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News Release Information

Tuesday, June 06, 2017


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Occupational Employment and Wages in Newark — May 2016

Workers in the Newark Metropolitan Division had an average (mean) hourly wage of $28.79 in May 2016, about 21 percent above the nationwide average of $23.86, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Chief Regional Economist Martin Kohli noted that, after testing for statistical significance, average wages in the local area were higher than their respective national averages in 21 of the 22 major occupational groups, including management; life, physical, and social science; and legal. No group had an average hourly wage significantly lower than its respective national average.

When compared to the nationwide distribution, local employment was more highly concentrated in 12 of the 22 occupational groups, including education, training, and library; transportation and material moving; and business and financial operations. Conversely, 10 groups had employment shares significantly below their national representation, including food preparation and serving related; production; and construction and extraction. (See table A and box note at end of release.)

Table A. Occupational employment and wages by major occupational group, United States and the Newark Metropolitan Division, and measures of statistical significance, May 2016
Major occupational groupPercent of total employmentMean hourly wage
United StatesNewarkUnited StatesNewarkPercent difference (1)

Total, all occupations




Business and financial operations


Computer and mathematical


Architecture and engineering


Life, physical, and social science


Community and social service




Education, training, and library


Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media


Healthcare practitioners and technical


Healthcare support


Protective service


Food preparation and serving related


Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance


Personal care and service


Sales and related


Office and administrative support


Farming, fishing, and forestry


Construction and extraction


Installation, maintenance, and repair




Transportation and material moving


(1) A positive percent difference measures how much the mean wage in the Newark Metropolitan Division is above the national mean wage, while a negative difference reflects a lower wage.
* The percent share of employment or mean hourly wage for this area is significantly different from the national average of all areas at the 90-percent confidence level.

One occupational group—education, training, and library—was chosen to illustrate the diversity of data available for any of the 22 major occupational categories. Newark had 90,000 jobs in education, training, and library, accounting for 7.8 percent of local area employment, significantly higher than the 6.2-percent share nationally. The average annual wage for this occupational group locally was $59,720, significantly above the national wage of $54,520.

Some of the largest detailed occupations within the education, training, and library group included teacher assistants (16,400); elementary school teachers, except special education (14,180); and secondary school teachers, except special and career/technical education (9,250). Among the higher paying jobs were postsecondary business teachers and postsecondary psychology teachers, with mean annual wages of $107,320 and $102,680, respectively. At the lower end of the wage scale were substitute teachers ($28,520) and preschool teachers, except special education ($39,940). (Detailed occupational data for education, training, and library are presented in table 1; for a complete listing of detailed occupations available go to .)

Location quotients allow us to explore the occupational make-up of a metropolitan area by comparing the composition of jobs in an area relative to the national average. (See table 1.) For example, a location quotient of 2.0 indicates that an occupation accounts for twice the share of employment in the area than it does nationally. In the Newark Metropolitan Division, above-average concentrations of employment were found in some of the occupations within the education, training, and library group. For instance, special education teachers, kindergarten and elementary school were employed at 2.5 times the national rate in Newark, and special education teachers, middle school, at 2.4 times the U.S. average. On the other hand, postsecondary business teachers had a location quotient of 1.0 in Newark, indicating that this particular occupation’s local and national employment shares were similar.

These statistics are from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey, a federal-state cooperative program between BLS and State Workforce Agencies, in this case, the New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development.

Note on Occupational Employment Statistics Data

A value that is statistically different from another does not necessarily mean that the difference has economic or practical significance. Statistical significance is concerned with the ability to make confident statements about a universe based on a sample. It is entirely possible that a large difference between two values is not significantly different statistically, while a small difference is, since both the size and heterogeneity of the sample affect the relative error of the data being tested.

