Occupational Employment and Wages Summary

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Friday, March 29, 2019 				       USDL-19-0493 

Technical information:  (202) 691-6569  *  oesinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/oes 
Media contact:          (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


	     OCCUPATIONAL EMPLOYMENT AND WAGES -- MAY 2018


Transportation and material moving occupations had employment of 10.2 million
in May 2018, representing 7.1 percent of total national employment, the U.S.
Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. The largest transportation and
material moving occupation was laborers and hand freight, stock, and material
movers (2.9 million) and the highest paying transportation and material moving
occupation was airline pilots, copilots, and flight engineers ($169,560). The
annual mean wage across all transportation and material moving occupations was
$38,290, compared with the U.S. average wage of $51,960. (See table 1.)

The Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) program provides employment and
wage estimates for over 800 occupations in the nation, states, and approximately
530 areas. National data are available by industry for approximately 415
industry classifications and by ownership across all industries, schools, and
hospitals. This news release features transportation and material moving;
education, training, and library; and food preparation and serving related
occupations, in addition to STEM (science, technology, engineering, and
mathematics) occupations and employment and wages by typical entry-level
educational requirement. National employment and wage information for all
occupations is shown in table 1.

 _____________________________________________________________________________
|									      |
|      Changes to the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) Data	      |
| 									      |
| Within metropolitan areas, data for the 38 metropolitan divisions are no    |
| longer available. Also, some small nonmetropolitan areas have been combined |
| to form larger nonmetropolitan areas. See the box notes at the end of this  |
| news release for more information on current and upcoming changes to OES    |
| data.									      |
|_____________________________________________________________________________|

								      
Transportation and material moving occupations

  --The largest transportation and material moving occupations were laborers and
    hand freight, stock, and material movers (2.9 million); heavy and tractor-
    trailer truck drivers (1.8 million); and light truck or delivery services
    drivers (915,310). (See table 1.)
    
  --Several of the highest paying transportation and material moving occupations
    were related to air or water transportation. The highest paying transportation
    and material moving occupations were airline pilots, copilots, and flight
    engineers ($169,560); air traffic controllers ($120,830); commercial pilots
    ($96,530); and captains, mates, and pilots of water vessels ($82,380). (See
    table 1.)
  
  --The lowest paying transportation and material moving occupations were parking
    lot attendants ($25,130) and automotive and watercraft service attendants
    ($25,940). (See table 1.)

  --Industries with the highest employment of transportation and material moving
    occupations were truck transportation (1.1 million); employment services, which
    includes temporary help services (890,660); and warehousing and storage (725,670). 

  --States with the highest employment shares of transportation and material moving
    occupations were Kentucky (9.6 percent), New Jersey, and Tennessee (each 9.4
    percent).

  --Alaska ($59,320), the District of Columbia ($47,670), and Hawaii ($47,450) were
    among the states with the highest wages for transportation and material moving
    occupations.

State and metropolitan/nonmetropolitan area data are available at
www.bls.gov/oes/current/oessrcst.htm and www.bls.gov/oes/current/oessrcma.htm,
respectively.

National industry-specific data are available at www.bls.gov/oes/current/oessrci.htm.

Education, training, and library occupations

  --Education, training, and library occupations had employment of 8.8 million and
    an annual mean wage of $56,620. (See table 1.)

  --Over 74 percent of education, training, and library jobs were in the public
    sector. Local government accounted for 64 percent of employment in this
    occupational group.

  --The largest education, training, and library occupations were elementary school
    teachers, except special education (1.4 million); teacher assistants (1.3 million);
    and secondary school teachers, except special and career/technical education (1.1
    million). (See table 1.) These were also the largest occupations in the public sector.

  --The highest paying education, training, and library occupations were all postsecondary
    teaching occupations, including postsecondary law teachers ($130,710) and postsecondary
    health specialties teachers ($122,320). (See table 1.)

