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News Release Information

Monday, May 20, 2024

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Occupational Employment and Wages in York-Hanover — May 2023

Workers in the York-Hanover, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area had an average (mean) hourly wage of $27.36 in May 2023, 13 percent below the nationwide average of $31.48, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Regional Commissioner Alexandra Hall Bovee noted that, after testing for statistical significance, wages in the local area were lower than their respective national averages in 18 of the 22 major occupational groups, including legal; computer and mathematical; and arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media.

When compared to the nationwide distribution, York area employment was more highly concentrated in 6 of the 22 occupational groups, including transportation and material moving; production; and installation, maintenance, and repair. Fifteen groups had employment shares significantly below their national representation, including computer and mathematical, business and financial operations, and management.(See table A.)

Table A. Occupational employment and wages by major occupational group, United States and the York metropolitan area, and measures of statistical significance, May 2023
Major occupational group Percent of total employment Mean hourly wage ($)
United States York United States York Percent difference (1)

Total, all occupations

100.0 100.0 31.48 27.36* -13


6.9 5.5* 66.23 56.95* -14

Business and financial operations

6.6 4.7* 43.55 38.86* -11

Computer and mathematical

3.4 1.4* 54.39 44.32* -19

Architecture and engineering

1.7 2.0* 47.64 39.84* -16

Life, physical, and social science

0.9 0.6* 42.24 38.10* -10

Community and social service

1.6 1.6 28.36 24.99* -12


0.8 0.4* 64.34 50.80* -21

Educational instruction and library

5.8 4.9* 31.92 30.90* -3

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media

1.4 0.7* 36.31 26.44* -27

Healthcare practitioners and technical

6.1 6.3* 49.07 48.98 0

Healthcare support

4.7 3.7* 18.37 17.41* -5

Protective service

2.3 1.5* 27.74 27.76 0

Food preparation and serving related

8.7 8.2* 16.58 14.57* -12

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance

2.9 2.6* 18.43 17.41* -6

Personal care and service

2.0 1.9* 18.48 16.46* -11

Sales and related

8.8 8.4* 25.62 21.70* -15

Office and administrative support

12.2 11.4* 23.05 21.70* -6

Farming, fishing, and forestry

0.3 0.1* 19.22 18.98 -1

Construction and extraction

4.1 4.4* 29.57 28.85* -2

Installation, maintenance, and repair

3.9 5.2* 28.13 27.19* -3


5.8 10.1* 22.90 22.96 0

Transportation and material moving

9.1 14.4* 22.45 21.04* -6

(1) A positive percent difference measures how much the mean wage in the York-Hanover, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area is above the national mean wage, while a negative difference reflects a lower wage.
* The mean hourly wage or percent share of employment is significantly different from the national average of all areas at the 90-percent confidence level.

One occupational group—transportation and material moving—was chosen to illustrate the diversity of data available for any of the 22 major occupational categories. York had 26,080 jobs in transportation and material moving, accounting for 14.4 percent of local area employment, significantly higher than the 9.1-percent share nationally. The average hourly wage for this occupational group locally was $21.04, significantly below the national wage of $22.45.

Some of the larger detailed occupations within the transportation and material moving group included hand laborers and freight, stock, and material movers (6,900), stockers and order fillers (5,130), and heavy and tractor-trailer truck drivers (3,920). Among the higher-paying jobs in this group were first-line supervisors of transportation and material moving workers, except aircraft cargo handling supervisors ($30.72) and crane and tower operators ($30.15). (See chart 1.) At the lower end of the wage scale were parking attendants ($14.78) and cleaners of vehicles and equipment ($16.81). (Detailed data for the transportation and material moving occupations are presented in table 1; for a complete listing of detailed occupations available go to

Location quotients allow us to explore the occupational make-up of a metropolitan area by comparing the composition of jobs in an area relative to the national average. (See table 1.) For example, a location quotient of 2.0 indicates that an occupation accounts for twice the share of employment in the area than it does nationally. In the York area, above-average concentrations of employment were found in many of the occupations within the transportation and material moving group. For instance, industrial truck and tractor operators were employed at 2.8 times the national rate in York, and hand packers and packagers, at 2.7 times the U.S. average. Light truck drivers had a location quotient of 1.1 in York, indicating that this particular occupation’s local and national employment shares were similar.