Technical Note

The Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey is a semiannual mail survey measuring occupational employment and wage rates for wage and salary workers in nonfarm establishments in the United States. The OES data available from BLS include cross-industry occupational employment and wage estimates for the nation; over 650 areas, including states and the District of Columbia, metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs), metropolitan divisions, nonmetropolitan areas, and territories; national industry-specific estimates at the NAICS sector, 3-, 4-, and selected 5- and 6-digit industry levels, and national estimates by ownership across all industries and for schools and hospitals. OES data are available at

OES estimates are constructed from a sample of about 1.2 million establishments. Each year, two semiannual panels of approximately 200,000 sampled establishments are contacted, one panel in May and the other in November. Responses are obtained by mail, Internet or other electronic means, email, telephone, or personal visit. The May 2016 estimates are based on responses from six semiannual panels collected over a 3-year period: May 2016, November 2015, May 2015, November 2014, May 2014, and November 2013. The overall national response rate for the six panels, based on the 50 states and the District of Columbia, is 73 percent based on establishments and 69 percent based on weighted sampled employment. The unweighted employment of sampled establishments across all six semiannual panels represents approximately 58 percent of total national employment. The sample in the Newark Metropolitan Division included 6,526 establishments with a response rate of 71 percent. For more information about OES concepts and methodology, go to

The May 2016 OES estimates are based on the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system and the 2012 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). Information about the 2010 SOC is available on the BLS website at and information about the 2012 NAICS is available at

Metropolitan area definitions

The substate area data published in this release reflect the standards and definitions established by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget.

The Newark, N.J. Metropolitan Division  includes Essex, Hunterdon, Morris, Somerset, Sussex, and Union Counties in New Jersey; and Pike County in Pennsylvania.

Additional information

OES data are available on our regional web page at Answers to frequently asked questions about the OES data are available at Detailed technical information about the OES survey is available in our Survey Methods and Reliability Statement on the BLS website at

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Table 1. Employment and wage data from the Occupational Employment Statistics survey, by occupation, Newark Metropolitan Division, May 2016
Occupation (1)EmploymentMean wages
Level (2)Location quotient (3)HourlyAnnual (4)

Education, training, and library occupations


Business teachers, postsecondary


Computer science teachers, postsecondary


Mathematical science teachers, postsecondary


Architecture teachers, postsecondary


Engineering teachers, postsecondary


Biological science teachers, postsecondary


Chemistry teachers, postsecondary


Environmental science teachers, postsecondary


Physics teachers, postsecondary


Anthropology and archeology teachers, postsecondary


Economics teachers, postsecondary


Political science teachers, postsecondary


Psychology teachers, postsecondary


Sociology teachers, postsecondary


Social sciences teachers, postsecondary, all other


Health specialties teachers, postsecondary


Nursing instructors and teachers, postsecondary


Education teachers, postsecondary


Criminal justice and law enforcement teachers, postsecondary


Art, drama, and music teachers, postsecondary


Communications teachers, postsecondary


English language and literature teachers, postsecondary


Foreign language and literature teachers, postsecondary


History teachers, postsecondary


Philosophy and religion teachers, postsecondary


Recreation and fitness studies teachers, postsecondary


Vocational education teachers, postsecondary


Preschool teachers, except special education


Kindergarten teachers, except special education


Elementary school teachers, except special education


Middle school teachers, except special and career/technical education


Secondary school teachers, except special and career/technical education


Career/technical education teachers, secondary school


Special education teachers, preschool


Special education teachers, kindergarten and elementary school


Special education teachers, middle school


Special education teachers, secondary school


Special education teachers, all other


Self-enrichment education teachers


Teachers and instructors, all other, except substitute teachers


Substitute teachers






Library technicians


Instructional coordinators


Teacher assistants


Education, training, and library workers, all other


(1) For a complete listing of all detailed occupations in the Newark, NJ-PA Metropolitan Division, see
(2) Estimates for detailed occupations do not sum to the totals because the totals include occupations not shown separately. Estimates do not include self-employed workers.
(3) The location quotient is the ratio of the area concentration of occupational employment to the national average concentration. A location quotient greater than one indicates the occupation has a higher share of employment than average, and a location quotient less than one indicates the occupation is less prevalent in the area than average.
(4) Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a "year-round, full-time" hours figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations where there is not an hourly mean wage published, the annual wage has been directly calculated from the reported survey data.
(5) Estimate not released.


Last Modified Date: Tuesday, June 06, 2017