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Economic News Release
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Job Openings and Labor Turnover Summary


For release 10:00 a.m. (ET) Tuesday, January 12, 2021	USDL-21-0023
Technical information:	(202) 691-5870  •  JoltsInfo@bls.gov  •  www.bls.gov/jlt
Media contact:		(202) 691-5902  •  PressOffice@bls.gov

			      JOB OPENINGS AND LABOR TURNOVER – NOVEMBER 2020

The number of job openings was little changed at 6.5 million on the last business day of November, the 
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Hires were little changed at 6.0 million while total 
separations increased to 5.4 million. Within separations, the quits rate was unchanged at 2.2 percent 
while the layoffs and discharges rate increased to 1.4 percent. This release includes estimates of the 
number and rate of job openings, hires, and separations for the total nonfarm sector, by industry, and by 
four geographic regions.
   
Job Openings

On the last business day of November, the number and rate of job openings were little changed at 6.5 
million and 4.4 percent, respectively. Job openings decreased in durable goods manufacturing (-48,000), 
information (-45,000), and educational services (-21,000). The number of job openings was little 
changed in all four regions. (See table 1.)

Over the year, the number of job openings (not seasonally adjusted) was little changed in November. Job 
openings decreased in a number of industries over the year with the largest decreases in accommodation 
and food services; transportation, warehousing, and utilities; and information. The job openings level 
increased in nondurable goods manufacturing and in other services. The number of job openings was 
little changed in all four regions. (See table 7.)

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________
|		      Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic Impact on November 2020 JOLTS Data		  |
|Data collection for the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey was affected by the coronavirus		  | 
|(COVID-19) pandemic. More information is available at the end of this news release and at		  | 
|www.bls.gov/covid19/job-openings-and-labor-turnover-covid19-november-2020.htm.				  | 
|_________________________________________________________________________________________________________|

Hires

In November, the number of hires was little changed at 6.0 million, and the hires rate was unchanged at 
4.2 percent. Hires increased in professional and business services (+175,000) and mining and logging 
(+13,000). Hires decreased in accommodation and food services (-73,000), other services (-67,000), and 
information (-43,000). The number of hires was little changed in all four regions. (See table 2.)

The number of hires in November (not seasonally adjusted) was little changed over the year. Hires 
increased in professional and business services; transportation, warehousing, and utilities; and 
nondurable goods manufacturing. Hires decreased in accommodation and food services and in 
information. The number of hires increased in the South region. (See table 8.)

Separations

Total separations includes quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations. Quits are generally 
voluntary separations initiated by the employee. Therefore, the quits rate can serve as a measure of 
workers’ willingness or ability to leave jobs. Layoffs and discharges are involuntary separations initiated 
by the employer. Other separations includes separations due to retirement, death, disability, and transfers 
to other locations of the same firm.

In November, the number of total separations increased to 5.4 million (+271,000). The total separations 
rate was little changed at 3.8 percent. Total separations increased in accommodation and food services 
(+326,000). The total separations level decreased in federal government (-70,000) and real estate and 
rental and leasing (-27,000). Total separations increased in the West region. (See table 3.)

Over the year, the number of total separations (not seasonally adjusted) was little changed. Total 
separations increased in accommodation and food services and in federal government. Total separations 
decreased in retail trade and in arts, entertainment, and recreation. The number of total separations was 
little changed in all four regions. (See table 9.)

In November, the number of quits was little changed at 3.2 million, and the quits rate was unchanged at 
2.2 percent. Quits increased in accommodation and food services (+64,000). The quits level decreased in 
health care and social assistance (-52,000), real estate and rental and leasing (-17,000), and federal 
government (-6,000). The number of quits was little changed in all four regions. (See table 4.)

Over the year, the number of quits (not seasonally adjusted) decreased to 2.7 million (-241,000). Quits 
declined in several industries, with the largest decreases in retail trade; arts, entertainment, and 
recreation; and finance and insurance. Quits increased in durable goods manufacturing and in federal 
government. The number of quits decreased in the West region. (See table 10.)

The number and rate of layoffs and discharges increased to 2.0 million (+295,000) and 1.4 percent, 
respectively in November. The number of layoffs and discharges increased in accommodation and food 
services (+263,000), health care and social assistance (+42,000), and state and local government, 
excluding education (+21,000). Layoffs and discharges decreased in federal government (-54,000), but 
the overall level remained high due to the continued release of 2020 temporary Census workers in 
November. Layoffs and discharges increased in the West region. (See table 5.)

Over the year, the layoffs and discharges level (not seasonally adjusted) increased to 2.0 million 
(+201,000). Layoffs and discharges increased in accommodation and food services and in federal 
government. The number of layoffs and discharges decreased in arts, entertainment, and recreation and 
in mining and logging. The number of layoffs and discharges increased over the year in the Midwest and 
West regions. (See table 11.)

The number of other separations was little changed in November at 287,000. Other separations 
decreased in federal government (-10,000). The other separations level decreased in the South region. 
(See table 6.)

Over the year, the other separations level (not seasonally adjusted) decreased to 237,000 (-69,000). 
Other separations decreased in retail trade; other services; and state and local government, excluding 
education. The number of other separations decreased in the South region. (See table 12.)

Net Change in Employment

Large numbers of hires and separations occur every month throughout the business cycle. Net 
employment change results from the relationship between hires and separations. When the number of 
hires exceeds the number of separations, employment rises, even if the hires level is steady or declining. 
Conversely, when the number of hires is less than the number of separations, employment declines, even 
if the hires level is steady or rising.

Over the 12 months ending in November, hires totaled 70.7 million and separations totaled 75.9 million, 
yielding a net employment loss of 5.2 million. These totals include workers who may have been hired 
and separated more than once during the year.

____________	
The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey estimates for December 2020 are scheduled to be 
released on Tuesday, February 9, 2021 at 10:00 a.m. (ET).

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
|		       Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic Impact on November 2020				 |
| 			     Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey Data				 |				
|													 |
|Data collection for the JOLTS survey was affected by the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. While 42 	 |
|percent of data are usually collected by phone at the JOLTS data collection center, most phone		 | 
|respondents were asked to report electronically. However, data collection was adversely impacted due to | 
|the inability to reach some respondents that normally respond by phone. The JOLTS response rate for	 | 
|November was 43 percent, while response rates prior to the pandemic averaged 54 percent.		 |
|													 |
|BLS modified the JOLTS estimation methods in March through November to better reflect the impact of 	 |
|the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. The estimation process usually includes an alignment of		 | 
|monthly hires minus separations to the over-the-month change in the Current Employment Statistics 	 |
|(CES) employment estimates. For November estimates, as in earlier months, BLS suspended the 		 |
|alignment process. The differing reference periods for the CES employment estimates (pay period 	 |
|including the 12th of the month) and the JOLTS hires and separations estimates (the entire reference	 | 
|month) led to different measurement outcomes. More information about the impact of the COVID-19 	 |
|pandemic on the JOLTS survey, including information about the JOLTS estimation methodology, is 	 |
|available at www.bls.gov/covid19/job-openings-and-labor-turnover-covid19-november-2020.htm.		 |		
|________________________________________________________________________________________________________|

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Last Modified Date: January 12, 2021