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News Release Information

Friday, July 14, 2023

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Occupational Employment and Wages in Harrisburg-Carlisle — May 2022

Workers in the Harrisburg-Carlisle, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area had an average (mean) hourly wage of $27.40 in May 2022, 8 percent below the nationwide average of $29.76, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Regional Commissioner Alexandra Hall Bovee noted that, after testing for statistical significance, wages in the local area were lower than their respective national averages in 15 of the 22 major occupational groups, including legal; arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media; and computer and mathematical.

When compared to the nationwide distribution, Harrisburg area employment was more highly concentrated in 7 of the 22 occupational groups, including transportation and material moving, healthcare practitioners and technical, and office and administrative support. Fourteen groups had employment shares significantly below their national representation, including sales and related, food preparation and serving related, and construction and extraction. (See table A.)

Table A. Occupational employment and wages by major occupational group, United States and the Harrisburg metropolitan area, and measures of statistical significance, May 2022
Major occupational group Percent of total employment Mean hourly wage ($)
United States Harrisburg United States Harrisburg Percent difference (1)

Total, all occupations

100.0 100.0 29.76 27.40* -8


6.7 5.8* 63.08 58.43* -7

Business and financial operations

6.5 7.0* 41.39 36.15* -13

Computer and mathematical

3.4 3.2* 51.99 43.44* -16

Architecture and engineering

1.7 1.4* 45.52 39.53* -13

Life, physical, and social science

0.9 0.8* 40.21 35.08* -13

Community and social service

1.6 1.6 26.81 26.86 0


0.8 0.9* 59.87 48.38* -19

Educational instruction and library

5.7 4.9* 30.41 30.39 0

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media

1.4 1.1* 36.78 27.49* -25

Healthcare practitioners and technical

6.1 7.3* 46.52 41.79* -10

Healthcare support

4.6 5.3* 17.10 15.90* -7

Protective service

2.3 2.2* 25.97 25.76 -1

Food preparation and serving related

8.5 7.1* 15.45 14.27* -8

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance

2.9 2.6* 17.26 16.30* -6

Personal care and service

1.9 2.2* 17.41 15.27* -12

Sales and related

8.9 7.1* 24.22 21.39* -12

Office and administrative support

12.6 13.7* 21.90 21.64* -1

Farming, fishing, and forestry

0.3 0.1* 18.21 19.71* 8

Construction and extraction

4.1 2.8* 28.08 28.33 1

Installation, maintenance, and repair

3.9 3.7* 26.77 26.66 0


5.9 4.9* 21.81 21.31* -2

Transportation and material moving

9.2 14.1* 21.12 21.04 0

(1) A positive percent difference measures how much the mean wage in the Harrisburg-Carlisle, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area is above the national mean wage, while a negative difference reflects a lower wage.
* The mean hourly wage or percent share of employment is significantly different from the national average of all areas at the 90-percent confidence level.

One occupational group—transportation and material moving—was chosen to illustrate the diversity of data available for any of the 22 major occupational categories. Harrisburg had 45,150 jobs in transportation and material moving, accounting for 14.1 percent of local area employment, significantly higher than the 9.2-percent share nationally. The average hourly wage for this occupational group locally was $21.04, compared to the national wage of $21.12.

Some of the larger detailed occupations within the transportation and material moving group included laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand (12,770), stockers and order fillers (8,020), and heavy and tractor-trailer truck drivers (7,000). Among the higher-paying jobs in this group were first-line supervisors of transportation and material moving workers, except aircraft cargo handling supervisors and transportation inspectors, with mean hourly wages of $29.92 and $29.23, respectively (See chart 1). At the lower end of the wage scale were automotive and watercraft service attendants ($14.67) and parking attendants ($15.09). (Detailed data for the transportation and material moving occupations are presented in table 1; for a complete listing of detailed occupations available go to

Location quotients allow us to explore the occupational make-up of a metropolitan area by comparing the composition of jobs in an area relative to the national average. (See table 1.) For example, a location quotient of 2.0 indicates that an occupation accounts for twice the share of employment in the area than it does nationally. In the Harrisburg area, above-average concentrations of employment were found in many of the occupations within the transportation and material moving group. For instance, industrial truck and tractor operators were employed at 2.9 times the national rate in Harrisburg, and packers and packagers, hand, at 2.1 times the U.S. average. Driver/sales workers had a location quotient of 1.0 in Harrisburg, indicating that this particular occupation’s local and national employment shares were similar.

These statistics are from the Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics (OEWS) survey, a federal-state cooperative program between BLS and State Workforce Agencies, in this case, the Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry.

Changes to the Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics (OEWS) Data

The May 2022 OEWS estimates use the model-based (MB3) estimation method implemented with the May 2021 estimates release. Additional updates were made to the MB3 wage processing methodology for May 2022. For more information, see the May 2022 Survey Methods and Reliability Statement.