  --The lowest paying education, training, and library occupations were teacher assistants
    ($28,750) and substitute teachers ($32,360). (See table 1.)

  --Elementary school teachers, except special education had an annual mean wage of $62,200
    nationally. (See table 1.) Wages for this occupation varied by state from $40,450 in
    Oklahoma to $83,010 in New York.

Public and private sector ownership data are available at www.bls.gov/oes/current/oessrci.htm.

Food preparation and serving related occupations

  --Food preparation and serving related occupations had total employment of 13.4 million,
    representing 9.2 percent of U.S. employment, and an annual mean wage of $25,580. This
    was the third-largest occupational group (after office and administrative support
    occupations and sales and related occupations), as well as the lowest paying. (See table
    1.)

  --The largest food preparation and serving related occupations were combined food
    preparation and serving workers, including fast food (3.7 million); waiters and
    waitresses (2.6 million); and restaurant cooks (1.3 million). (See table 1.)

  --Chefs and head cooks ($52,160) was the highest paying food preparation and serving
    related occupation. Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast
    food ($22,140) and fast food cooks ($22,650) were the lowest paying occupations in
    this group. (See table 1.) 

  --Metropolitan areas with the highest concentrations of food preparation and serving
    related occupations included Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina, Hawaii (18.8 percent); Myrtle
    Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach, S.C.-N.C. (18.1 percent); and Ocean City, N.J. (17.9
    percent).

  --The highest paying areas for food preparation and serving related occupations included
    Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina, Hawaii ($43,070); Urban Honolulu, Hawaii ($35,610); and Napa,
    Calif. ($33,800). 

Typical entry-level education

  --Occupations typically requiring postsecondary education for entry made up 37 percent of
    employment. The largest postsecondary category, occupations that typically require a
    bachelor's degree for entry, made up 22 percent of employment. This educational category
    includes registered nurses, teachers at the kindergarten through secondary levels, and
    many management, business and financial operations, computer, and engineering occupations.

  --Occupations typically requiring a high school diploma or the equivalent for entry made up 39
    percent of employment, and occupations that require no formal educational credential for entry
    made up 24 percent of employment. These two educational categories include most production and
    construction occupations, as well as large occupations such as retail salespersons, cashiers,
    and general office clerks.

  --Occupations typically requiring a postsecondary nondegree award, such as a certificate, for
    entry made up 6.2 percent of employment. The largest occupations in this educational category
    were heavy and tractor-trailer truck drivers (1.8 million) and nursing assistants (1.5 million).
 
  --Average wages were generally higher for occupations requiring more education. Annual mean
    wages were $27,890 for occupations typically requiring no formal educational credential for
    entry, $43,060 for occupations typically requiring a high school diploma or the equivalent,
    $56,970 for occupations typically requiring an associate's degree, and $87,130 for occupations
    typically requiring a bachelor's degree.

  --The highest paying occupations typically requiring less than a bachelor's degree for entry were
    air traffic controllers ($120,830), which typically require an associate's degree for entry,
    and transportation, storage, and distribution managers ($102,850), which typically require a
    high school diploma or the equivalent.

  --Occupations typically requiring a postsecondary nondegree award for entry had an average wage
    of $42,530. The highest paying metropolitan areas for occupations in this educational category
    included San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, Calif. ($55,690); Fairbanks, Alaska ($55,100); and
    Anchorage, Alaska ($54,090). 

The typical education level required to enter an occupation is based on education and training
categories from the BLS Employment Projections program. Education and training levels assigned 
to each occupation are available at www.bls.gov/emp/ep_table_112.htm. Additional charts are
available at www.bls.gov/oes/current/overview_2018.htm.

Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) occupations

  --There were nearly 9.1 million STEM jobs representing 6.3 percent of total U.S. employment.

  --Seven of the 10 largest STEM occupations were related to computers and included applications
    software developers (903,160) and computer user support specialists (630,700). (See table 1.)

