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News Release Information

19-1869-CHI
Friday, December 20, 2019

Contacts

Technical information:
Media contact:
  • (312) 353-1138

Business Employment Dynamics in Wisconsin — First Quarter 2019

From December 2018 to March 2019, gross job gains from opening and expanding private-sector establishments in Wisconsin totaled 127,951, while gross job losses from closing and contracting private-sector establishments numbered 120,014, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Assistant Commissioner for Regional Operations Charlene Peiffer noted that the difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of gross job losses yielded a net employment gain of 7,937 from the fourth quarter of 2018 to the first quarter of 2019. During the previous quarter, gross job gains exceeded gross job losses by 11,859. (See chart 1 and table 1.)

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses in the economy. Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track these changes in employment at private business establishments from the third month of one quarter to the third month of the next. The difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of gross job losses is the net change in employment. (See the Technical Note for more information.)

Wisconsin’s 127,951 gross job gains in the first quarter of 2019 were below the 134,830 gross job gains in the previous quarter. The 120,014 gross job losses in the first quarter of 2019 were lower than the 122,971 gross job losses recorded in the fourth quarter of 2018. (See chart 1.)

Gross job gains represented 5.1 percent of private sector employment in Wisconsin in the first quarter of 2019; nationally, gross job gains accounted for 5.9 percent of private sector employment. (See chart 2.) Wisconsin’s gross job losses represented 4.8 percent of private sector employment in the first quarter of 2019 compared to the U.S. rate of 5.5 percent.

During the first quarter of 2019, gross job gains exceeded gross job losses in 9 of the 10 industry sectors in Wisconsin. The leisure and hospitality industry created almost 28,000 jobs in opening and expanding establishments, but lost nearly 25,000 jobs in closing and contracting establishments. The resulting net gain of 2,841 jobs was the largest of any sector in Wisconsin in the first quarter of 2019. Construction and professional and business services had net employment gains of 1,238 and 1,021 respectively. Among the six other sectors with net employment gains, gross job gains exceeded gross job losses by less than 850.

In contrast, the transportation and warehousing industry had gross job losses that exceeded gross job gains, resulting in a net employment loss of 1,317 jobs.  (See table 1.)

Each of the five states in the East North Central Census division had gross job gains that exceeded gross job losses. (See table A.) Indiana’s 5.9-percent rate of gross job gains matched the national rate. Wisconsin was among the four states that had rates of gross job gains that were lower than the national rate. All states in the division had rates of gross job losses that were below the 5.5-percent national rate.

Table A. Private sector gross job gains and losses for the United States, East North Central Division, and East North Central states, March 2019, seasonally adjusted
Area Gross job gains Gross job losses Net change Net change as
a percent of
total
employment
Total As a
percent of
total
employment
Total As a
percent of
total
employment

United States

7,375,000 5.9 6,850,000 5.5 525,000 0.4

East North Central (1)

1,010,181 936,226 73,955

Illinois

273,000 5.2 268,937 5.1 4,063 0.1

Indiana

156,880 5.9 129,593 4.8 27,287 1.1

Michigan

193,954 5.1 175,917 4.6 18,037 0.5

Ohio

258,396 5.5 241,765 5.1 16,631 0.4

Wisconsin

127,951 5.1 120,014 4.8 7,937 0.3

Footnotes:
(1) Data were calculated for this release using published gross job gains and gross job losses for states located in the East North Central Census Division.

Note: Dash indicates data not available.

Additional statistics and other information

BED data for the states have been included in table 2 of this release. For more information on the Business Employment Dynamics data, visit the BED web site at www.bls.gov/bdm/.

The Business Employment Dynamics release for second quarter 2019 is scheduled to be released on Wednesday, January 29, 2020.

Changes to Business Employment Dynamics (BED) Data

Data in this release incorporate annual revisions to the BED series. Annual revisions are published each year with the release of first quarter data. These revisions cover the last four quarters of not seasonally adjusted data and five years of seasonally adjusted data.


