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News Release Information

Thursday, May 26, 2016

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Occupational Employment and Wages in Harrisburg-Carlisle – May 2015

Workers in the Harrisburg-Carlisle Metropolitan Statistical Area had an average (mean) hourly wage of $22.36 in May 2015, about 4 percent below the nationwide average of $23.23, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Sheila Watkins, the Bureau’s regional commissioner, noted that, after testing for statistical significance, wages in the local area were significantly lower than their respective national averages in 11 of the 22 major occupational groups, including architecture and engineering; computer and mathematical; and arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media.

When compared to the nationwide distribution, Harrisburg employment shares were significantly higher in 7 of the 22 occupational groups, including transportation and material moving; office and administrative support; and business and financial operations. Conversely, 10 groups had employment shares significantly below their national representation including production; sales and related; and construction and extraction. (See table A and box note at end of release.)

Table A. Occupational employment and wages by major occupational group, United States and Harrisburg metropolitan area, and measures of statistical significance, May 2015
Major occupational group Percent of total employment Mean hourly wage
United States Harrisburg United States Harrisburg Percent difference (1)

Total, all occupations

100% 100%   $23.23 22.36 * -4


5.0 4.3 * 55.30 52.77 * -5

Business and financial operations

5.1 6.7 * 35.48 31.23 * -12

Computer and mathematical

2.9 3.9 * 41.43 35.09 * -15

Architecture and engineering

1.8 1.6   39.89 32.60 * -18

Life, physical, and social science

0.8 0.8   34.24 30.92 * -10

Community and social service

1.4 1.8 * 22.19 21.05   -5


0.8 1.1 * 49.74 49.34   -1

Education, training, and library

6.2 5.0 * 25.48 25.43   0

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media

1.3 1.2 * 27.39 23.58 * -14

Healthcare practitioners and technical

5.8 6.4 * 37.40 37.19   -1

Healthcare support

2.9 2.8   14.19 14.42   2

Protective service

2.4 2.2 * 21.45 21.45   0

Food preparation and serving related

9.1 8.2 * 10.98 10.29 * -6

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance

3.2 2.7 * 13.02 12.23 * -6

Personal care and service

3.1 3.0   12.33 12.48   1

Sales and related

10.5 8.8 * 18.90 17.29 * -9

Office and administrative support

15.8 18.4 * 17.47 17.45   0

Farming, fishing, and forestry

0.3 0.1 * 12.67 16.09 * 27

Construction and extraction

4.0 2.7 * 22.88 21.93 * -4

Installation, maintenance, and repair

3.9 3.7   22.11 21.28 * -4


6.6 4.7 * 17.41 16.90   -3

Transportation and material moving

6.9 10.0 * 16.90 16.93   0

(1) A positive percent difference measures how much the mean wage in Harrisburg is above the national mean wage, while a negative difference reflects a lower wage.
* The percent share of employment or mean hourly wage for this area is significantly different from the national average of all areas at the 90-percent confidence level.

One occupational group—transportation and material moving—was chosen to illustrate the diversity of data available for any of the 22 major occupational categories. Harrisburg had 31,250 jobs in transportation and material moving, accounting for 10.0 percent of local area employment, significantly above the national share of 6.9 percent. The average hourly wage for this occupational group locally was $16.93, not significantly different from the national wage of $16.90.

With employment of 11,120, hand laborers and freight, stock, and material movers was the largest detailed occupation within the transportation and material moving group, followed by heavy and tractor-trailer truck drivers (6,060). Among the higher-paying jobs were first-line supervisors of transportation and material-moving machine and vehicle operators, with a mean hourly wage of $29.36, and first-line supervisors of hand helpers, laborers, and material movers with a wage of $25.28. At the lower end of the wage scale were driver/sales workers ($10.79) and hand packers and packagers ($11.18). (Detailed occupational data for transportation and material moving are presented in table 1; for a complete listing of detailed occupations available go to

Location quotients allow us to explore the occupational make-up of a metropolitan area by comparing the composition of jobs in an area relative to the national average. (See table 1.) For example, a location quotient of 2.0 indicates that an occupation accounts for twice the share of employment in the area as it does nationally. In the Harrisburg area, above-average concentrations of employment were found in several of the occupations within the transportation and material moving group. For instance, hand packers and packagers were employed at 1.8 times the national rate in Harrisburg, and industrial truck and tractor operators at 2.0 times the U.S. average. In contrast, light truck or delivery services drivers had a location quotient of 1.3 in Harrisburg, indicating that this particular occupation’s local employment share was similar to the national share.

These statistics are from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey, a federal-state cooperative program between BLS and State Workforce Agencies, in this case, the Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry.

