Article

February 2018

Workplace hazards facing line installers and repairers

Line installers and repairers face dangerous working conditions. In severe cases, these conditions could lead to fatal injuries. This article provides details about the work-related injuries and illnesses suffered by line installers and repairers during the 2011–15 period.

Electricity and telecommunications are essential parts of our daily lives. In the last two decades of the 19th century, electricity became commercially viable, with electric streetcar lines and street lights installed in various cities around the world. The electrification of American households began early in the 20th century, mainly in major cities and places served by electric railways, and spread rapidly until about 1930, when two-thirds of American households were electrified.1 At the end of World War II, four-fifths of American households were electrified, and by 1970, the electrification of homes and businesses had become virtually universal.2 In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell patented the telephone, the first device enabling people to talk directly with one another over large distances. Today, more than 40 percent of American homes use landline telephones.3

Both electrical and telecommunication technologies rely on lines installed atop a vast infrastructure of utility poles, although underground lines are becoming more prevalent. Line installers and repairers are on the front lines of that infrastructure, building, maintaining, and repairing the nation’s electrical and telecommunication grids. When we lose power, cable television, or Internet services, our daily routines are disrupted, and we become anxious to have those services restored. When everything works, however, we often give little thought to the work line workers do or the dangers they face in performing it. This article provides details about the work-related injuries and illnesses suffered by line installers and repairers during the 2011–15 period.

Data and methodology

The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) collects and reports data on occupational injuries, illnesses, and fatalities through the Occupational Safety and Health Statistics program, which includes both the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) and the Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (SOII). The CFOI reports a complete count of fatal workplace injuries, including details about worker demographics, injury characteristics, and circumstances associated with each fatality. The SOII is a survey of establishments that estimates nonfatal workplace injuries and illnesses on the basis of employer-provided data.4 The SOII captures additional detail for nonfatal cases requiring at least 1 day away from work.5 All nonfatal occupational injury and illness data presented in this article are from the SOII.6 Fatality data from the CFOI are also referenced in the analysis.7

The characteristics and case circumstances of fatal and nonfatal work-related injuries and illnesses are based on the BLS Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System (OIICS) and include the following: “nature” of injury or illness; “event or exposure”; “part of body affected”; and “primary or secondary source” (e.g., machinery, equipment, or other factors that precipitated the event or exposure).8 Data used to measure employment are annualized from the BLS Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) program, which publishes wages and a count of employment reported quarterly by employers.9 QCEW data are available by industry and geographical area (county, Metropolitan Statistical Area, and state and national levels).

Line installers and repairers in the electrical power and telecommunications sectors

BLS uses the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system to classify workers into occupational categories for the purposes of collecting, calculating, and disseminating data.10 Line installers and repairers (SOC 49-9050) in the electrical and telecommunications sectors fall under two distinct, but related, occupations. The first occupation, electrical power-line installers and repairers (SOC 49-9051), involves installing or repairing high-voltage cables and related equipment that operate on up to hundreds of thousands of volts. These cables and equipment are used in electrical power transmission or distribution systems for both aboveground and underground electrical grids. Workers in this occupation perform tasks ranging from erecting poles and light- or heavy-duty transmission towers to replacing fuses or entire transformers. The second occupation, telecommunications line installers and repairers (SOC 49-9052), involves installing and repairing the telecommunication cables used to provide cable, Internet, and telephone services. Such work requires familiarity with various types of cable, including fiber-optic, coaxial, and telephone lines. Workers in both occupations are required to inspect and test the lines they install or repair and to follow established safety standards and procedures.11

The hazards encountered in the two occupations exhibit both similarities and differences. Although telecommunications line installers and repairers do not work with high-voltage cables, they must be able, just like electrical power-line installers and repairers, to reach and work with wiring and equipment attached to utility poles. In both occupations, this work is performed with vehicles such as pole and bucket trucks.

