Workplace hazards of truck drivers
In 2012, the rates of fatal injuries and nonfatal injuries and illnesses of truck drivers of both heavy and tractor-trailer and smaller delivery trucks were higher than the average of all private industry occupations. From 2003 to 2007, the number of fatal injuries for truck drivers, particularly tractor-trailer drivers, increased. However, during the economic downturn, fatal injuries decreased, with the lowest in 2009. Most fatal injuries were transportation incidents. Nonfatal injuries and illnesses of truck drivers decreased from 2003 to 2012. Most nonfatal injuries and illnesses were not transportation incidents but were incidents of overexertion and bodily reaction; falls, slips, and trips; and contact with object or equipment.
During 2012, 756 truck drivers lost their lives in work-related incidents, while over 65,000 private sector truck drivers suffered injuries and illnesses that resulted in time away from work according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) and Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (SOII).1 Truck drivers, along with driver/sales workers, had a workplace fatal injury rate of 24.3 in 2012, more than 7 times higher than the overall workplace average. Their rate of nonfatal injuries and illnesses involving days away from work was 294.7 cases per 10,000 full-time workers, almost 3 times the rate for all private industry occupations.
The BLS Occupational Safety and Health Statistics program classifies truck drivers into two occupational groups. Heavy and tractor-trailer truck drivers drive the biggest vehicles on the road, defined as having a capacity of at least 26,000 pounds gross vehicle weight. Light truck or delivery service drivers drive smaller trucks, those under 26,000 pounds gross vehicle weight. In addition to their driving duties, truck drivers may be required to unload the vehicles. In 2012, 10,659,380 large trucks (defined as having a gross vehicle weight greater than 10,000 pounds) were on the roads, traveling a total of more than 268 billion miles.3
The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, an agency within the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), regulates the hours of service that truckers are allowed to drive. Regulations of hours worked intend to reduce incidents resulting from tired or drowsy drivers.4 The regulations state that drivers may
· drive a maximum of 11 hours after 10 consecutive hours off duty;
· not drive beyond the 14th consecutive hour after coming on duty, following 10 consecutive hours off duty (off-duty time does not extend the 14-hour period);
· drive only if 8 hours or less have passed since the end of the driver’s last off-duty or sleeper-berth period of at least 30 minutes;
· not drive after 60/70 hours on duty in 7/8 consecutive days; and
· may restart a 7/8 consecutive day period after taking 34 or more consecutive hours off duty.
Estimates vary on the number of accidents caused by driver fatigue. Data from BLS do not measure the role of driver fatigue in truck driver injuries. However, according to a DOT 2006 study, sleep was a factor in 4 percent of all truck drivers involved in a crash and in 13 percent of single-vehicle crashes.8 In a case in which a truck driver slipped on ice, fell to the ground, and suffered an injury, the ground would be coded as the primary source and the ice would be the secondary source.
· Among tractor-trailer drivers injured by contact with objects or equipment, a vehicle was the source of injury 28 percent of the time. For delivery truck drivers, this figure was 31 percent.
· Of the overexertion injuries to delivery truck drivers, 40 percent were due to lifting containers, such as boxes or packages, and 34 percent were due to lifting or lowering objects.
Among private sector workers with injuries requiring days away from work, 43 percent were age 45 or older. This percentage was the about same for injured delivery truck drivers, but among injured tractor-trailer truck drivers, this figure was 62 percent. Forty-three percent of the injured delivery truck drivers had 5 or more years of service. Both groups of injured truck drivers took more days to recover than the median of 8 days for all injured workers. The median number of days away from work for tractor-trailer truck drivers was 19, and the median for delivery truck drivers was 15.
From 2003 to 2012, injuries and illnesses involving days away from work declined 44 percent for tractor-trailer drivers and 25 percent for delivery drivers. This decline in injury and illness cases occurred over the entire workforce, with cases falling 30 percent for all private industry occupations.
Truck drivers experienced higher than average rates of both fatal injuries and nonfatal injuries and illnesses compared with all private industry occupations in 2012. Over the 2003 to 2012 period, the number of both fatal injuries and nonfatal injuries and illnesses to truck drivers decreased. The majority of fatal injuries were from transportation incidents, although nonfatal cases were more likely caused by overexertion, falls, and contact with objects.
Sean M. Smith, "Workplace hazards of truck drivers," Monthly Labor Review, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, April 2015, https://doi.org/10.21916/mlr.2015.8.
1 Data on fatal injuries are from “Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI)” (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2009), https://www.bls.gov/iif/oshcfoi1.htm. Fatal injuries in this article are based on revised counts for 2012. Data on nonfatal injuries and illnesses are from the Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (SOII) program, which collects data from a sample of business establishments in the United States; see “Injuries, illnesses, and fatalities” (IFF) (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics), https://www.bls.gov/iif/home.htm. For more information on both the CFOI and SOII programs, see “Occupational safety and health statistics,” BLS Handbook of Methods, chapter 9 (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics), https://www.bls.gov/opub/hom/p df/homch9.pdf. The IFF program uses the Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System (OIICS) to define event or exposure, nature, part of body, and source; see “Injuries, illnesses, and fatalities,” Occupational Injury and Illness Classification Manual (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics), https://www.bls.gov/iif/oshoiics.htm. Occupation is defined using the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system; see Standard Occupational Classification (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics), https://www.bls.gov/soc/home.htm. Industry is defined using the North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS); see “BLS information” (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics), https://www.bls.gov/bls/naics.htm.
2 “Commercial motor vehicle facts,” 2014 Pocket Guide to Large Truck and Bus Statistics (Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, October 2014), https://cms.fmcsa.dot.gov/safety/data-and-statistics/commercial-motor-vehicle-facts.
3 “Occupational safety and health statistics,” BLS Handbook of Methods.
4 For more information on the regulations, see “Summary of hours of service regulations” (Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, December 2014), https://cms.fmcsa.dot.gov/regulations/hours-service/summary-hours-service-regulations.
5 “Weighted number of involved vehicles by critical reason (general Level, and specific level), crash type, and vehicle type,” table 13, Large-Truck Crash Causation Study: An Initial Overview, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (U.S. Department of Transportation, August 2006), p. 24, http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/Pubs/810646.pdf.
6 2014 Pocket Guide to Large Truck and Bus Statistics, “Commercial motor vehicle facts.”
7 “Summary of hours of service regulations” (Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration).
8 The “source” (also referred to as primary source) and “secondary source” identify the objects, substances, equipment, and other factors that were responsible for the injury or illness incurred by the worker or that precipitated the event or exposure.