The May 2022 estimates are the first OEWS estimates to be produced using the 2022 NAICS, which replaces the 2017 NAICS used for the May 2017-May 2021 estimates. See North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) at BLS for details.

Technical Note

The Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics (OEWS) survey is a semiannual survey measuring occupational employment and wage rates for wage and salary workers in nonfarm establishments in the United States. The OEWS data available from BLS include cross-industry occupational employment and wage estimates for the nation; over 580 areas, including states and the District of Columbia, metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs), nonmetropolitan areas, and territories; national industry-specific estimates at the NAICS sector, 3-digit, most 4-digit, and selected 5- and 6-digit industry levels, and national estimates by ownership across all industries and for schools and hospitals. OEWS data are available at

The OEWS survey is a cooperative effort between BLS and the State Workforce Agencies (SWAs). BLS funds the survey and provides the procedures and technical support, while the State Workforce Agencies collect most of the data. OEWS estimates are constructed from a sample of about 1.1 million establishments. Each year, two semiannual panels of approximately 179,000 to 187,000 sampled establishments are contacted, one panel in May and the other in November. Responses are obtained by Internet or other electronic means, mail, email, telephone, or personal visit. The May 2022 estimates are based on responses from six semiannual panels collected over a 3-year period: May 2022, November 2021, May 2021, November 2020, May 2020, and November 2019. The unweighted sampled employment of 80 million across all six semiannual panels represents approximately 57 percent of total national employment. The overall national response rate for the six panels, based on the 50 states and the District of Columbia, is 65.4 percent based on establishments and 62.5 percent based on weighted sampled employment. The sample in the Harrisburg-Carlisle, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area included 2,587 establishments with a response rate of 53 percent. For more information about OEWS concepts and methodology, go to

A value that is statistically different from another does not necessarily mean that the difference has economic or practical significance. Statistical significance is concerned with the ability to make confident statements about a universe based on a sample. It is entirely possible that a large difference between two values is not significantly different statistically, while a small difference is, since both the size and heterogeneity of the sample affect the relative error of the data being tested.

Metropolitan area definitions

The substate area data published in this release reflect the standards and definitions established by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget.

The Harrisburg-Carlisle, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area includes Cumberland County, Dauphin County, and Perry County.

For more information

Answers to frequently asked questions about the OEWS data are available at Detailed information about the OEWS program is available at

Information in this release will be made available to individuals with sensory impairments upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Telecommunications Relay Service: 7-1-1.

Table 1. Employment and wage data for transportation and material moving occupations, Harrisburg metropolitan area, May 2022
Occupation (1) Employment Mean wages ($)
Level (2) Location quotient (3) Hourly Annual (4)

Transportation and material moving occupations

45,150 1.5 21.04 43,770

First-line supervisors of transportation and material moving workers, except aircraft cargo handling supervisors

1,870 1.5 29.92 62,240

Airline pilots, copilots, and flight engineers

40 0.2 (5) (5)

Driver/sales workers

1,020 1.0 18.56 38,600

Heavy and tractor-trailer truck drivers

7,000 1.6 27.54 57,290

Light truck drivers

2,790 1.2 20.81 43,280

Bus drivers, school

1,190 1.5 20.12 41,850

Bus drivers, transit and intercity

200 0.7 20.33 42,290

Shuttle drivers and chauffeurs

640 1.5 16.10 33,500

Motor vehicle operators, all other

110 1.0 14.65 30,470

Parking attendants

180 0.8 15.09 31,390

Automotive and watercraft service attendants

80 0.4 14.67 30,510

Transportation inspectors

40 0.7 29.23 60,790

Transportation workers, all other

(5) (5) 21.78 45,300

Crane and tower operators

80 0.8 25.48 53,000

Industrial truck and tractor operators

4,930 2.9 21.06 43,800

Cleaners of vehicles and equipment

670 0.9 15.66 32,580

Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

12,770 2.0 19.82 41,220

Packers and packagers, hand

3,000 2.1 18.18 37,810

Stockers and order fillers

8,020 1.3 17.46 36,310

Refuse and recyclable material collectors

100 0.4 18.68 38,850

(1) For a complete listing of all detailed occupations in the Harrisburg-Carlisle, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area, see
(2) Estimates for detailed occupations may not sum to the totals due to rounding, and because the totals may include occupations that are not shown separately. Estimates do not include self-employed workers.
(3) The location quotient is the ratio of the area concentration of occupational employment to the national average concentration. A location quotient greater than one indicates the occupation has a higher share of employment than average, and a location quotient less than one indicates the occupation is less prevalent in the area than average.
(4) Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a 'year-round, full-time' hours figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations where there is not an hourly mean wage published, the annual wage has been directly calculated from the reported survey data.
(5) Estimate not released.


Last Modified Date: Friday, July 14, 2023