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News Release Information

20-1457-CHI
Monday, August 17, 2020

Contacts

Technical information:
Media contact:
  • (312) 353-1138

Business Employment Dynamics in Iowa — Fourth Quarter 2019

From September 2019 to December 2019, gross job gains from opening and expanding private-sector establishments in Iowa were 75,734, while gross job losses from closing and contracting private-sector establishments were 69,937, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Acting Regional Commissioner Bryan Droste noted that the difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of gross job losses yielded a net employment gain of 5,797 jobs in the private sector during the fourth quarter of 2019. During the previous quarter, gross job losses exceeded gross job gains by 4,566. (See chart 1.)

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of increases and decreases in employment that occur at all private businesses in the economy. Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track these changes in employment at private-sector establishments from the third month of one quarter to the third month of the next. The difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of gross job losses is the net change in employment. (See Technical Note.)

Gross job gains

In the fourth quarter of 2019, gross job gains represented 5.8 percent of private-sector employment in Iowa; nationally, gross job gains accounted for 6.2 percent of private-sector employment. (See chart 2.) Gross job gains are the sum of increases in employment due to expansions at existing establishments and the addition of new jobs at opening establishments. In Iowa, gross job gains at expanding establishments totaled 63,707 in the fourth quarter of 2019, an increase of 6,525 jobs compared to the previous quarter. (See table 1.) Opening establishments accounted for 12,027 jobs gained in the fourth quarter of 2019, an increase of 513 jobs from the previous quarter.

Gross job losses

In the fourth quarter of 2019, gross job losses represented 5.3 percent of private-sector employment in Iowa; nationally, gross job losses accounted for 5.6 percent of private-sector employment. (See chart 2.) Gross job losses are the result of contractions in employment at existing establishments and the loss of jobs at closing establishments. In Iowa, contracting establishments lost 58,872 jobs in the fourth quarter of 2019, a decrease of 4,284 jobs from the prior quarter. Closing establishments lost 11,065 jobs, an increase of 959 jobs from the previous quarter.

Industries

Gross job gains exceeded gross job losses in 8 of the 10 industry sectors in Iowa in the fourth quarter of 2019. Leisure and hospitality had an over-the-quarter net job increase, with a gain of 1,999 jobs. This was the result of 14,278 gross job gains and 12,279 gross job losses. The transportation and warehousing sector had a net gain of 1,766 jobs. Professional and business services (-1,808) and construction (-618) were the only two sectors to record net job losses over-the-quarter in the state.

For more information

The BED data series include gross job gains and gross job losses by industry subsector, for the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, as well as gross job gains and gross job losses at the firm level by employer size class. BED data for the states have been included in table 2 of this release. Additional information is available online at www.bls.gov/bdm/.

Additional statistics and other information

BED data for the states have been included in table 2 of this release. For more information on the Business Employment Dynamics data, visit the BED web site at www.bls.gov/bdm/.

The Business Employment Dynamics release for first quarter 2020 is scheduled to be released on Wednesday, October 28, 2020.


Technical Note

The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW). The BED data are compiled by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) from existing QCEW records. Most employers in the U.S. are required to file quarterly reports on the employment and wages of workers covered by unemployment insurance (UI) laws, and to pay quarterly UI taxes. The QCEW is based largely on quarterly UI reports which are sent by businesses to the State Workforce Agencies (SWAs). These UI reports are supplemented by two additional BLS data collections to render administrative data into economic statistics. Together these data comprise the QCEW and form the basis of the Bureau’s establishment universe sampling frame.

In the BED program, the QCEW records are linked across quarters to provide a longitudinal history for each establishment. The linkage process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and expanding units and jobs lost at closing and contracting units.

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses in the economy. BED statistics track these changes in employment at private business establishments from the third month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing establishments and the addition of new jobs at opening establishments. Gross job losses are the result of contractions in employment at existing establishments and the loss of jobs at closing establishments. The difference between the number of gross jobs gained and the number of gross jobs lost is the net change in employment.

Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quarters. The rates are calculated for the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to form their respective totals. These rates can be added and subtracted just as their levels can. For instance, the difference between the gross job gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:

Openings.  These are either units with positive third month employment for the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or with positive third month employment in the current quarter following zero employment in the previous quarter.

Expansions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment over this period.

Closings.  These are either units with positive third month employment in the previous quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the current quarter.

Contractions.  These are units with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment over this period.

The full Technical Note for the Business Employment Dynamics program, which includes information on coverage, concepts, and methodology, can be found in the current quarterly news release online at https://www.bls.gov/news.release/cewbd.htm.

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, Iowa, seasonally adjusted
CategoryGross job gains and job losses
(3 months ended)
Gross job gains and job losses
as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Dec.
2018
Mar.
2019
June
2019
Sept
2019
Dec.
2019
Dec.
2018
Mar.
2019
June
2019
Sept
2019
Dec.
2019

Total private (1)

Gross job gains

75,87967,34675,89668,69675,7345.85.15.85.35.8

At expanding establishments

64,05156,34963,15357,18263,7074.94.34.84.44.9

At opening establishments

11,82810,99712,74311,51412,0270.90.81.00.90.9

Gross job losses

69,65871,89273,36273,26269,9375.35.45.65.65.3

At contracting establishments

58,78862,08062,32463,15658,8724.54.74.84.84.5

At closing establishments

10,8709,81211,03810,10611,0650.80.70.80.80.8

Net employment change (2)

6,221-4,5462,534-4,5665,7970.5-0.30.2-0.30.5

Construction

Gross job gains

7,6967,4949,5528,2808,12010.09.612.310.710.4

At expanding establishments

6,1536,0827,8226,7896,4028.07.810.18.88.2

At opening establishments

1,5431,4121,7301,4911,7182.01.82.21.92.2

Gross job losses

8,7029,1727,3268,0618,73811.211.89.410.411.2

At contracting establishments

6,8887,7305,9106,5896,9438.99.97.68.58.9

At closing establishments

1,8141,4421,4161,4721,7952.31.91.81.92.3

Net employment change (2)

-1,006-1,6782,226219-618-1.2-2.22.90.3-0.8

Manufacturing

Gross job gains

7,3396,0186,3075,1456,2553.32.72.82.32.7

At expanding establishments

6,9805,8795,8844,8765,9403.12.62.62.22.6

At opening establishments

3591394232693150.20.10.20.10.1

Gross job losses

4,8125,7225,4296,7665,4912.12.52.43.02.5

At contracting establishments

4,5055,2645,0476,5755,0982.02.32.22.92.3

At closing establishments

3074583821913930.10.20.20.10.2

Net employment change (2)

2,527296878-1,6217641.20.20.4-0.70.2

Wholesale trade

Gross job gains

3,3722,9693,2362,3483,3285.14.54.93.65.0

At expanding establishments

2,9312,6572,9291,9042,9684.44.04.42.94.5

At opening establishments

4413123074443600.70.50.50.70.5

Gross job losses

2,4163,2152,8713,2252,2673.64.94.34.93.4

At contracting establishments

1,9972,7662,5482,8471,8453.04.23.84.32.8

At closing establishments

4194493233784220.60.70.50.60.6

Net employment change (2)

956-246365-8771,0611.5-0.40.6-1.31.6

Retail trade

Gross job gains

9,2248,9969,0628,9359,4175.25.15.25.15.4

At expanding establishments

8,3317,9867,8998,0208,5324.74.54.54.64.9

At opening establishments

8931,0101,1639158850.50.60.70.50.5

Gross job losses

9,7299,14211,5059,7068,9495.55.16.55.65.2

At contracting establishments

8,5898,3739,8908,6787,9774.94.75.65.04.6

At closing establishments

1,1407691,6151,0289720.60.40.90.60.6

Net employment change (2)