Technical Note

The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-state cooperative program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW). The BED data are compiled by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) from existing QCEW records. Most employers in the U.S. are required to file quarterly reports on the employment and wages of workers covered by unemployment insurance (UI) laws, and to pay quarterly UI taxes. The QCEW is based largely on quarterly UI reports which are sent by businesses to the State Workforce Agencies (SWAs). These UI reports are supplemented by two additional BLS data collections to render administrative data into economic statistics. Together these data comprise the QCEW and form the basis of the Bureau’s establishment universe sampling frame.

In the BED program, the QCEW records are linked across quarters to provide a longitudinal history for each establishment. The linkage process allows the tracking of net employment changes at the establishment level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained at opening and expanding establishments and jobs lost at closing and contracting establishments.

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses in the economy. BED statistics track these changes in employment at private business establishments from the third month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing establishments and the addition of new jobs at opening establishments. Gross job losses are the result of contractions in employment at existing establishments and the loss of jobs at closing establishments. The difference between the number of gross jobs gained and the number of gross jobs lost is the net change in employment.

Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing their levels by the average of employment in the current and previous quarters. The rates are calculated for the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to form their respective totals. These rates can be added and subtracted just as their levels can. For instance, the difference between the gross job gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net growth rate.

The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:

Openings.  These are either establishments with positive third month employment for the first time in the current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or with positive third month employment in the current quarter following zero employment in the previous quarter.

Expansions.  These are establishments with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and current quarters, with a net increase in employment over this period.

Closings.  These are either establishments with positive third month employment in the previous quarter, with no employment or zero employment reported in the current quarter.

Contractions.  These are establishments with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and current quarters, with a net decrease in employment over this period.

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, Wisconsin, seasonally adjusted
Category Gross job gains and job losses
(3 months ended)
Gross job gains and job losses
as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Mar.
2018
June
2018
Sept
2018
Dec.
2018
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2018
June
2018
Sept
2018
Dec.
2018
Mar.
2019

Total private (1)

Gross job gains

140,206 136,299 126,775 134,830 127,951 5.6 5.5 5.1 5.4 5.1

At expanding establishments

119,912 117,473 107,352 115,175 108,697 4.8 4.7 4.3 4.6 4.3

At opening establishments

20,294 18,826 19,423 19,655 19,254 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

Gross job losses

116,847 138,290 145,097 122,971 120,014 4.7 5.5 5.9 5.0 4.8

At contracting establishments

101,922 120,677 123,562 103,813 104,646 4.1 4.8 5.0 4.2 4.2

At closing establishments

14,925 17,613 21,535 19,158 15,368 0.6 0.7 0.9 0.8 0.6

Net employment change (2)

23,359 -1,991 -18,322 11,859 7,937 0.9 0.0 -0.8 0.4 0.3

Construction

Gross job gains

13,218 11,675 9,956 10,641 11,433 10.8 9.4 8.2 8.7 9.2

At expanding establishments

10,797 10,051 8,382 8,794 9,484 8.8 8.1 6.9 7.2 7.6

At opening establishments

2,421 1,624 1,574 1,847 1,949 2.0 1.3 1.3 1.5 1.6

Gross job losses

8,889 10,797 12,124 10,933 10,195 7.2 8.7 10.0 8.9 8.2

At contracting establishments

7,571 9,108 9,923 8,964 8,605 6.1 7.3 8.2 7.3 6.9

At closing establishments

1,318 1,689 2,201 1,969 1,590 1.1 1.4 1.8 1.6 1.3

Net employment change (2)

4,329 878 -2,168 -292 1,238 3.6 0.7 -1.8 -0.2 1.0

Manufacturing

Gross job gains

14,047 14,567 12,765 14,991 12,208 3.0 3.1 2.7 3.1 2.5

At expanding establishments

13,481 14,140 11,866 14,565 11,589 2.9 3.0 2.5 3.0 2.4

At opening establishments

566 427 899 426 619 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1

Gross job losses

10,763 12,362 13,360 10,588 11,910 2.3 2.6 2.8 2.2 2.4

At contracting establishments

10,253 11,239 12,748 9,872 11,269 2.2 2.4 2.7 2.1 2.3

At closing establishments

510 1,123 612 716 641 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1

Net employment change (2)

