9 13.0 5.6 5.1

Kansas

6.3 5.4 5.0 7.9 7.0 5.7 6.0 13.3 6.0 6.0

Kentucky

6.2 5.3 4.6 8.8 6.8 5.6 6.1 15.3 5.0 5.4

Louisiana

5.9 5.3 4.5 8.8 8.7 5.7 6.3 16.9 7.2 5.5

Maine

7.3 6.4 5.4 12.0 8.5 6.9 7.0 21.7 6.0 6.3

Maryland

6.4 5.7 4.7 11.0 7.1 5.9 6.7 21.9 5.9 5.9

Massachusetts

5.8 5.2 3.7 12.5 7.0 5.6 6.0 24.2 5.6 5.6

Michigan

5.8 5.0 4.0 10.9 6.8 5.3 5.7 20.7 4.8 7.0

Minnesota

5.8 5.0 4.3 9.0 7.0 5.6 5.6 17.6 5.4 6.9

Mississippi

6.2 5.6 5.1 8.7 7.9 5.6 6.2 12.9 5.5 4.9

Missouri

6.2 5.2 4.7 8.5 7.2 5.3 5.7 14.3 5.7 5.3

Montana

8.6 7.7 6.8 9.9 9.3 7.2 7.7 13.8 7.2 6.8

Nebraska

6.2 5.8 4.9 8.1 6.8 5.8 6.1 12.1 5.9 5.6

Nevada

6.8 5.4 5.3 12.8 8.9 5.0 6.3 29.2 6.4 5.7

New Hampshire

6.6 6.0 4.5 11.9 7.4 6.0 6.4 18.8 5.1 6.5

New Jersey

6.5 5.7 4.6 15.7 8.1 5.8 6.3 28.1 5.8 5.9

New Mexico

7.0 6.1 4.5 8.3 7.1 6.3 6.5 17.6 6.0 7.6

New York

6.0 5.5 3.9 13.3 7.4 5.7 6.4 26.9 5.9 6.4

North Carolina

6.3 5.8 4.8 8.5 7.8 5.4 5.7 14.5 5.6 5.1

North Dakota

6.7 6.8 5.2 8.8 7.2 6.6 7.0 17.2 6.9 7.1

Ohio

5.7 5.1 4.5 7.7 6.6 5.3 5.6 14.4 5.3 5.2

Oklahoma

6.5 5.4 5.6 6.8 7.8 6.2 6.7 12.3 6.4 5.6

Oregon

6.7 6.2 5.0 9.0 7.4 5.8 6.5 18.4 6.2 6.5

Pennsylvania

5.4 4.9 3.6 10.3 6.2 4.9 5.6 18.2 5.0 5.3

Rhode Island

6.5 6.1 4.5 12.9 7.5 5.9 6.5 25.2 5.3 7.1

South Carolina

6.5 5.5 5.1 8.8 8.1 5.9 6.6 14.9 6.1 5.3

South Dakota

6.4 6.0 5.1 8.6 7.2 5.8 6.6 11.6 5.5 6.2

Tennessee

5.7 4.9 4.4 8.1 7.5 5.0 5.3 13.7 5.4 4.6

Texas

6.0 5.0 4.7 7.2 7.5 5.1 5.5 13.6 6.0 4.8

Utah

6.8 6.6 6.5 9.1 8.1 6.3 6.4 10.9 6.2 5.5

Vermont

6.9 5.8 4.6 12.3 7.6 6.4 7.6 18.5 5.7 7.9

Virginia

6.5 5.6 4.7 10.2 7.0 5.5 6.1 18.2 5.3 5.3

Washington

6.6 7.4 4.9 8.9 7.1 5.8 7.4 16.9 6.2 6.0

West Virginia

6.2 6.0 5.1 8.8 7.4 7.1 6.8 13.8 7.0 6.2

Wisconsin

5.4 5.0 4.4 7.6 6.3 5.0 5.3 14.4 5.2 5.1

Wyoming

9.4 8.6 6.4 10.7 10.0 8.7 9.3 18.1 7.7 7.6

Puerto Rico

5.4 5.0 4.0 11.0 6.6 4.9 5.2 16.9 5.1 4.9

Virgin Islands

10.3 7.2 5.3 8.4 8.9 7.3 8.3 19.8 12.3 5.4

Footnotes
(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

 

Last Modified Date: Thursday, August 26, 2021