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19-1132-ATL
Wednesday, July 10, 2019

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Occupational Employment and Wages in Winston-Salem — May 2018

Workers in the Winston-Salem Metropolitan Statistical Area had an average (mean) hourly wage of $22.05 in May 2018, about 12 percent below the nationwide average of $24.98, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Regional Commissioner Janet S. Rankin noted that, after testing for statistical significance, 18 of the 22 major occupational groups had average wages in the local area that were significantly lower than their respective national averages, including including legal; construction and extraction; and building and grounds cleaning and maintenance. One group—management—had a significantly higher wage than its respective national average.

When compared to the nationwide distribution, local employment was more highly concentrated in 5 of the 22 occupational groups, including production; healthcare practitioners and technical; and healthcare support. Conversely, 12 groups had employment shares significantly below their national representation, including computer and mathematical; personal care and service; and management. (See table A and box note at end of release.)

Table A. Occupational employment and wages by major occupational group, United States and the Winston-Salem Metropolitan Statistical Area, and measures of statistical significance, May 2018
Major occupational group Percent of total employment Mean hourly wage
United States Winston United States Winston Percent difference (1)

Total, all occupations

100.0 100.0 $24.98 $22.05* -12

Management

5.3 4.0* 58.44 61.32* 5

Business and financial operations

5.3 4.2* 36.98 35.24* -5

Computer and mathematical

3.0 1.7* 44.01 38.28* -13

Architecture and engineering

1.8 1.1* 42.01 36.49* -13

Life, physical, and social science

0.8 0.5* 36.62 32.37* -12

Community and social service

1.5 1.1* 23.69 23.87 1

Legal

0.8 0.7 52.25 38.48* -26

Education, training, and library

6.1 6.8* 27.22 28.02 3

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media

1.3 0.8* 28.74 26.42* -8

Healthcare practitioners and technical

6.0 8.7* 39.42 33.79* -14

Healthcare support

2.8 4.4* 15.57 14.46* -7

Protective service

2.4 1.8* 23.36 18.74* -20

Food preparation and serving related

9.2 9.1 12.30 10.41* -15

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance

3.1 3.0 14.43 11.69* -19

Personal care and service

3.8 2.5* 13.51 12.09* -11

Sales and related

10.0 9.6* 20.09 18.39* -8

Office and administrative support

15.1 14.6* 18.75 17.40* -7

Farming, fishing, and forestry

0.3 (2) 14.49 15.70 8

Construction and extraction

4.1 3.2* 24.62 19.28* -22

Installation, maintenance, and repair

3.9 3.8 23.54 21.29* -10

Production

6.3 10.2* 18.84 17.27* -8

Transportation and material moving

7.1 8.2* 18.41 15.31* -17

Footnotes:
(1) A positive percent difference measures how much the mean wage in the Winston-Salem Metropolitan Statistical Area is above the national mean wage, while a negative difference reflects a lower wage.
(2) Estimate not released
* The mean hourly wage or percent share of employment is significantly different from the national average of all areas at the 90-percent confidence level.

One occupational group—production—was chosen to illustrate the diversity of data available for any of the 22 major occupational categories. Winston-Salem had 27,010 jobs in production, accounting for 10.2 percent of local area employment, significantly higher than the 6.3-percent share nationally. The average hourly wage for this occupational group locally was $17.27, significantly below the national wage of $18.84.

Some of the larger detailed occupations within the production group included assemblers and fabricators, all other, including team assemblers (4,780); production worker's helpers (2,070); and first-line supervisors of production and operating workers (1,580). Among the higher-paying jobs in this group were power plant operators, and first-line supervisors of production and operating workers, with mean hourly wages of $40.38 and $30.20, respectively. At the lower end of the wage scale were food batchmakers ($11.22) and sewing machine operators ($11.44). (Detailed data for production occupations are presented in table 1; for a complete listing of detailed occupations available go to www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes_49180.htm.)

Location quotients allow us to explore the occupational make-up of a metropolitan area by comparing the composition of jobs in an area relative to the national average. (See table 1.) For example, a location quotient of 2.0 indicates that an occupation accounts for twice the share of employment in the area than it does nationally. In the Winston-Salem Metropolitan Statistical Area, above-average concentrations of employment were found in many of the occupations within the production group. For instance, textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders were employed at 14.4 times the national rate in Winston, and food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders, at 8.9 times the U.S. average. On the other hand, electrical, electronic, and electromechanical assemblers, except coil winders, tapers, and finishers had a location quotient of 1.1 in Winston, indicating that this particular occupation’s local and national employment shares were similar.