3,284 2,205 -595 4,403 298 0.7 0.5 -0.1 0.9 0.1

Wholesale trade

Gross job gains

5,404 5,449 4,833 5,351 4,760 4.3 4.3 3.8 4.2 3.9

At expanding establishments

4,675 4,818 4,189 4,720 4,275 3.7 3.8 3.3 3.7 3.5

At opening establishments

729 631 644 631 485 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4

Gross job losses

4,872 4,471 5,491 4,233 4,615 3.8 3.5 4.2 3.4 3.7

At contracting establishments

3,932 3,749 4,534 3,397 3,852 3.1 2.9 3.5 2.7 3.1

At closing establishments

940 722 957 836 763 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.6

Net employment change (2)

532 978 -658 1,118 145 0.5 0.8 -0.4 0.8 0.2

Retail trade

Gross job gains

17,902 17,034 15,636 14,407 16,037 5.8 5.5 5.1 4.8 5.3

At expanding establishments

16,075 15,194 14,430 13,337 14,542 5.2 4.9 4.7 4.4 4.8

At opening establishments

1,827 1,840 1,206 1,070 1,495 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.5

Gross job losses

15,209 19,725 20,701 15,685 15,310 5.0 6.4 6.8 5.2 5.1

At contracting establishments

13,813 17,935 17,061 14,322 14,091 4.5 5.8 5.6 4.7 4.7

At closing establishments

1,396 1,790 3,640 1,363 1,219 0.5 0.6 1.2 0.5 0.4

Net employment change (2)

2,693 -2,691 -5,065 -1,278 727 0.8 -0.9 -1.7 -0.4 0.2

Transportation and warehousing

Gross job gains

5,533 4,973 6,423 7,201 4,902 5.6 5.0 6.5 7.2 4.8

At expanding establishments

5,064 4,467 5,746 6,036 4,368 5.1 4.5 5.8 6.0 4.3

At opening establishments

469 506 677 1,165 534 0.5 0.5 0.7 1.2 0.5

Gross job losses

5,705 6,488 4,877 4,565 6,219 5.7 6.5 4.9 4.5 6.1

At contracting establishments

5,263 5,850 4,338 3,950 5,781 5.3 5.9 4.4 3.9 5.7

At closing establishments

442 638 539 615 438 0.4 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.4

Net employment change (2)

-172 -1,515 1,546 2,636 -1,317 -0.1 -1.5 1.6 2.7 -1.3

Financial activities

Gross job gains

5,008 5,522 5,510 5,575 5,792 3.4 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.8

At expanding establishments

4,173 4,683 4,647 4,817 4,832 2.8 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.2

At opening establishments

835 839 863 758 960 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.6

Gross job losses

4,771 5,002 5,698 5,529 5,256 3.2 3.3 3.8 3.7 3.5

At contracting establishments

3,924 4,222 4,626 4,321 4,217 2.6 2.8 3.1 2.9 2.8

At closing establishments

847 780 1,072 1,208 1,039 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.8 0.7

Net employment change (2)

237 520 -188 46 536 0.2 0.4 -0.1 0.0 0.3

Professional and business services

Gross job gains

20,293 20,820 17,056 20,567 18,885 6.1 6.3 5.2 6.4 5.8

At expanding establishments

16,539 18,019 14,366 17,061 16,020 5.0 5.5 4.4 5.3 4.9

At opening establishments

3,754 2,801 2,690 3,506 2,865 1.1 0.8 0.8 1.1 0.9

Gross job losses

20,048 22,703 23,226 19,961 17,864 6.1 6.9 7.1 6.2 5.5

At contracting establishments

17,100 19,761 19,976 16,411 14,938 5.2 6.0 6.1 5.1 4.6

At closing establishments

2,948 2,942 3,250 3,550 2,926 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.1 0.9