-505-146-2,443-771468-0.30.0-1.3-0.50.2

Transportation and warehousing

Gross job gains

3,9732,4792,9563,1394,4596.74.14.95.27.2

At expanding establishments

3,5402,0432,4812,7564,0676.03.44.14.66.6

At opening establishments

4334364753833920.70.70.80.60.6

Gross job losses

2,0623,2362,7553,0762,6933.55.44.65.14.4

At contracting establishments

1,7572,9442,3622,4082,3353.04.93.94.03.8

At closing establishments

3052923936683580.50.50.71.10.6

Net employment change (2)

1,911-757201631,7663.2-1.30.30.12.8

Financial activities

Gross job gains

3,5273,1664,4543,7653,9083.32.94.03.43.6

At expanding establishments

2,8092,6663,5383,1053,1772.62.43.22.82.9

At opening establishments

7185009166607310.70.50.80.60.7

Gross job losses

3,3713,3384,2023,7523,7223.13.03.83.43.4

At contracting establishments

2,7672,7633,6013,2873,0992.52.53.33.02.8

At closing establishments

6045756014656230.60.50.50.40.6

Net employment change (2)

156-172252131860.2-0.10.20.00.2

Professional and business services

Gross job gains

9,8639,29611,2119,6699,0737.06.78.16.96.5

At expanding establishments

7,4377,6089,0907,1116,8535.35.56.65.14.9

At opening establishments

2,4261,6882,1212,5582,2201.71.21.51.81.6

Gross job losses

11,6449,5969,64210,15110,8818.36.96.97.37.8

At contracting establishments

9,3077,7607,6758,4888,4886.65.65.56.16.1

At closing establishments

2,3371,8361,9671,6632,3931.71.31.41.21.7

Net employment change (2)

-1,781-3001,569-482-1,808-1.3-0.21.2-0.4-1.3

Education and health services

Gross job gains

10,3908,6088,9118,7119,9934.73.94.14.04.6

At expanding establishments

9,0017,0857,4277,6828,6964.13.23.43.54.0

At opening establishments

1,3891,5231,4841,0291,2970.60.70.70.50.6

Gross job losses

8,7529,6739,5548,4138,4294.04.44.43.83.8

At contracting establishments

7,6688,6058,5067,4597,2743.53.93.93.43.3

At closing establishments

1,0841,0681,0489541,1550.50.50.50.40.5

Net employment change (2)

1,638-1,065-6432981,5640.7-0.5-0.30.20.8

Leisure and hospitality

Gross job gains

14,35812,60413,81712,40114,27810.18.79.68.79.9

At expanding establishments

11,7839,80310,8059,73011,4088.36.87.56.87.9

At opening establishments

2,5752,8013,0122,6712,8701.81.92.11.92.0

Gross job losses

12,02812,54614,05314,02512,2798.48.79.79.88.5

At contracting establishments

10,02710,67211,86311,74710,3957.07.48.28.27.2

At closing establishments

2,0011,8742,1902,2781,8841.41.31.51.61.3

Net employment change (2)

2,33058-236-1,6241,9991.70.0-0.1-1.11.4

Other services (3)

Gross job gains

2,9022,6323,3333,1503,0587.46.88.57.97.6

At expanding establishments

2,4802,1322,7032,6252,6246.35.56.96.66.5

At opening establishments

4225006305254341.11.31.61.31.1

Gross job losses

2,6152,6542,3882,7212,9206.76.86.16.97.3

At contracting establishments

2,1172,2241,9942,3002,1215.45.75.15.85.3

At closing establishments

4984303944217991.31.11.01.12.0

Net employment change (2)

287-229454291380.70.02.41.00.3

Footnotes:
(1) Includes unclassified sector not shown separately.
(2) The net employment change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses. See the Technical Note for further information.
(3) Except public administration.