Notes on Occupational Employment Statistics Data

With the issuance of data for May 2015, the OES program has incorporated redefined metropolitan area definitions as designated by the Office of Management and Budget. OES data are available for 394 metropolitan areas, 38 metropolitan divisions, and 167 OES-defined nonmetropolitan areas. A listing of the areas and their definitions can be found at

A value that is statistically different from another does not necessarily mean that the difference has economic or practical significance. Statistical significance is concerned with the ability to make confident statements about a universe based on a sample. It is entirely possible that a large difference between two values is not significantly different statistically, while a small difference is, since both the size and heterogeneity of the sample affect the relative error of the data being tested.

Technical Note

The Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey is a semiannual mail survey measuring occupational employment and wage rates for wage and salary workers in nonfarm establishments in the United States. The OES program produces employment and wage estimates for over 800 occupations for all industries combined in the nation; the 50 states and the District of Columbia; 432 metropolitan areas and divisions; 167 nonmetropolitan areas; and Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. National estimates are also available by industry for NAICS sectors, 3-, 4-, and selected 5- and 6-digit industries, and by ownership across all industries and for schools and hospitals. OES data are available at

OES estimates are constructed from a sample of about 1.2 million establishments. Forms are mailed to approximately 200,000 sampled establishments in May and November each year. May 2015 estimates are based on responses from six semiannual panels collected over a 3-year period: May 2015, November 2014, May 2014, November 2013, May 2013, and November 2012. The overall national response rate for the six panels is 73.5 percent based on establishments and 69.6 percent based on weighted sampled employment. The unweighted employment of sampled establishments across all six semiannual panels represents approximately 57.9 percent of total national employment. (Response rates are slightly lower for these estimates due to the federal shutdown in October 2013.) The sample in the Harrisburg-Carlisle, Pa. Metropolitan Statistical Area included 2,659 establishments with a response rate of 72 percent. For more information about OES concepts and methodology, go to

The May 2015 OES estimates are based on the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system and the 2012 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). Information about the 2010 SOC is available on the BLS website at and information about the 2012 NAICS is available at

Metropolitan area definitions

The substate area data published in this release reflect the standards and definitions established by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget.

The Harrisburg-Carlisle, Pa. Metropolitan Statistical Area includes Cumberland, Dauphin, and Perry Counties in Pennsylvania.

Additional information

OES data are available on our regional web page at Answers to frequently asked questions about the OES data are available at Detailed technical information about the OES survey is available in our Survey Methods and Reliability Statement on the BLS website at

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request – Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Employment and wage data from the Occupational Employment Statistics survey, by occupation, Harrisburg-Carlisle Metropolitan Statistical Area, May 2015
Occupation (1) Employment (2) Mean wage
Level Location quotient (3) Hourly Annual (4)

Transportation and material moving occupations

31,250 1.4 $16.93 $35,220

First-line supervisors of helpers, laborers, and material movers, hand

700 1.8 25.28 52,570

First-line supervisors of transportation and material-moving machine and vehicle operators

640 1.4 29.36 61,080

Bus drivers, transit and intercity

240 0.6 22.12 46,010

Bus drivers, school or special client

1,440 1.3 13.53 28,140

Driver/sales workers

1,460 1.5 10.79 22,440

Heavy and tractor-trailer truck drivers

6,060 1.6 22.35 46,480

Light truck or delivery services drivers

2,350 1.3 17.04 35,440

Taxi drivers and chauffeurs

530 1.3 11.50 23,920

Motor vehicle operators, all other

40 0.3 18.09 37,620

Parking lot attendants

70 0.2 9.81 20,400

Automotive and watercraft service attendants

(5) (5) 9.98 20,760

Transportation workers, all other

60 0.7 26.62 55,360

Conveyor operators and tenders

60 0.8 (5) (5)

Excavating and loading machine and dragline operators

40 0.3 17.78 36,980

Industrial truck and tractor operators

2,510 2.0 17.32 36,020

Cleaners of vehicles and equipment

510 0.7 11.96 24,880

Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

11,120 2.0 15.58 32,400

Machine feeders and offbearers

70 0.3 16.20 33,690

Packers and packagers, hand

2,900 1.8 11.18 23,250

Refuse and recyclable material collectors

50 0.2 17.33 36,040

(1) For a complete listing of all detailed occupations in the Harrisburg-Carlisle Metropolitan Statistical Area, see
(2) Estimates for detailed occupations do not sum to the totals because the totals include occupations not shown separately. Estimates do not include self-employed workers.
(3) The location quotient is the ratio of the area concentration of occupational employment to the national average concentration. A location quotient greater than one indicates the occupation has a higher share of employment than average, and a location quotient less than one indicates the occupation is less prevalent in the area than average.
(4) Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a "year-round, full time" hours figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations where there is not an hourly mean wage published, the annual wage has been directly calculated from the reported survey data.
(5) Estimate not released.


Last Modified Date: Thursday, May 26, 2016