Net employment change (2)

245 -1,883 -6,170 606 1,021 0.0 -0.6 -1.9 0.2 0.3

Education and health services

Gross job gains

15,166 17,257 17,060 17,212 14,504 3.5 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.3

At expanding establishments

12,542 13,944 14,004 14,047 12,239 2.9 3.2 3.2 3.2 2.8

At opening establishments

2,624 3,313 3,056 3,165 2,265 0.6 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.5

Gross job losses

13,947 15,910 17,083 15,675 13,674 3.2 3.6 3.9 3.6 3.1

At contracting establishments

11,886 13,237 13,851 12,040 11,716 2.7 3.0 3.2 2.8 2.7

At closing establishments

2,061 2,673 3,232 3,635 1,958 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.4

Net employment change (2)

1,219 1,347 -23 1,537 830 0.3 0.4 0.0 0.3 0.2

Leisure and hospitality

Gross job gains

31,778 27,994 27,307 28,703 27,731 11.3 9.8 9.7 10.1 9.7

At expanding establishments

27,091 23,051 21,276 24,050 22,555 9.6 8.1 7.6 8.5 7.9

At opening establishments

4,687 4,943 6,031 4,653 5,176 1.7 1.7 2.1 1.6 1.8

Gross job losses

22,802 30,639 31,221 25,253 24,890 8.1 10.8 11.2 8.9 8.7

At contracting establishments

19,773 26,751 26,863 21,548 21,559 7.0 9.4 9.6 7.6 7.5

At closing establishments

3,029 3,888 4,358 3,705 3,331 1.1 1.4 1.6 1.3 1.2

Net employment change (2)

8,976 -2,645 -3,914 3,450 2,841 3.2 -1.0 -1.5 1.2 1.0

Other services (3)

Gross job gains

5,226 5,601 4,945 4,824 5,029 6.6 7.1 6.3 6.1 6.4

At expanding establishments

4,410 4,830 4,175 3,784 4,203 5.6 6.1 5.3 4.8 5.3

At opening establishments

816 771 770 1,040 826 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.1

Gross job losses

4,654 4,606 5,458 5,221 5,009 6.0 5.8 6.9 6.6 6.4

At contracting establishments

3,902 3,798 4,640 4,403 4,180 5.0 4.8 5.9 5.6 5.3

At closing establishments

752 808 818 818 829 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.1

Net employment change (2)

572 995 -513 -397 20 0.6 1.3 -0.6 -0.5 0.0

Footnotes:
(1) Includes unclassified sector not shown separately.
(2) The net employment change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses. See the Technical Note for further information.
(3) Except public administration.

Table 2. Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted
Category Gross job gains as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Gross job losses as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Mar.
2018
June
2018
Sept.
2018
Dec.
2018
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2018
June
2018
Sept.
2018
Dec.
2018
Mar.
2019

United States(1)

