Article

February 2017

Multiple jobholding in states in 2015

Multiple-jobholding rates by state continue to vary considerably from the 4.9-percent national average.

In 2015, the multiple-jobholding rate (the percentage of individuals who hold more than one job) in individual states varied considerably from the national average of 4.9 percent, a rate that has been unchanged since 2010.1 (See figure 1 and table 1.) In all, 20 states had multiple-jobholding rates significantly higher than the national average, 13 states had significantly lower rates, and 17 states and the District of Columbia had rates that were not significantly different from the U.S. average.

Table 1. Multiple jobholders as a percentage of total employment, by state, annual averages, 2014 and 2015
U.S. census region and division2014 rate2015
RateError at 90-percent confidenceSignificantly different than the U.S. rate

United States

4.94.9±0.1

Northeast region

5.05.0±0.2

New England division

6.26.0±0.4higher

Connecticut

5.95.6±0.8

Maine

8.08.2±1.1higher

Massachusetts

5.65.5±0.6higher

New Hampshire

6.86.5±0.7higher

Rhode Island

6.45.6±0.8

Vermont

8.57.2±0.8higher

Middle Atlantic division

4.54.6±0.3lower

New Jersey

4.03.9±0.5lower

New York

4.04.1±0.4lower

Pennsylvania

5.66.0±0.5higher

South region

4.24.2±0.1lower

South Atlantic division

4.24.3±0.2lower

Delaware

4.14.1±0.7lower

District of Columbia

4.35.5±0.7

Florida

3.33.5±0.4lower

Georgia

3.83.8±0.5lower

Maryland

5.65.3±0.7

North Carolina

4.65.0±0.6

South Carolina

3.73.7±0.6lower

Virginia

5.55.2±0.6

West Virginia

4.84.8±0.7

East South Central division

4.34.5±0.3lower

Alabama

3.94.3±0.7

Kentucky

4.85.2±0.8

Mississippi

4.24.3±0.7

Tennessee

4.44.3±0.6

West South Central division

4.03.9±0.2lower

Arkansas

3.63.9±0.6lower

Louisiana

4.34.4±0.6

Oklahoma

4.54.2±0.6lower

Texas

3.93.7±0.3lower

Midwest region

6.16.2±0.2higher

East North Central division

5.65.8±0.3higher

Illinois

5.35.2±0.5

Indiana

5.65.5±0.7

Michigan

4.54.6±0.5

Ohio

6.26.5±0.6higher

Wisconsin

6.77.6±0.8higher

West North Central division

7.27.2±0.4higher

Iowa

8.28.6±0.9higher

Kansas

6.66.2±0.8higher

Minnesota

7.77.7±0.8higher

Missouri

5.95.8±0.7higher

Nebraska

8.47.7±0.9higher

North Dakota

7.57.7±0.8higher

South Dakota

8.79.1±1.3higher

West region

4.84.6±0.2lower

Mountain division

5.45.0±0.3

Arizona

4.24.0±0.6lower

Colorado

6.35.6±0.7higher

Idaho

6.95.5±0.7

Montana

7.87.8±0.8higher

Nevada

4.13.8±0.6lower

New Mexico

4.93.9±0.6lower

Utah

5.76.5±0.7higher

Wyoming

6.36.0±0.8higher

Pacific division

4.54.4±0.2lower

Alaska

7.47.5±1.0higher

California

4.14.0±0.3lower

Hawaii

6.05.7±0.7higher

Oregon

5.75.4±0.7

Washington

5.15.4±0.6

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

Multiple-jobholding rates tend to vary by region. As in past years, northern states generally had higher rates than southern states. All states in the West North Central Census division and all but two of the states in the New England division had multiple-jobholding rates significantly higher than the U.S. average. Of the 13 states with multiple-jobholding rates significantly below the national average, 7 were located in the South region.2

Most of the states with high multiple-jobholding rates in 2015 have had consistently high rates since estimates first became available in 1994. South Dakota recorded the highest multiple-jobholding rate of any state, 9.1 percent. Iowa and Maine followed, with rates of 8.6 percent and 8.2 percent, respectively. Seven other states had multiple-jobholding rates above 7.0 percent.

Florida had the lowest multiple-jobholding rate of any state in 2015, 3.5 percent. Seven other states recorded rates below 4.0 percent.

Idaho and Vermont had the largest declines in their multiple-jobholding rates from 2014 to 2015 (–1.4 percentage points and –1.3 points, respectively). New Mexico had the only other statistically significant rate decline (–1.0 percentage point). The District of Columbia had the only significant multiple-jobholding rate increase over the year (+1.2 percentage points).

The U.S. multiple-jobholding rate has declined by 1.3 percentage points since peaking at 6.2 percent in 1995 and 1996. Forty-seven states and the District of Columbia had lower multiple-jobholding rates in 2015 than in 1996. The remaining three states had rates that were the same or only marginally higher over that 19-year span. The largest declines from 1996 to 2015 occurred in Idaho (–4.0 percentage points), Hawaii (–3.7 points), and Wyoming (–3.5 points).

Suggested citation:

Susan Campolongo, "Multiple jobholding in states in 2015," Monthly Labor Review, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, February 2017, https://doi.org/10.21916/mlr.2017.6.

Notes


1 Data for this report are derived from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a survey of about 60,000 households selected to represent the U.S. population age 16 years and older. The survey is conducted monthly by the U.S. Census Bureau for the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Multiple jobholders are those people who report, in the reference week of the survey, that they are wage or salary workers who hold two or more jobs, self-employed workers who also hold a wage or salary job, or unpaid family workers who also hold a wage or salary job.

2 The South region is composed of the East South Central, South Atlantic, and West South Central divisions.

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About the Author

Susan Campolongo
campolongo.susan@bls.gov

Susan Campolongo is an economist in the Office of Employment and Unemployment Statistics, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

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