Job Openings and Labor Turnover Summary


For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Monday, June 10, 2019	USDL-19-0945

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                              JOB OPENINGS AND LABOR TURNOVER – APRIL 2019

The number of job openings was little changed at 7.4 million on the last business day of April, the U.S. 
Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Over the month, hires edged up to 5.9 million, and separations 
were little changed at 5.6 million. Within separations, the quits rate was unchanged at 2.3 percent and 
the layoffs and discharges rate was little changed at 1.2 percent. This release includes estimates of the 
number and rate of job openings, hires, and separations for the nonfarm sector by industry and by four 
geographic regions.

Job Openings

On the last business day of April, the job openings level was little changed at 7.4 million. The job 
openings rate was 4.7 percent. The number of job openings was little changed for total private and for 
government. The job openings level increased in federal government (+22,000) and educational services 
(+20,000). Job openings decreased in professional and business services (-172,000). The number of job 
openings was little changed in all four regions. (See table 1.)

Hires

The number of hires edged up to a series high of 5.9 million (+240,000) in April. The hires rate was 3.9 
percent. The hires level edged up for total private (+217,000) and was little changed for government. 
Hires increased in real estate and rental and leasing (+34,000). The number of hires was little changed in 
all four regions. (See table 2.)

Separations

Total separations includes quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations. Total separations is 
referred to as turnover. Quits are generally voluntary separations initiated by the employee. Therefore, 
the quits rate can serve as a measure of workers’ willingness or ability to leave jobs. Layoffs and 
discharges are involuntary separations initiated by the employer. Other separations includes separations 
due to retirement, death, disability, and transfers to other locations of the same firm.

The number of total separations was little changed at 5.6 million in April. The total separations rate 
was 3.7 percent. The number of total separations was little changed for total private and for government. 
The total separations level increased in real estate and rental and leasing (+43,000) but decreased in 
federal government (-10,000). The number of total separations was little changed in all four regions. 
(See table 3.)

The number of quits was little changed in April at 3.5 million. The quits rate was 2.3 percent. The quits 
level was little changed for total private and for government. Quits increased in real estate and rental and 
leasing (+28,000) and in state and local government, excluding education (+13,000), but decreased in 
federal government (-8,000). The number of quits decreased in the Northeast region. (See table 4.)

The number of layoffs and discharges was little changed in April at 1.8 million. The layoffs and 
discharges rate was 1.2 percent. The layoffs and discharges level was little changed for total private and 
for government. The number of layoffs and discharges increased in real estate and rental and leasing 
(+15,000). The layoffs and discharges level was little changed in all four regions. (See table 5.)

The number of other separations was little changed in April. The other separations level was little 
changed for total private and for government. Other separations increased in accommodation and food 
services (+14,000). The number of other separations was little changed in all four regions. (See table 6.)

Net Change in Employment

Large numbers of hires and separations occur every month throughout the business cycle. Net 
employment change results from the relationship between hires and separations. When the number of 
hires exceeds the number of separations, employment rises, even if the hires level is steady or declining. 
Conversely, when the number of hires is less than the number of separations, employment declines, even 
if the hires level is steady or rising. Over the 12 months ending in April, hires totaled 69.6 million and 
separations totaled 66.8 million, yielding a net employment gain of 2.8 million. These totals include 
workers who may have been hired and separated more than once during the year.
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The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey estimates for May 2019 are scheduled to be 
released on Tuesday, July 9, 2019 at 10:00 a.m. (EDT).

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Last Modified Date: June 10, 2019