6.1 6.1 6.0 6.3 5.9 5.5 5.8 6.0 5.6 5.5

Alabama

6.1 5.8 6.0 6.3 6.0 5.4 5.7 5.9 5.3 5.5

Alaska

10.1 10.9 8.9 11.0 10.0 8.9 10.7 10.7 9.8 9.0

Arizona

6.0 6.0 6.6 6.2 5.6 5.3 5.9 5.1 5.1 5.5

Arkansas

5.4 5.0 6.1 5.9 5.2 5.2 5.7 5.6 5.0 5.1

California

6.4 6.7 6.5 6.9 6.3 6.0 6.4 6.2 5.9 6.2

Colorado

6.8 6.8 6.6 6.8 6.6 6.0 6.1 6.8 6.0 6.3

Connecticut

5.1 5.8 5.3 5.3 5.2 5.3 5.1 5.7 4.9 5.7

Delaware

7.1 6.4 5.7 6.6 6.4 5.9 6.0 6.5 5.6 5.5

District of Columbia

6.0 5.6 5.3 5.6 5.4 4.9 5.6 5.5 5.1 4.9

Florida

6.2 6.4 6.8 6.4 6.1 5.5 6.1 5.8 6.1 5.6

Georgia

6.5 6.3 6.7 6.3 6.8 5.7 6.4 6.1 5.8 5.7

Hawaii

5.1 5.3 5.1 5.8 5.4 4.7 5.4 5.4 5.1 5.9

Idaho

7.9 7.3 6.8 7.4 7.5 6.1 6.8 6.9 6.3 6.1

Illinois

5.7 5.6 5.5 5.5 5.2 5.2 5.6 5.8 5.6 5.1

Indiana

5.7 5.5 5.2 5.6 5.9 5.1 5.5 5.4 5.0 4.8

Iowa

5.6 5.7 5.3 5.8 5.1 5.3 5.4 5.7 5.3 5.4

Kansas

5.3 5.7 5.9 6.1 5.4 5.4 5.6 5.7 5.4 5.7

Kentucky

6.2 5.9 5.8 6.1 5.8 5.9 5.7 6.0 5.4 5.5

Louisiana

6.7 6.2 6.3 6.2 5.9 5.9 6.5 6.3 5.8 5.9

Maine

7.0 8.0 6.1 7.3 7.2 7.0 7.1 7.5 6.7 6.4

Maryland

6.3 6.1 6.3 6.8 6.4 5.8 5.8 6.6 6.4 5.7

Massachusetts

5.7 6.1 5.6 5.8 5.7 5.2 5.5 6.1 5.3 5.2

Michigan

5.6 5.5 5.0 5.6 5.1 4.6 5.2 6.2 5.2 4.6

Minnesota

5.4 5.8 5.5 5.7 5.2 5.1 5.2 5.7 5.4 5.1

Mississippi

5.5 5.7 5.9 6.5 5.7 6.0 6.0 5.9 5.3 6.2

Missouri

5.5 5.7 5.9 5.8 5.4 5.2 5.7 6.0 5.4 5.3

Montana

7.9 8.0 7.2 8.9 7.6 7.1 7.8 7.9 7.2 8.0

Nebraska

5.8 5.8 5.9 5.9 5.7 5.6 5.8 5.9 5.7 5.6

Nevada

6.5 6.1 6.7 6.6 6.0 5.5 5.8 5.7 5.5 5.4

New Hampshire

6.1 6.7 5.7 6.6 6.3 6.0 6.2 6.8 5.7 5.7

New Jersey