During the 2011–15 period, line installers and repairers suffered 201 fatal occupational injuries, about 40 per year, with little year-to-year variation. (See table 1.) The number of fatal injuries for electrical power-line installers and repairers (131) was approximately twice that for telecommunications line installers and repairers (70). The fatal injuries of workers in the latter occupation showed greater year-to-year variation, ranging from 10 in 2012 to 19 in 2014.

Table 1. Number of fatal work injuries and nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses involving days away from work, by selected occupation, 2011–15
OccupationFatal injuriesNonfatal injuries and illnesses
2011201220132014201520112012201320142015

Line installers and repairers

38374244405,5405,0006,6406,2606,250

Electrical power-line installers and repairers

26272725262,5002,0902,3102,5102,240

Telecommunications line installers and repairers

12101519143,0402,9104,3303,7504,010

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses.

Each year, BLS lists 10 civilian occupations with high fatal-work-injury rates.12 Electrical power-line installers and repairers were included in this list for all years between 2011 and 2015. Their rates of fatal work injuries per 100,000 full-time equivalent workers were 19.5 in 2011, 23.9 in 2012, 21.5 in 2013, 19.2 in 2014, and 20.5 in 2015. Although not listed among the 10 civilian occupations with high fatal-work-injury rates during 2011–15, telecommunications line installers and repairers had published rates of 7.9 in 2013 and 10.0 in 2014. In comparison, the rates for all workers in 2011–15 ranged from 3.3 to 3.5.

During the same period, the rates of nonfatal occupational injuries (per 10,000 full-time equivalent workers) for electrical power-line installers and repairers were considerably higher than the rates for all occupations. In addition, the nonfatal rates for telecommunications line installers and repairers were higher than both the rates for all occupations and the rates for electrical power-line installers and repairers. (See table 2.)

Table 2. Incidence rates of nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses involving days away from work, by selected occupation, private industry, 2011–15
Occupation20112012201320142015

All occupations

104.3101.999.997.893.9

   Electrical power-line installers and repairers

211.3167.5202.9182.2173.9

   Telecommunications line installers and repairers

217.2227.5386.9350.1411.3

Note: Incidence rates represent the number of injuries and illnesses per 10,000 full-time equivalent workers.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses.

The fatal and nonfatal injury and illness cases for line installers and repairers were concentrated in a few industries that employ these workers. (See table 3.) Three industries—electric power generation, transmission, and distribution; power and communication line and related structures construction; and electrical contractors—accounted for over 95 percent of fatal injuries for electrical power-line installers and repairers. Four industries—electrical contractors, power and communication line and related structures construction, wired telecommunications carriers, and broadcasting (except Internet)—accounted for 87 percent of fatal injuries for telecommunications line installers and repairers.

Table 3. Number of fatal work injuries and nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses for line installers and repairers, by selected industries, 2011–15
IndustryNAICS codeFatal work injuries, all ownershipsNonfatal injuries and illnesses involving at least 1 day away from work
Total, 2011–1520112012201320142015

All industries

 2014,9304,4406,2105,5205,650

Wired telecommunications carriers

517100331,6702,1602,4602,9403,470

Electric power generation, transmission and distribution

221100591,3801,1106501,1801,100

Power and communication line and related structures construction

23713059430200490380

Electrical contractors

23821028270190480180370

Broadcasting (except Internet)

51500062401605905070

Note: NAICS = North American Industry Classification System.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses.

There are two notable differences between the injury and illness experiences of workers in the two occupations of line installers and repairers. Between 2011 and 2015, electrical power-line installers and repairers suffered a higher number of fatal work injuries than did telecommunication line installers and repairers. However, telecommunication line installers and repairers suffered a higher number of nonfatal injuries and illnesses than did electrical power-line installers and repairers, although employment was similar for both occupations.13

The number of days away from work can be used to compare the severity of occupational injuries between line installers and repairers and all occupations combined. (See table 4.) For both electrical power-line installers and repairers and telecommunications line installers and repairers, the largest fraction of nonfatal injury and illness cases involved 31 or more days away from work: 44.3 percent for electrical power-line installers and repairers and 55.3 percent for telecommunications line installers and repairers. These percentages are higher than the 28.6 percent for all occupations.