Table 2. Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted
CategoryGross job gains as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Gross job losses as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Dec.
2018
Mar.
2019
June
2019
Sept.
2019
Dec.
2019
Dec.
2018
Mar.
2019
June
2019
Sept.
2019
Dec.
2019

United States(1)

6.35.96.05.86.25.65.55.95.85.6

Alabama

6.36.05.85.96.35.35.56.05.95.7

Alaska

11.010.010.89.510.29.89.010.210.110.2

Arizona

6.25.65.76.46.45.15.55.74.85.2

Arkansas

5.95.25.05.56.45.05.15.75.54.8

California

6.96.36.66.36.75.96.26.46.15.9

Colorado

6.86.67.06.66.76.06.36.26.46.2

Connecticut

5.35.25.85.55.54.95.75.95.85.5

Delaware

6.66.46.06.16.55.65.56.36.26.2

District of Columbia

5.65.45.45.45.45.14.95.55.44.7

Florida

6.46.16.56.56.66.15.66.35.75.9

Georgia

6.36.86.26.26.55.85.76.46.15.6

Hawaii

5.85.44.75.55.65.15.96.15.35.4

Idaho

7.47.57.16.97.76.36.16.76.86.3

Illinois

5.55.25.64.95.65.65.15.35.65.2

Indiana

5.65.95.25.46.05.04.85.85.75.1

Iowa

5.85.15.85.35.85.35.45.65.65.3

Kansas

6.15.45.75.76.35.45.75.75.65.7

Kentucky

6.15.85.85.86.15.45.55.95.75.8

Louisiana

6.25.96.05.95.95.85.96.56.15.8

Maine

7.37.27.56.47.46.76.47.57.27.0

Maryland

6.86.46.36.26.56.45.76.46.65.8

Massachusetts

5.85.76.05.35.85.35.25.75.95.5

Michigan

5.65.15.55.15.85.24.65.86.05.3

Minnesota

5.75.25.85.25.85.45.15.55.85.6

Mississippi

6.55.75.85.56.25.36.26.05.85.5

Missouri

5.85.45.65.86.15.45.35.85.85.2

Montana

8.97.68.07.38.67.28.07.77.77.2

Nebraska

5.95.75.75.66.25.75.65.75.55.8

Nevada

6.66.05.96.06.85.55.46.05.75.0

New Hampshire

6.66.36.45.86.65.75.76.36.65.9

New Jersey

6.45.76.26.06.55.75.65.86.15.8

New Mexico

6.86.46.36.76.76.15.86.36.16.2

New York

6.36.06.05.86.05.75.35.95.95.7

North Carolina

6.76.36.15.76.25.35.15.75.95.3

North Dakota

6.87.16.76.66.76.26.46.77.16.7

Ohio

5.65.55.65.35.75.35.15.75.85.3

Oklahoma

6.55.85.96.36.46.15.86.26.16.2

Oregon

6.76.36.36.26.76.05.86.16.25.8

Pennsylvania

5.35.15.25.25.44.84.85.35.24.9

Rhode Island

6.45.86.45.86.55.75.66.76.25.9

South Carolina

7.46.46.36.06.55.46.06.25.75.9

South Dakota

6.35.76.25.86.45.86.46.06.05.7

Tennessee

5.85.45.55.55.64.94.85.05.15.0

Texas

6.25.55.75.86.05.25.25.35.25.1

Utah

6.97.36.96.86.86.26.26.56.26.3

Vermont

7.46.76.96.36.96.86.37.17.66.4

Virginia

6.36.46.15.26.65.65.55.96.05.5

Washington

6.46.26.66.06.65.65.65.76.05.7

West Virginia

6.36.06.25.86.26.56.66.56.77.1

Wisconsin

5.45.15.54.85.55.04.85.35.85.0

Wyoming

10.08.68.58.59.37.87.89.68.78.6

Puerto Rico

6.07.16.46.15.46.85.15.85.44.9

Virgin Islands

7.911.98.811.210.27.17.46.16.67.1

Footnotes
(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

 

Last Modified Date: Monday, August 17, 2020