5.7 6.5 6.0 6.4 5.7 6.1 5.8 6.4 5.7 5.6

New Mexico

6.5 6.7 6.4 6.8 6.4 5.7 6.2 6.4 6.1 5.8

New York

6.3 6.3 6.1 6.3 6.0 5.6 5.8 6.4 5.7 5.3

North Carolina

6.2 6.1 5.7 6.7 6.3 5.3 5.7 6.4 5.3 5.1

North Dakota

7.1 6.7 6.6 6.8 7.1 6.3 6.2 6.6 6.2 6.4

Ohio

5.6 5.6 5.4 5.6 5.5 5.1 5.4 5.8 5.3 5.1

Oklahoma

6.2 6.4 6.7 6.5 5.8 5.7 6.3 6.1 6.1 5.8

Oregon

8.0 6.2 6.2 6.7 6.3 5.8 6.3 6.3 6.0 5.8

Pennsylvania

5.3 5.3 5.4 5.3 5.1 4.9 5.1 5.2 4.8 4.8

Rhode Island

6.4 6.3 6.2 6.4 5.8 6.1 6.1 6.4 5.7 5.6

South Carolina

6.3 7.5 5.8 7.4 6.4 5.1 6.7 6.5 5.4 6.0

South Dakota

6.4 6.1 6.0 6.3 5.7 5.9 6.1 5.7 5.8 6.4

Tennessee

5.1 5.5 5.8 5.8 5.4 4.9 5.3 5.3 4.9 4.8

Texas

5.9 5.9 6.0 6.2 5.5 5.1 5.3 5.4 5.2 5.2

Utah

7.5 6.9 7.3 6.9 7.3 6.0 6.4 6.4 6.2 6.2

Vermont

6.5 7.2 6.9 7.4 6.7 7.0 7.1 7.6 6.8 6.3

Virginia

6.0 6.2 5.7 6.3 6.4 5.4 5.8 6.3 5.6 5.5

Washington

7.2 7.3 6.2 6.4 6.2 6.2 6.5 6.5 5.6 5.6

West Virginia

6.9 6.8 7.0 6.3 6.0 6.0 6.4 6.4 6.5 6.6

Wisconsin

5.6 5.5 5.1 5.4 5.1 4.7 5.5 5.9 5.0 4.8

Wyoming

8.6 8.4 8.3 10.0 8.6 8.0 8.4 8.4 7.8 7.8

Puerto Rico

8.5 7.9 7.2 6.0 7.1 6.9 6.2 5.8 6.8 5.1

Virgin Islands

13.3 13.2 12.8 7.9 11.9 18.6 7.0 5.9 7.1 7.4

Footnotes
(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 2. Private sector gross job gains and losses as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted
Category Gross job gains as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Gross job losses as a percent of employment
(3 months ended)
Mar.
2018
June
2018
Sept.
2018
Dec.
2018
Mar.
2019
Mar.
2018
June
2018
Sept.
2018
Dec.
2018
Mar.
2019

United States(1)