These statistics are from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey, a federal-state cooperative program between BLS and State Workforce Agencies, in this case, the North Carolina Department of Commerce.

Area Changes to the May 2018 Occupational Employment Statistics (OES)

OES continues to publish data for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas that cover the full geography of the United States. However, the level of detail available has decreased.

OES no longer publishes data for metropolitan divisions. Data for the 11 large metropolitan areas that contain divisions are now available at the Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) or New England City and Town Area (NECTA) level only.

In addition, some smaller nonmetropolitan areas have been combined to form larger nonmetropolitan areas. The May 2018 OES estimates contain data for 134 nonmetropolitan areas, compared with 167 nonmetropolitan areas in the May 2017 estimates.

More information on these area changes is available at www.bls.gov/oes/areas_2018.htm.

Implementing the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) System

The OES program plans to begin implementing the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system with the May 2019 estimates, to be released by early April of 2020. Because each set of OES estimates is produced by combining three years of survey data, estimates for May 2019 and May 2020 will be based on a combination of survey data collected under the 2010 SOC and data collected under the 2018 SOC, and will use a hybrid of the two classification systems. The May 2021 OES estimates, to be released by early April of 2022, will be the first set of estimates based fully on the 2018 SOC. For more information, please see www.bls.gov/oes/soc_2018.htm.


Technical Note

The Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey is a semiannual survey measuring occupational employment and wage rates for wage and salary workers in nonfarm establishments in the United States. The OES data available from BLS include cross-industry occupational employment and wage estimates for the nation; over 580 areas, including states and the District of Columbia, metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs), nonmetropolitan areas, and territories; national industry-specific estimates at the NAICS sector, 3-digit, most 4-digit, and selected 5- and 6-digit industry levels, and national estimates by ownership across all industries and for schools and hospitals. OES data are available at www.bls.gov/oes/tables.htm.

The OES survey is a cooperative effort between BLS and the State Workforce Agencies (SWAs). BLS funds the survey and provides the procedures and technical support, while the State Workforce Agencies collect most of the data. OES estimates are constructed from a sample of about 1.2 million establishments. Each year, two semiannual panels of approximately 180,000 to 200,000 sampled establishments are contacted, one panel in May and the other in November. Responses are obtained by mail, Internet or other electronic means, email, telephone, or personal visit. The May 2018 estimates are based on responses from six semiannual panels collected over a 3-year period: May 2018, November 2017, May 2017, November 2016, May 2016, and November 2015. The unweighted sample employment of 83 million across all six semiannual panels represents approximately 58 percent of total national employment. The overall national response rate for the six panels, based on the 50 states and the District of Columbia, is 71 percent based on establishments and 68 percent based on weighted sampled employment. The sample in the Winston-Salem Metropolitan Statistical Area included 2,313 establishments with a response rate of 81 percent. For more information about OES concepts and methodology, go to www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes_tec.htm.

A value that is statistically different from another does not necessarily mean that the difference has economic or practical significance. Statistical significance is concerned with the ability to make confident statements about a universe based on a sample. It is entirely possible that a large difference between two values is not significantly different statistically, while a small difference is, since both the size and heterogeneity of the sample affect the relative error of the data being tested.

The May 2018 OES estimates are based on the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system and the 2017 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). Information about the 2010 SOC is available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/soc and information about the 2017 NAICS is available at www.bls.gov/bls/naics.htm.

Metropolitan area definitions

The substate area data published in this release reflect the standards and definitions established by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget.

The Winston-Salem, NC Metropolitan Statistical Area includes Davidson, Davie, Forsyth, Stokes, and Yadkin Counties.

Additional information

OES data are available on our regional web page at www.bls.gov/regions/southeast. Answers to frequently asked questions about the OES data are available at www.bls.gov/oes/oes_ques.htm. Detailed technical information about the OES survey is available in our Survey Methods and Reliability Statement on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/oes/current/methods_statement.pdf.

