Wednesday, June 29, 2016
Workers in the Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina Metropolitan Statistical Area had an average (mean) hourly wage of $20.83 in May 2015, about 10 percent below the nationwide average of $23.23, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Assistant Commissioner for Regional Operations Richard Holden noted that, after testing for statistical significance, wages in the local area were lower than their respective national averages in 6 of the 22 major occupational groups,including management; business and financial operations; and architecture and engineering. Ten groups had significantly higher wages than their respective national averages, including construction and extraction; healthcare practitioners and technical; and food preparation and serving related.
When compared to the nationwide distribution, local employment was more highly concentrated in 5 of the 22 occupational groups, including food preparation and serving related; building and grounds cleaning and maintenance; and sales and related. Conversely, 11 groups had employment shares significantly below their national representation, including production; business and financial operations; and healthcare practitioners and technical. (See table A and box note at end of release.)
|Major occupational group||Percent of total employment||Mean hourly wage|
|United States||Kahului||United States||Kahului||Percent difference (1)|
Total, all occupations
Business and Financial Operations
Computer and Mathematical
Architecture and Engineering
Life, Physical, and Social Science
Community and Social Services
Education, Training, and Library
Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media
Healthcare Practitioner and Technical
Food Preparation and Serving Related
Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance
Personal Care and Service
Sales and Related
Office and Administrative Support
Farming, Fishing, and Forestry
Construction and Extraction
Installation, Maintenance, and Repair
Transportation and Material Moving
One occupational group—food preparation and serving related—was chosen to illustrate the diversity of data available for any of the 22 major occupational categories. Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina had 12,920 jobs in food preparation and serving related, accounting for 18.0 percent of local area employment, significantly higher than the 9.1-percent share nationally. The average hourly wage for this occupational group locally was $15.57, significantly above the national wage of $10.98.
Some of the largest detailed occupations within the food preparation and serving related group included waiters and waitresses (2,920), restaurant cooks (1,650), and food preparation workers (1,140). Among the higher paying jobs were chefs and head cooks and bartenders, with mean hourly wages of $25.40 and $21.74, respectively. At the lower end of the wage scale were fast food cooks ($9.75) and combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food ($10.32). (Detailed occupational data for food preparation and serving related are presented in table 1; for a complete listing of detailed occupations available go to www.bls.gov/oes/2015/may/oes_27980.htm .)
Location quotients allow us to explore the occupational make-up of a metropolitan area by comparing the composition of jobs in an area relative to the national average. (See table 1.) For example, a location quotient of 2.0 indicates that an occupation accounts for twice the share of employment in the area than it does nationally. In the Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina Metropolitan Statistical Area, above-average concentrations of employment were found in many of the occupations within the food preparation and serving related group. For instance, dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers were employed at 3.9 times the national rate in Kahului, and dishwashers, at 3.4 times the U.S. average.
These statistics are from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey, a federal-state cooperative program between BLS and State Workforce Agencies, in this case, the Hawaii Department of Labor & Industrial Relations.
With the issuance of data for May 2015, the OES program has incorporated redefined metropolitan area definitions as designated by the Office of Management and Budget. OES data are available for 394 metropolitan areas, 38 metropolitan divisions, and 167 OES-defined nonmetropolitan areas. A listing of the areas and their definitions can be found at www.bls.gov/oes/current/msa_def.htm.
A value that is statistically different from another does not necessarily mean that the difference has economic or practical significance. Statistical significance is concerned with the ability to make confident statements about a universe based on a sample. It is entirely possible that a large difference between two values is not significantly different statistically, while a small difference is, since both the size and heterogeneity of the sample affect the relative error of the data being tested.
The Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey is a semiannual mail survey measuring occupational employment and wage rates for wage and salary workers in nonfarm establishments in the United States. The OES program produces employment and wage estimates for over 800 occupations for all industries combined in the nation; the 50 states and the District of Columbia; 432 metropolitan areas and divisions; 167 nonmetropolitan areas; and Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. National estimates are also available by industry for NAICS sectors, 3-, 4-, and selected 5- and 6-digit industries, and by ownership across all industries and for schools and hospitals. OES data are available at www.bls.gov/oes/tables.htm.
OES estimates are constructed from a sample of about 1.2 million establishments. Forms are mailed to approximately 200,000 sampled establishments in May and November each year. May 2015 estimates are based on responses from six semiannual panels collected over a 3-year period: May 2015, November 2014, May 2014, November 2013, May 2013, and November 2012. The overall national response rate for the six panels is 73.5 percent based on establishments and 69.6 percent based on weighted sampled employment. The unweighted employment of sampled establishments across all six semiannual panels represents approximately 57.9 percent of total national employment. (Response rates are slightly lower for these estimates due to the federal shutdown in October 2013.) The sample in the Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina Metropolitan Statistical Area included 902 establishments with a response rate of 67 percent. For more information about OES concepts and methodology, go to www.bls.gov/news.release/ocwage.tn.htm.
The May 2015 OES estimates are based on the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system and the 2012 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). Information about the 2010 SOC is available on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/soc and information about the 2012 NAICS is available at www.bls.gov/bls/naics.htm.
Metropolitan area definitions
The substate area data published in this release reflect the standards and definitions established by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget.
The Kahului-Wailuku-Lahaina, Hawaii Metropolitan Statistical Area includes Kalawao and Maui Counties.
OES data are available on our regional web page at www.bls.gov/regions/west. Answers to frequently asked questions about the OES data are available at www.bls.gov/oes/oes_ques.htm. Detailed technical information about the OES survey is available in our Survey Methods and Reliability Statement on the BLS website at www.bls.gov/oes/2015/may/methods_statement.pdf.
Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request . Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.
|Occupation (1)||Employment||Mean wages|
|Level (2)||Location quotient (3)||Hourly||Annual (4)|
Food Preparation and Serving Related Occupations
Chefs and Head Cooks
First-Line Supervisors of Food Preparation and Serving Workers
Cooks, Fast Food
Cooks, Institution and Cafeteria
Cooks, Short Order
Food Preparation Workers
Combined Food Preparation and Serving Workers, Including Fast Food
Counter Attendants, Cafeteria, Food Concession, and Coffee Shop
Waiters and Waitresses
Food Servers, Nonrestaurant
Dining Room and Cafeteria Attendants and Bartender Helpers
Hosts and Hostesses, Restaurant, Lounge, and Coffee Shop
Last Modified Date: Wednesday, June 29, 2016