Table 4. Distribution of nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses by degree of severity for selected private industry occupations, 2015 (percent of total cases)
Days away from workAll occupationsElectrical power-line installers and repairersTelecommunications line installers and repairers

Total number of cases

902,1601,6703,980

1 day away from work

14.19.05.3

2 days away from work

11.13.65.8

3–5 days away from work

17.321.09.6

6–10 days away from work

11.66.611.3

11–20 days away from work

10.710.87.5

21–30 days away from work

6.46.05.3

31 or more days away from work

28.644.355.3

Median days away from work

82042

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses.

In 2015, the median days away from work for electrical power-line installers and repairers (20 days) and telecommunications line installers and repairers (42 days) were considerably higher than the median for all occupations (8 days). (See table 4.) This suggests that line installers and repairers sustained injuries and illnesses that were more severe than those for all occupations.

Demographics of the workers affected

The CFOI collects detailed data on the demographics of fatally injured workers. Of the 201 line installers and repairers who were fatally injured between 2011 and 2015, all but 3 were wage-and-salary workers, all but 2 were men, and 175 were non-Hispanic Whites. (See table 5.)

Table 5. Fatal occupational injuries by selected worker characteristics for line installers and repairers, all ownerships, 2011–15
CharacteristicTotalPercent

Total

201100

Age

  

18–19 years

31

20–24 years

2211

25–34 years

5125

35–44 years

4623

45–54 years

4221

55–64 years

3015

65 years and older

73

Birthplace

  

Native born

19396

Foreign birthplace

84

Mexico

42

Employee status

  

Wage and salary workers

19899

Self–employed

31

Gender

  

Men

19999

Race or ethnic origin

  

White (non-Hispanic)

17587

Black or African American (non-Hispanic)

115

Hispanic or Latino

115

American Indian or Alaskan Native (non-Hispanic)

42

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries.

Among line installers and repairers whose race and ethnicity were reported, non-Hispanic Whites had the highest number of injuries and illnesses requiring at least 1 day away from work.14 (See table 6.)

Table 6. Number of nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses involving days away from work, by selected worker and case characteristics and selected occupation, private industry, 2011–15
CharacteristicAll occupationsLine installers and repairers
201520112012201320142015

Total

902,1604,9304,4406,2105,5205,650

Gender

      

Men

556,3704,8204,2206,0905,2405,300

Women

341,130110220100270350

Age

      

Under 14

14 to 15

130

16 to 19

23,560

20 to 24

86,590190150380380270

25 to 34

190,5001,0601,020810980850

35 to 44

187,9501,6401,3602,2301,6001,730

45 to 54

210,2001,4501,1901,8201,7501,810

55 to 64

152,590540490780510800

65 and over

33,8503030100

Length of service with employer

      

Less than 3 months

103,010210130230160160

3 months to 11 months

183,470290330550870360

1 year to 5 years

293,1001,4608108401,1801,140

More than 5 years

306,0502,9503,0903,8903,2103,890

Race or ethnic origin

      

White (non-Hispanic)

347,2001,2801,3308901,5601,190

Black or African American (non-Hispanic)

73,5908013012037040

Hispanic or Latino only

125,360180110110120140

Asian

14,530

Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander

2,49020

American Indian or Alaska Native

4,040309030

Hispanic and other

460

Multirace

1,130

Not reported

333,3703,3502,8605,0603,3604,250
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses.

Injury characteristics of the workers affected

The principal physical characteristics of the injuries suffered by line installers and repairers differ considerably between fatal and nonfatal cases.

