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Economic News Release
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Job Openings and Labor Turnover Summary

For release 10:00 a.m. (ET) Tuesday, January 30, 2024    USDL-24-0143
Technical information:	(202) 691-5870  •  JoltsInfo@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/jlt
Media contact:	        (202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov

                              JOB OPENINGS AND LABOR TURNOVER – DECEMBER 2023

The number of job openings changed little at 9.0 million on the last business day of December, the U.S. 
Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Over the month, the number of hires and total separations 
were little changed at 5.6 million and 5.4 million, respectively. Within separations, quits (3.4 million) 
and layoffs and discharges (1.6 million) changed little. This release includes estimates of the number 
and rate of job openings, hires, and separations for the total nonfarm sector, by industry, and by 
establishment size class.
    
Job Openings

On the last business day of December, the number of job openings changed little at 9.0 million; this 
measure is down from a series high of 12.0 million in March 2022. Over the month, the rate was 
unchanged at 5.4 percent. Job openings increased in professional and business services (+239,000) but 
decreased in wholesale trade (-83,000). (See table 1.)

Hires

In December, the number and rate of hires were little changed at 5.6 million and 3.6 percent, 
respectively. The number of hires decreased in health care and social assistance (-119,000) but increased 
in state and local government, excluding education (+35,000). (See table 2.)

Separations

Total separations include quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations. Quits are generally 
voluntary separations initiated by the employee. The quits rate can serve as a measure of workers’ 
willingness or ability to leave jobs. Layoffs and discharges are involuntary separations initiated by the 
employer. Other separations include separations due to retirement, death, disability, and transfers to 
other locations of the same firm.

The number of total separations in December changed little at 5.4 million, and the rate was unchanged 
at 3.4 percent. Over the month, the number of total separations decreased in health care and social 
assistance (-91,000) but increased in wholesale trade (+39,000). (See table 3.)

In December, the number of quits changed little at 3.4 million, and the rate was unchanged at 2.2 
percent. The number of quits decreased in health care and social assistance (-71,000) and in 
transportation, warehousing, and utilities (-35,000). The number of quits increased in wholesale trade 
(+63,000). (See table 4.)

In December, the number of layoffs and discharges changed little at 1.6 million, and the rate was 1.0 
percent for the fourth month in a row. The number of layoffs and discharges increased in transportation, 
warehousing, and utilities (+43,000) and in state and local government, excluding education (+18,000).  
(See table 5.)

The number of other separations changed little in December at 358,000. (See table 6.)

Establishment Size Class

In December, the job openings, hires, and total separations rates changed little for establishments with 1 
to 9 employees. The job openings rate increased for establishments with 5,000 or more employees.   
(See table 7.)
____________
The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey estimates for January 2024 are scheduled to be 
released on Wednesday, March 6, 2024, at 10:00 a.m. (ET).


____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
|                     Upcoming Revisions to the JOLTS Estimates and Industry Titles                         |
|                                                                                                           |
|Effective with the release of January 2024 data on March 6, 2024, the Job Openings and Labor Turnover      | 
|Survey (JOLTS) estimates will incorporate the annual updates to the Current Employment Statistics          | 
|employment data and the JOLTS seasonal adjustment factors. Not seasonally adjusted data and                | 
|seasonally adjusted data from January 2019 forward are subject to revision.                                |
|                                                                                                           |
|Also, with the release of data for January 2024, the “education and health services” industry will be      | 
|renamed “private education and health services.” In addition, “educational services” will be renamed       | 
|“private educational services.” This change is being made to align the industry titles with those used in  | 
|the Current Employment Statistics program.                                                                 |
|___________________________________________________________________________________________________________|









     
Last Modified Date: January 30, 2024