6.1 6.1 6.0 6.3 5.9 5.5 5.8 6.0 5.6 5.5

Alabama

6.1 5.8 6.0 6.3 6.0 5.4 5.7 5.9 5.3 5.5

Alaska

10.1 10.9 8.9 11.0 10.0 8.9 10.7 10.7 9.8 9.0

Arizona

6.0 6.0 6.6 6.2 5.6 5.3 5.9 5.1 5.1 5.5

Arkansas

5.4 5.0 6.1 5.9 5.2 5.2 5.7 5.6 5.0 5.1

California

6.4 6.7 6.5 6.9 6.3 6.0 6.4 6.2 5.9 6.2

Colorado

6.8 6.8 6.6 6.8 6.6 6.0 6.1 6.8 6.0 6.3

Connecticut

5.1 5.8 5.3 5.3 5.2 5.3 5.1 5.7 4.9 5.7

Delaware

7.1 6.4 5.7 6.6 6.4 5.9 6.0 6.5 5.6 5.5

District of Columbia

6.0 5.6 5.3 5.6 5.4 4.9 5.6 5.5 5.1 4.9

Florida

6.2 6.4 6.8 6.4 6.1 5.5 6.1 5.8 6.1 5.6

Georgia

6.5 6.3 6.7 6.3 6.8 5.7 6.4 6.1 5.8 5.7

Hawaii

5.1 5.3 5.1 5.8 5.4 4.7 5.4 5.4 5.1 5.9

Idaho

7.9 7.3 6.8 7.4 7.5 6.1 6.8 6.9 6.3 6.1

Illinois

5.7 5.6 5.5 5.5 5.2 5.2 5.6 5.8 5.6 5.1

Indiana

5.7 5.5 5.2 5.6 5.9 5.1 5.5 5.4 5.0 4.8

Iowa

5.6 5.7 5.3 5.8 5.1 5.3 5.4 5.7 5.3 5.4

Kansas

5.3 5.7 5.9 6.1 5.4 5.4 5.6 5.7 5.4 5.7

Kentucky

6.2 5.9 5.8 6.1 5.8 5.9 5.7 6.0 5.4 5.5

Louisiana

6.7 6.2 6.3 6.2 5.9 5.9 6.5 6.3 5.8 5.9

Maine

7.0 8.0 6.1 7.3 7.2 7.0 7.1 7.5 6.7 6.4

Maryland

6.3 6.1 6.3 6.8 6.4 5.8 5.8 6.6 6.4 5.7

Massachusetts

5.7 6.1 5.6 5.8 5.7 5.2 5.5 6.1 5.3 5.2

Michigan

5.6 5.5 5.0 5.6 5.1 4.6 5.2 6.2 5.2 4.6

Minnesota

5.4 5.8 5.5 5.7 5.2 5.1 5.2 5.7 5.4 5.1

Mississippi

5.5 5.7 5.9 6.5 5.7 6.0 6.0 5.9 5.3 6.2

Missouri

5.5 5.7 5.9 5.8 5.4 5.2 5.7 6.0 5.4 5.3

Montana

7.9 8.0 7.2 8.9 7.6 7.1 7.8 7.9 7.2 8.0

Nebraska

5.8 5.8 5.9 5.9 5.7 5.6 5.8 5.9 5.7 5.6

Nevada

6.5 6.1 6.7 6.6 6.0 5.5 5.8 5.7 5.5 5.4

New Hampshire

6.1 6.7 5.7 6.6 6.3 6.0 6.2 6.8 5.7 5.7

New Jersey

5.7 6.5 6.0 6.4 5.7 6.1 5.8 6.4 5.7 5.6

New Mexico

6.5 6.7 6.4 6.8 6.4 5.7 6.2 6.4 6.1 5.8

New York

6.3 6.3 6.1 6.3 6.0 5.6 5.8 6.4 5.7 5.3

North Carolina

6.2 6.1 5.7 6.7 6.3 5.3 5.7 6.4 5.3 5.1

North Dakota

7.1 6.7 6.6 6.8 7.1 6.3 6.2 6.6 6.2 6.4

Ohio

5.6 5.6 5.4 5.6 5.5 5.1 5.4 5.8 5.3 5.1

Oklahoma

6.2 6.4 6.7 6.5 5.8 5.7 6.3 6.1 6.1 5.8

Oregon

8.0 6.2 6.2 6.7 6.3 5.8 6.3 6.3 6.0 5.8

Pennsylvania

5.3 5.3 5.4 5.3 5.1 4.9 5.1 5.2 4.8 4.8

Rhode Island

6.4 6.3 6.2 6.4 5.8 6.1 6.1 6.4 5.7 5.6

South Carolina

6.3 7.5 5.8 7.4 6.4 5.1 6.7 6.5 5.4 6.0

South Dakota

6.4 6.1 6.0 6.3 5.7 5.9 6.1 5.7 5.8 6.4

Tennessee

5.1 5.5 5.8 5.8 5.4 4.9 5.3 5.3 4.9 4.8

Texas

5.9 5.9 6.0 6.2 5.5 5.1 5.3 5.4 5.2 5.2

Utah

7.5 6.9 7.3 6.9 7.3 6.0 6.4 6.4 6.2 6.2

Vermont

6.5 7.2 6.9 7.4 6.7 7.0 7.1 7.6 6.8 6.3

Virginia

6.0 6.2 5.7 6.3 6.4 5.4 5.8 6.3 5.6 5.5

Washington

7.2 7.3 6.2 6.4 6.2 6.2 6.5 6.5 5.6 5.6

West Virginia

6.9 6.8 7.0 6.3 6.0 6.0 6.4 6.4 6.5 6.6

Wisconsin

5.6 5.5 5.1 5.4 5.1 4.7 5.5 5.9 5.0 4.8

Wyoming

8.6 8.4 8.3 10.0 8.6 8.0 8.4 8.4 7.8 7.8

Puerto Rico

8.5 7.9 7.2 6.0 7.1 6.9 6.2 5.8 6.8 5.1

Virgin Islands

13.3 13.2 12.8 7.9 11.9 18.6 7.0 5.9 7.1 7.4

Footnotes
(1) Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

 

Last Modified Date: Friday, December 20, 2019