In 2011–15, electrocutions accounted for only 3 percent of fatal occupational injuries overall, but they caused nearly one-half of the fatal injuries to electrical power-line installers and repairers. This occupation typically involves working directly with high-voltage lines. Although telecommunications line installers and repairers usually work with low-voltage lines, they often work in proximity to high-voltage lines. While multiple injuries accounted for over two-fifths of the fatal cases among telecommunications line installers and repairers, electrocutions accounted for another one-sixth. The 72 fatal electrocutions suffered by the two occupations of line installers and repairers represented one-tenth of the overall fatal electrocutions for all workers.

As with all occupations during 2011–15, most nonfatal injury and illness cases for line installers and repairers were the result of sprains, strains, and tears. (See table 7.)

Table 7. Number of nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses involving days away from work, by nature of injury or illness and selected occupation, private industry, 2011–15
Nature of injury or illnessAll occupationsLine installers and repairers
201520112012201320142015

Total

902,1604,9304,4406,2105,5205,650

Fractures

81,180380240510330340

Sprains, strains, tears

324,7002,3002,2602,4902,4002,710

Amputations

5,360

Cuts, lacerations, punctures

93,090330300160390160

Cuts, lacerations

78,790230230120300120

Punctures (except gunshot wounds)

14,300100705010050

Bruises, contusions

76,290250200430330200

Chemical burns and corrosions

3,200

Heat (thermal) burns

15,0103020

Multiple traumatic injuries

22,800220110190180130

With sprains and other injuries

10,110150208070100

With fractures and other injuries

3,970304040

Soreness, pain

136,3005104101,0004901,000

Carpal tunnel syndrome

4,920203080

Tendonitis

2,47020

All other

136,8408608501,4301,3001,090

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses.

Circumstances associated with fatal incidents

Although exposure to electricity accounted for only 3 percent of overall fatal injuries from 2011 to 2015, it is the leading cause of fatal injuries among electrical power-line installers and repairers, accounting for nearly one-half of the fatalities in this occupation (62 of 131). Exposure to electricity was the main difference between the fatal injury experiences of the two kinds of line workers, accounting for just under one-fifth of the fatalities among telecommunications line installers and repairers (13 of 70).15

Line installation and repair involve travelling to and from worksites, climbing poles, and working out of bucket trucks. Although the number of fatal falls to a lower level was similar for the two line-worker occupations, such falls were more prevalent for telecommunications line installers and repairers (31 percent) than for electrical power-line installers and repairers (16 percent). Table 8 shows the objects from which these fatally injured workers fell.

Table 8. Fatal occupational injuries to line installers and repairers resulting from falls, by object from which worker fell, all ownerships, 2011–15
ObjectTotalPercent

Total falls to lower level

43100

Towers, poles

1433

Telecommunications and cell phone towers

512

Utility and telephone poles

716

Ladders

1535

Boom truck bucket or basket hoist truck

49

Other

1023

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries.

Transportation incidents accounted for over one-quarter of line-worker fatalities (58), and falls to a lower level accounted for one-fifth of line-worker fatalities (43). (See tables 8 and 9.) Transportation incidents were about equally prevalent for both electrical power-line installers and repairers (30 percent) and telecommunications line installers and repairers (27 percent). These shares were smaller than the share of transportation incidents among the fatal cases for all workers (41 percent).

Table 9. Fatal occupational injuries to line installers and repairers resulting from transportation incidents, all ownerships, 2011–15
Incident characteristicTotalPercent

Total transportation-incident fatalities

58100

Air crashes

610

Pedestrians struck by vehicle in transport

1526

Roadway incidents involving motorized land vehicles

3560

Roadway collisions with other vehicle

2034

Roadway collisions with objects other than vehicles

814

Roadway noncollision incidents

712

Jack-knifed or overturned roadway

47

Vehicles workers were driving or riding in or which directly struck pedestrian workers

58100

Helicopters

610

Motorized highway vehicles

4984

Passenger vehicles

1424

Automobiles

916

Passenger vans

47

Motorized trucks—freight hauling and utility

2136

Boom trucks, bucket or basket hoist trucks

1017

Delivery trucks or vans

47

Multipurpose highway vehicles

1322

Pickup trucks

1119

Vehicles indirectly involved in the transportation incident

2645

Motorized trucks—freight hauling and utility

1526

Semi tractor-trailers, tanker trucks

1221

Multipurpose highway vehicles

59

Pickup trucks

59

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries.

