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Women’s earnings were 83.6 percent of men’s in 2023

March 12, 2024

Equal Pay Day, which symbolizes how far into the year women must work to earn what men earned in the previous year, is on Tuesday, March 12, 2024. Women who were full-time wage and salary workers had median weekly earnings of $1,005 in 2023. That was 83.6 percent of the $1,202 median for men who were full-time wage and salary workers. Women had lower median weekly earnings than men in most of the occupations for which we have earnings data for both women and men.

 Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by occupational group and sex, 2023 annual averages
Occupational group Women Men

Architecture and engineering occupations

1,635 1,864

Computer and mathematical occupations

1,628 1,976

Legal occupations

1,543 2,301

Management occupations

1,483 1,900

Life, physical, and social science occupations

1,445 1,658

Business and financial operations occupations

1,406 1,674

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

1,341 1,682

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

1,271 1,381

Community and social service occupations

1,144 1,157

Education, training, and library occupations

1,134 1,376

Protective service occupations

884 1,190

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

875 1,104

Office and administrative support occupations

864 983

Sales and related occupations

830 1,196

Construction and extraction occupations

795 991

Production occupations

742 966

Personal care and service occupations

706 779

Healthcare support occupations

704 794

Transportation and material moving occupations

694 897

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

621 749

Food preparation and serving related occupations

618 700

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

614 728

Note: Earnings are in U.S. dollars.

Looking at occupational groups, those with the highest median weekly earnings for women were architecture and engineering occupations ($1,635) and computer and mathematical occupations ($1,628) in 2023. Median earnings for women were $621 or less per week in 3 occupational groups: building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations, food preparation and serving related occupations, and farming, fishing, and forestry occupations.

Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by detailed occupation and sex, 2023 annual averages
Occupation Median weekly earnings
(U.S. dollars)
Women's to men's earnings ratio
(percent)
 Women    Men  