  --Areas with the highest employment shares of STEM occupations were California-Lexington Park,
    Md. (27.4 percent), and San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, Calif. (21.0 percent).

  --STEM occupations had an annual mean wage of $93,070, compared with $49,170 for non-STEM
    occupations. Ninety-three of the 99 STEM occupations had mean wages significantly above the
    all-occupations average of $51,960. (See table 1.)

  --The highest paying STEM occupations were petroleum engineers ($156,370) and the three
    STEM-related management occupations. (See table 1.)

  --The lowest paying STEM occupations were forest and conservation technicians ($40,110) and
    agricultural and food science technicians ($44,170). (See table 1.)

Occupations included in the STEM definition used for this news release are available at
www.bls.gov/oes/stem_list_2018.xlsx. Additional STEM charts are available at
www.bls.gov/oes/current/overview_2018.htm.

Largest occupations

  --The largest occupations overall were retail salespersons (4.4 million); combined food
    preparation and serving workers, including fast food (3.7 million); and cashiers (3.6 million).
    (See table 1.) 

  --Eight of the 10 largest occupations had below-average wages. Retail salespersons ($28,310),
    combined food preparation and serving workers ($22,140), and cashiers ($23,240) had annual
    mean wages significantly below the all-occupations average of $51,960. (See table 1.) 

  --Registered nurses ($75,510) and general and operations managers ($123,880) were the largest
    occupations with above-average wages. (See table 1.)

Public sector occupations

  --The public sector made up 15 percent of employment and had a different occupational mix
    from the private sector. 

  --Many of the largest public sector occupations were related to education. In addition to
    elementary school teachers, except special education (public sector employment of 1.3
    million); teacher assistants (1.0 million); and secondary school teachers, except special
    and career/technical education (926,100), the occupations with the highest public sector
    employment included middle school teachers, except special and career/technical education
    (541,280) and substitute teachers (505,000).

  --Outside of the education, training, and library group, the occupations with the highest
    public sector employment were police and sheriff's patrol officers (654,570), general office
    clerks (539,230), and secretaries and administrative assistants, except legal, medical, and
    executive (505,580). 
    
    
 _____________________________________________________________________________________
|										      |
|	  Area Changes to the May 2018 Occupational Employment Statistics (OES)       |
|										      |
|   OES continues to publish data for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas that     |
|   cover the full geography of the United States. However, the level of detail	      |
|   available has decreased. 							      |
|										      |
|   OES no longer publishes data for metropolitan divisions. Data for the 11 large    |
|   metropolitan areas that contain divisions are now available at the Metropolitan   |
|   Statistical Area (MSA) or New England City and Town Area (NECTA) level only.      |
|										      |
|   In addition, some smaller nonmetropolitan areas have been combined to form larger |
|   nonmetropolitan areas. The May 2018 OES estimates contain data for 134	      |
|   nonmetropolitan areas, compared with 167 nonmetropolitan areas in the May 2017    |
|   estimates. 									      |
|   										      |
|   More information on these area changes is available at			      |
|   www.bls.gov/oes/areas_2018.htm. 						      |
|_____________________________________________________________________________________|


 _____________________________________________________________________________________
|	 									      |
|       Implementing the 2018 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) System	      |
|										      |
|   The OES program plans to begin implementing the 2018 Standard Occupational	      |
|   Classification (SOC) system with the May 2019 estimates, to be released by early  |
|   April of 2020. Because each set of OES estimates is produced by combining three   |
|   years of survey data, estimates for May 2019 and May 2020 will be based on a      |
|   combination of survey data collected under the 2010 SOC and data collected under  |
|   the 2018 SOC, and will use a hybrid of the two classification systems. The May    |
|   2021 OES estimates, to be released by early April of 2022, will be the first set  |
|   of estimates based fully on the 2018 SOC. For more information, please see	      |
|   www.bls.gov/oes/soc_2018.htm. 						      |
|_____________________________________________________________________________________|
										      



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Last Modified Date: March 29, 2019