In all, at least 84 vehicles of various kinds were involved in the 58 transportation-incident fatalities among line installers and repairers. This is because a second vehicle was involved in almost half of the fatal transportation incidents, including 20 roadway collisions with another vehicle. In 33 fatal cases, the fatally injured worker was driving the vehicle, and in 9 cases he or she was a passenger. In 5 cases, the fatally injured worker was walking or standing in or near the roadway area. One-fifth of line workers killed in transportation incidents in 2011–15 perished in multiple-fatality incidents that led to the death of two or more workers. By comparison, one-eighth of all workers fatally injured in transportation incidents were involved in multiple-fatality incidents.

In 2011, when the CFOI began to capture the height of falls, about one-fifth of all fatal falls to a lower level for occupations overall were from heights of 30 feet (9¼ meters) or more. However, more than two-fifths of line-worker fatal falls to a lower level were from 30 feet or more.

Fatal injuries in both line-worker occupations were concentrated in the summer and autumn months during 2011–15. (See table 10.)

Table 10. Fatal occupational injuries for selected occupations, by month of incident, all ownerships, 2011–15
Timing of incidentElectrical power-line installers and repairersTelecommunications line installers and repairersTotal

Winter (December–February)

241337

Spring (March–May)

251540

Summer (June–August)

472269

Autumn (September–November)

352055
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries.

Circumstances associated with nonfatal incidents

The leading event or exposure resulting in nonfatal injuries among line workers in 2015 was overexertion and bodily reaction, accounting for 52 percent of cases with days away from work. (See table 11.) From 2011 to 2015, the number of cases in this category increased from 1,930 to 2,960. The number of cases was 2,110 in 2012, 2,470 in 2013, and 2,450 in 2014. Falls, slips, and trips accounted for 25 percent of days-away-from-work cases. While no fatalities resulted from falls on the same level, there were 630 such falls that resulted in days away from work in 2015.

Table 11. Number of nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses involving days away from work, by event or exposure and selected occupation, private industry, 2011–15
Event or exposureAll occupationsLine installers and repairers
201520112012201320142015

Total

902,1604,9304,4406,2105,5205,650

Violence and other injuries by persons or animal

38,4407015011013050

Intentional injury by other person

16,160

Injury by person—unintentional or intent unknown

9,930

Animal- and insect-related incidents

12,020701406011050

Transportation incidents

46,360360380530540310

Roadway incidents involving motorized land vehicles

31,130260340510490270

Fires, explosions

1,27020

Falls, slips, trips

238,6101,3209201,4101,1301,440

Slips, trips without fall

34,140290200610200350

Fall on same level

149,180340340350510630

Fall to lower level

50,490570330440380440

Exposure to harmful substances or environments

40,250240130300280190

Contact with object, equipment

232,1209607201,390920590

Struck by object

135,2805304401,090530320

Struck against object

50,160340200170210170

Caught in object, equipment, material

33,40080509012030

Overexertion and bodily reaction

300,6001,9302,1102,4702,4502,960

Overexertion in lifting or lowering

94,420330580370640280

Repetitive motion involving microtasks

21,230904090100140

All other

4,520402070110

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses.

Conclusion

The data presented in this article show that working with electrical power and telecommunications lines can be dangerous or even fatal. Line installers and repairers face a litany of workplace hazards—exposure to electricity, transportation incidents, falls, etc.—in ensuring that our lights stay on, that our appliances work, and that our landline telephone and Internet services are available when we need them.