Total, full-time wage and salary workers

1,005 1,202 83.6

Management occupations

Chief executives

2,520 2,983 84.5

General and operations managers

1,347 1,689 79.8

Marketing managers

1,746 1,911 91.4

Sales managers

1,688 2,297 73.5

Computer and information systems managers

2,192 2,313 94.8

Financial managers

1,497 2,100 71.3

Human resources managers

1,706 1,891 90.2

Purchasing managers

1,585 1,879 84.4

Transportation, storage, and distribution managers

1,219 1,318 92.5

Construction managers

1,431 1,747 81.9

Education and childcare administrators

1,469 1,870 78.6

Food service managers

924 1,121 82.4

Medical and health services managers

1,540 1,914 80.5

Property, real estate, and community association managers

1,143 1,521 75.1

Social and community service managers

1,341 1,501 89.3

Managers, all other

1,536 1,887 81.4

Business and financial operations occupations

Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products

1,029 1,270 81.0

Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products

1,216 1,514 80.3

Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators

1,306 1,468 89.0

Compliance officers

1,377 1,597 86.2

Human resources workers

1,259 1,367 92.1

Training and development specialists

1,222 1,648 74.2

Logisticians

994 1,207 82.4

Project management specialists

1,661 1,919 86.6

Management analysts

1,817 1,993 91.2

Market research analysts and marketing specialists

1,552 1,771 87.6

Business operations specialists, all other

1,224 1,737 70.5

Accountants and auditors

1,504 1,644 91.5

Financial and investment analysts

1,643 1,760 93.4

Personal financial advisors

1,552 2,082 74.5

Credit counselors and loan officers

1,294 1,457 88.8

Other financial specialists

1,233 2,386 51.7

Computer and mathematical occupations

Computer systems analysts

1,487 1,894 78.5

Computer programmers

1,760 1,906 92.3

Software developers

2,020 2,296 88.0

Computer support specialists

1,348 1,478 91.2

Computer occupations, all other

1,430 1,631 87.7

Operations research analysts

1,665 2,208 75.4

Other mathematical science occupations

1,474 1,668 88.4

Architecture and engineering occupations

Architects, except landscape and naval

1,691 1,893 89.3

Civil engineers

1,465 1,839 79.7

Industrial engineers, including health and safety

1,682 1,766 95.2

Engineers, all other

1,904 1,953 97.5

Other engineering technologists and technicians, except drafters

982 1,287 76.3

Life, physical, and social science occupations

Medical scientists

1,537 2,290 67.1

Physical scientists, all other

1,649 1,742 94.7

Other life, physical, and social science technicians

1,275 1,430 89.2

Community and social service occupations

Educational, guidance, and career counselors and advisors

1,158 1,227 94.4

Counselors, all other

1,011 1,248 81.0

Social workers, all other

1,228 1,253 98.0

Social and human service assistants

962 967 99.5

Legal occupations

Lawyers

2,330 2,505 93.0

Paralegals and legal assistants

1,125 1,425 78.9

Education, training, and library occupations

Postsecondary teachers

1,565 1,852 84.5

Elementary and middle school teachers

1,220 1,370 89.1

Secondary school teachers

1,213 1,347 90.1

Other teachers and instructors

1,124 1,242 90.5

Teaching assistants

685 772 88.7

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

Graphic designers

1,221 1,294 94.4

Other designers

1,408 1,495 94.2

Producers and directors

1,609 1,312 122.6

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

Pharmacists

2,180 2,238 97.4

Other physicians

2,907 2,920 99.6

Physical therapists

1,526 1,715 89.0

Registered nurses

1,409 1,657 85.0

Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians

1,089 1,172 92.9

Radiologic technologists and technicians

1,321 1,483 89.1

Pharmacy technicians

886 992 89.3

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

984 1,018 96.7

Healthcare support occupations

Home health aides

625 709 88.2

Personal care aides

668 751 88.9

Nursing assistants

695 765 90.8

Medical assistants

738 904 81.6

Other healthcare support workers

790 919 86.0

Protective service occupations

Correctional officers and jailers

914 1,133 80.7

Police officers

1,034 1,363 75.9

Security guards and gambling surveillance officers

717 811 88.4

Food preparation and serving related occupations

Chefs and head cooks

690 854 80.8

First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

677 819 82.7

Cooks

608 682 89.1

Food preparation workers

600 645 93.0

Bartenders

745 768 97.0

Fast food and counter workers

595 639 93.1

Waiters and waitresses

617 684 90.2

Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers

588 607 96.9

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

First-line supervisors of housekeeping and janitorial workers

699 1,050 66.6

Janitors and building cleaners

626 745 84.0

Maids and housekeeping cleaners

611 686 89.1

Personal care and service occupations

Recreation workers

716 801 89.4

Sales and related occupations

First-line supervisors of retail sales workers

904 1,094 82.6

First-line supervisors of non-retail sales workers

1,151 1,464 78.6

Cashiers

602 616 97.7

Retail salespersons

710 988 71.9

Advertising sales agents

1,398 1,728 80.9

Insurance sales agents

927 1,310 70.8

Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents

1,654 2,412 68.6

Sales representatives of services, except advertising, insurance, financial services, and travel

1,137 1,451 78.4

Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing

1,215 1,535 79.2

Real estate brokers and sales agents

1,215 1,444 84.1

Sales and related workers, all other

807 1,019 79.2

Office and administrative support occupations

First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

1,075 1,209 88.9

Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks

922 1,100 83.8

Financial clerks, all other

1,009 1,335 75.6

Customer service representatives

799 918 87.0

Receptionists and information clerks

749 770 97.3

Couriers and messengers

711 885 80.3

Dispatchers, except police, fire, and ambulance

852 1,128 75.5

Postal service mail carriers

1,015 1,194 85.0

Production, planning, and expediting clerks

1,333 1,335 99.9

Shipping, receiving, and inventory clerks

789 827 95.4

Secretaries and administrative assistants, except legal, medical, and executive

882 1,101 80.1

Data entry keyers

809 819 98.8

Insurance claims and policy processing clerks

896 1,062 84.4

Office clerks, general

824 867 95.0

Office and administrative support workers, all other

988 1,038 95.2

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

Miscellaneous agricultural workers

598 704 84.9

Construction and extraction occupations

Construction laborers

711 870 81.7

Production occupations

First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

914 1,263 72.4

Electrical, electronics, and electromechanical assemblers

782 887 88.2

Other assemblers and fabricators

758 852 89.0

Bakers

656 726 90.4

Butchers and other meat, poultry, and fish processing workers

696 818 85.1

Other metal workers and plastic workers

684 906 75.5

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

809 1,010 80.1

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

698 752 92.8

Other production workers

771 893 86.3

Transportation and material moving occupations

Supervisors of transportation and material moving workers

791 1,127 70.2

Bus drivers, transit and intercity

811 979 82.8

Driver/sales workers and truck drivers

734 1,016 72.2

Industrial truck and tractor operators

786 812 96.8

Cleaners of vehicles and equipment

605 704 85.9

Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

685 801 85.5

Packers and packagers, hand

667 732 91.1

Stockers and order fillers

667 730 91.4

The gap between women’s and men’s earnings generally is larger in occupations with higher median earnings. Other financial specialists had the greatest percentage difference in median weekly earnings between women ($1,233) and men ($2,386), followed by first-line supervisors of housekeeping and janitorial workers ($699 women; $1,050 men); and medical scientists ($1,537 women; $2,290 men); and securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents ($1,654 women; $2,412 men).

Of the detailed occupations for which both male and female median weekly earnings data are available, women’s earnings as a percentage of men’s were highest for these occupations: producers and directors (122.6 percent); production, planning, and expediting clerks (99.9 percent); other physicians (99.6 percent); and social and human service assistants (99.5 percent).

These data are from the Current Population Survey. For more information, see the Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by detailed occupation and sex data table and other Annual Average Data. For more data about women and wages, see demographics and earnings pages. These comparisons of earnings are on a broad level and do not control for many factors that may be important in explaining earnings differences. Median (or 50th percentile) earnings are the midpoint in an earnings distribution; half of workers earn more than the median and half earn less.

SUGGESTED CITATION

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, The Economics Daily, Women’s earnings were 83.6 percent of men’s in 2023 at https://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2024/womens-earnings-were-83-6-percent-of-mens-in-2023.htm (visited April 25, 2024).

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