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Employment and wage data from the Occupational Employment Statistics survey, by occupation, Winston-Salem Metropolitan Statistical Area, May 2018
Occupation (1) Employment Mean wages
Level (2) Location quotient (3) Hourly Annual (4)

Production occupations

27,010 1.6 $17.27 $35,930

First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

1,580 1.4 30.20 62,820

Coil winders, tapers, and finishers

60 2.5 15.88 33,030

Electrical, electronic, and electromechanical assemblers, except coil winders, tapers, and finishers

530 1.1 16.53 34,380

Engine and other machine assemblers

50 0.5 21.04 43,750

Structural metal fabricators and fitters

120 0.9 17.96 37,360

Assemblers and fabricators, all other, including team assemblers

4,780 1.9 14.56 30,280

Bakers

350 1.1 11.54 24,010

Butchers and meat cutters

220 0.9 14.59 30,350

Slaughterers and meat packers

90 0.6 13.66 28,410

Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying machine operators and tenders

340 8.9 25.83 53,740

Food batchmakers

(5) (5) 11.22 23,330

Computer-controlled machine tool operators, metal and plastic

80 0.3 18.23 37,930

Computer numerically controlled machine tool programmers, metal and plastic

30 0.7 19.47 40,500

Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

220 1.6 15.51 32,270

Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

550 1.6 15.62 32,490

Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

160 1.2 16.75 34,830

Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

150 2.8 21.50 44,730

Machinists

1,010 1.4 21.16 44,010

Molding, coremaking, and casting machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

950 3.2 15.31 31,850

Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

350 1.4 16.49 34,300

Tool and die makers

140 1.0 21.49 44,710

Welders, cutters, solderers, and brazers

1,110 1.6 17.90 37,230

Welding, soldering, and brazing machine setters, operators, and tenders

290 4.6 24.08 50,080

Plating and coating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

50 0.7 14.33 29,810

Prepress technicians and workers

70 1.3 18.78 39,060

Printing press operators

560 1.8 18.42 38,320

Print binding and finishing workers

90 1.1 14.21 29,570

Laundry and dry-cleaning workers

260 0.7 9.73 20,240

Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials

80 1.2 12.78 26,590

Sewing machine operators

670 2.7 11.44 23,790

Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders

50 3.2 14.54 30,240

Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders

100 4.1 14.35 29,840

Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders

310 8.1 13.61 28,320

Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders

830 14.4 13.67 28,430

Upholsterers

(5) (5) 18.25 37,970

Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers, all other

50 1.8 13.48 28,050

Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters

190 1.0 14.38 29,920

Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood

140 1.5 16.16 33,610

Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing

1,080 7.5 12.81 26,650

Power plant operators

170 2.7 40.38 83,980

Water and wastewater treatment plant and system operators

140 0.6 19.13 39,790

Chemical equipment operators and tenders

50 0.3 21.18 44,050

Separating, filtering, clarifying, precipitating, and still machine setters, operators, and tenders

380 4.2 26.29 54,690

Mixing and blending machine setters, operators, and tenders

340 1.5 17.41 36,200

Cutting and slicing machine setters, operators, and tenders

250 2.3 16.07 33,420

Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders

160 1.2 17.89 37,200

Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders

(5) (5) 15.93 33,140

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

1,540 1.5 17.11 35,590

Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers

40 0.8 21.13 43,950

Dental laboratory technicians

50 0.8 18.91 39,340

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

840 1.2 20.44 42,510

Coating, painting, and spraying machine setters, operators, and tenders

320 2.0 16.36 34,040

Painters, transportation equipment

100 1.0 20.38 42,400

Painting, coating, and decorating workers

40 1.7 17.89 37,220

Photographic process workers and processing machine operators

30 1.0 15.65 32,550

Adhesive bonding machine operators and tenders

60 2.1 18.71 38,910

Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders

260 1.4 16.85 35,040

Helpers--production workers

2,070 3.2 16.39 34,100

Production workers, all other

190 0.5 15.39 32,020

Footnotes:
(1) For a complete listing of all detailed occupations in the Winston-Salem, NC Metropolitan Statistical Area, see www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes_49180.htm.
(2) Estimates for detailed occupations do not sum to the totals because the totals include occupations not shown separately. Estimates do not include self-employed workers.
(3) The location quotient is the ratio of the area concentration of occupational employment to the national average concentration. A location quotient greater than one indicates the occupation has a higher share of employment than average, and a location quotient less than one indicates the occupation is less prevalent in the area than average.
(4) Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a "year-round, full-time" hours figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations where there is not an hourly mean wage published, the annual wage has been directly calculated from the reported survey data.
(5) Estimate not released.

 

Last Modified Date: Wednesday, July 10, 2019