The characteristics of the injuries and illnesses for this occupation differ between fatal and nonfatal cases. Exposure to electricity is the leading fatal event, whereas overexertion and bodily reaction is the leading nonfatal event. However, falls are near the top of the list for both fatal and nonfatal cases.

The increasing use of underground utility lines and the waning popularity of landlines may ultimately reduce the number of falls. However, since many line installers and repairers continue to work in conditions similar to those of the past, the data presented here can inform the measures employers and safety and health professionals might take to mitigate hazards and reduce injuries, illnesses, and fatalities in the occupation.

Suggested citation:

Michael Schwarz and Dino Drudi, "Workplace hazards facing line installers and repairers," Monthly Labor Review, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, February 2018, https://doi.org/10.21916/mlr.2018.5.

Notes


1 S. Mintz and S. McNeil, “The consumer economy and mass entertainment,” Digital History, 2016, http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/disp_textbook.cfm?smtid=2&psid=3396

2 Historical statistics of the United States, Series S-109 and S-116; and Statistical abstract of the United States: 1998 (U.S. Census Bureau, 1998), table 959.

3 Stephen J. Blumberg and Julian V. Luke, “Wireless substitution: early release of estimates from the National Health Interview Survey, July–December 2016” (National Center for Health Statistics, May 2017), https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhis/earlyrelease/wireless201705.pdf.

4 Definitions of recordable injury and illness cases for the SOII conform to guidelines set by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). See “OSHA injury and illness recordkeeping and reporting requirements” (U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration), https://www.osha.gov/recordkeeping/index.html. OSHA differentiates between (1) cases involving days away from work or days of restricted work activity or transfer to another job beyond the day of injury or onset of illness and (2) other recordable cases that do not result in lost work time.

5 “Nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses by case circumstances and worker characteristics,” Injuries, Illnesses, and Fatalities (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics), https://www.bls.gov/iif/oshcase1.htm.

6 “Nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses by industry,” Injuries, Illnesses, and Fatalities (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics), https://www.bls.gov/iif/oshsum1.htm.

7Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI),” Injuries, Illnesses, and Fatalities (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics), https://www.bls.gov/iif/oshfat1.htm. The scope of the CFOI differs from that of the SOII. For further information on methodology and scope, see Handbook of methods (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics), chapter 9, “Occupational safety and health statistics,” https://www.bls.gov/opub/hom/pdf/homch9.pdf.

8 “Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System, version 2.01,” Injuries, Illnesses, and Fatalities (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics), https://www.bls.gov/iif/oshoiics.htm.

9 Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics), https://www.bls.gov/cew/.

10 Standard Occupational Classification manual, 2010 (Office of Management and Budget, 2010). For a definition of electrical power-line installers and repairers, see www.bls.gov/soc/2010/soc499051.htm. For a definition of telecommunications line installers and repairers, see www.bls.gov/soc/2010/soc499052.htm.

11 “Line installers and repairers,” Occupational Outlook Handbook (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2016–17), https://www.bls.gov/ooh/installation-maintenance-and-repair/line-installers-and-repairers.htm.

12 Fatal injury rates exclude workers under age 16, volunteers, and the resident military. For additional information on the methodology used to calculate fatal-work-injury rates, see www.bls.gov/iif/oshnotice10.htm.

13 Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics), https://www.bls.gov/cew/.

14 During 2011–15, race was not reported in over half of the nonfatal injury and illness cases involving line installers and repairers. Given this limitation, data by race should be interpreted with caution.

15 Although, under the OIICS, electrocutions (a nature of injury) typically result from exposure to electricity (an event or exposure), there is no one-to-one correspondence between these two categories. Other natures of injury, such as electrical burns, may also result from exposure to electricity.

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About the Author

Michael Schwarz
schwarz.michael@bls.gov

Michael Schwarz is an economist in the Office of Compensation and Working Conditions, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Dino Drudi

Dino Drudi was formerly an economist in the Office of Compensation and Working Conditions, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

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