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Annual average rate of job openings 5.7 percent in 2023, compared to 6.8 percent in 2022

March 18, 2024

In 2023, the annual average job openings level was 9.4 million, a decrease of 1.8 million from 2022. The annual average job openings rate—that is, job openings as a percent of total employment plus job openings—was 5.7 percent in 2023, compared to 6.8 percent in 2022. In 2019, prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, the rate was 4.5 percent.

Annual average rates for selected job openings and labor turnover measures, 2001–23
Year Job openings rate Hires rate Total separations rate Quits rate Layoffs and discharges rate Other separations rate

2001

3.2 3.9 4.1 2.2 1.6 0.3

2002

2.6 3.7 3.7 2.0 1.5 0.3

2003

2.4 3.6 3.6 1.8 1.6 0.3

2004

2.7 3.8 3.7 1.9 1.5 0.3

2005

3.0 4.0 3.8 2.1 1.5 0.2

2006

3.3 4.0 3.8 2.2 1.4 0.3

2007

3.3 3.9 3.8 2.1 1.4 0.3

2008

2.7 3.4 3.6 1.8 1.5 0.2

2009

1.9 3.0 3.3 1.3 1.7 0.2

2010

2.2 3.2 3.1 1.4 1.4 0.2

2011

2.5 3.3 3.1 1.5 1.4 0.2

2012

2.8 3.3 3.2 1.6 1.4 0.3

2013

2.9 3.4 3.2 1.7 1.3 0.3

2014

3.3 3.5 3.4 1.8 1.3 0.3

2015

3.8 3.7 3.5 2.0 1.3 0.3

2016

3.9 3.7 3.6 2.1 1.2 0.3

2017

4.0 3.7 3.6 2.1 1.2 0.2

2018

4.6 3.8 3.7 2.3 1.2 0.2

2019

4.5 3.9 3.8 2.3 1.2 0.2

2020

4.3 4.3 4.7 2.1 2.4 0.2

2021

6.4 4.3 3.9 2.7 1.0 0.2

2022

6.8 4.2 3.9 2.8 1.0 0.2

2023

5.7 3.8 3.6 2.4 1.1 0.2

The annual hires level was 71.0 million in 2023, a decrease of 5.8 million from 2022. The annual average hires rate, which is the number of hires as a percent of total employment, was 3.8 percent in 2023, down from 4.2 percent in 2022. The rate was 3.9 percent in 2019.

Annual total separations decreased by 4.2 million to 68.1 million in 2023. The annual average total separations rate was 3.6 percent, compared to 3.9 percent in 2022 and 3.8 percent in 2019.

Among the components of annual total separations in 2023, quits decreased by 6.1 million to 44.4 million and accounted for 65.2 percent of total separations. Layoffs and separations increased by 2.1 million to 19.8 million. Other separations, such as those due to retirement, death, disability, and transfer to other locations of the same firm, decreased by 176,000 over the year to 3.9 million.  

The annual average quits rate, which can serve as a measure of workers’ willingness or ability to leave jobs, was 2.4 percent in 2023. This compares to 2.8 percent in the prior year and 2.3 percent in 2019. The annual average layoffs and discharges rate was 1.1 percent in 2023 and 1.0 percent in 2022. The rate for other separations was 0.2 percent in 2023 and 2022. In 2019, the annual average rates were 1.2 percent for layoffs and discharges and 0.2 percent for other separations.

These data are from the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey and are not seasonally adjusted. Data for the most recent month are preliminary. To learn more, see "Job Openings and Labor Turnover — January 2024." We also have more charts of job openings, hires, and separations data

SUGGESTED CITATION

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, The Economics Daily, Annual average rate of job openings 5.7 percent in 2023, compared to 6.8 percent in 2022 at https://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2024/annual-average-rate-of-job-openings-5-7-percent-in-2023-compared-to-6-8-percent-in-2022.htm (visited April 13, 2024).

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