The statistics in this release are from the Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics (OEWS) survey, a cooperative effort between BLS and the State Workforce Agencies (SWAs). BLS funds the survey and provides the procedures and technical support. State Workforce Agencies collect most of the data: in this case, the Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry.

Technical Note

The Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics (OEWS) survey is a semiannual survey measuring occupational employment and wage rates for wage and salary workers in nonfarm establishments in the United States. The OEWS data available from BLS include cross-industry occupational employment and wage estimates for the nation; over 580 areas, including states and the District of Columbia, metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs), nonmetropolitan areas, and territories; national industry-specific estimates at the NAICS sector, 3-digit, most 4-digit, and selected 5- and 6-digit industry levels; and national estimates by ownership across all industries and for schools and hospitals. Full OEWS data tables are available online.

Additional information about the OEWS estimates and methodology are available in the national Technical Notes. The overall national response rate for the six panels, based on the 50 states and the District of Columbia, is 65.8 percent based on establishments and 64.3 percent based on weighted sampled employment. The sample in the York-Hanover, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area included 1,896 establishments with a response rate of 60 percent.

A value that is statistically different from another does not necessarily mean that the difference has economic or practical significance. Statistical significance is concerned with the ability to make confident statements about a universe based on a sample. It is entirely possible that a large difference between two values is not significantly different statistically, while a small difference is, since both the size and heterogeneity of the sample affect the relative error of the data being tested.

Metropolitan area definitions

The substate area data published in this release reflect the standards and definitions established by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget.

The York-Hanover, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area includes York County.


For more information

Answers to frequently asked questions about the OEWS data, as well as general program documentation, are available on the OEWS website.

Information in this release will be made available to individuals with sensory impairments upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Telecommunications Relay Service: 7-1-1.

Table 1. Employment and wage data for transportation and material moving occupations, York metropolitan area, May 2023
Occupation (1) Employment Mean wages ($)
Level (2) Location quotient (3) Hourly Annual (4)

Transportation and material moving occupations

26,080 1.6 21.04 43,750

First-line supervisors of transportation and material moving workers, except aircraft cargo handling supervisors

990 1.4 30.72 63,890

Driver/sales workers

610 1.1 18.80 39,110

Heavy and tractor-trailer truck drivers

3,920 1.6 26.77 55,670

Light truck drivers

1,350 1.1 19.53 40,620

Bus drivers, school

940 2.1 20.79 43,250

Shuttle drivers and chauffeurs

250 1.0 18.03 37,490

Motor vehicle operators, all other

50 0.9 19.54 40,650

Parking attendants

80 0.6 14.78 30,730

Conveyor operators and tenders

60 2.1 20.02 41,630

Crane and tower operators

60 1.1 30.15 62,710

Industrial truck and tractor operators

2,620 2.8 21.52 44,760

Cleaners of vehicles and equipment

410 0.9 16.81 34,960

Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand

6,900 1.9 19.82 41,230

Machine feeders and offbearers

90 1.7 18.50 38,470

Packers and packagers, hand

2,060 2.7 17.93 37,300

Stockers and order fillers

5,130 1.5 18.25 37,970

Refuse and recyclable material collectors

240 1.5 21.99 45,730

(1) For a complete listing of all detailed occupations in the York-Hanover, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area, see
(2) Estimates for detailed occupations may not sum to the totals due to rounding, and because the totals may include occupations that are not shown separately. Estimates do not include self-employed workers.
(3) The location quotient is the ratio of the area concentration of occupational employment to the national average concentration. A location quotient greater than one indicates the occupation has a higher share of employment than average, and a location quotient less than one indicates the occupation is less prevalent in the area than average.
(4) Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a 'year-round, full-time' hours figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations where there is not an hourly mean wage published, the annual wage has been directly calculated from the reported survey data.


Last Modified Date: Monday, May 20, 2024