Department of Labor Logo United States Department of Labor
Dot gov

The .gov means it's official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you're on a federal government site.


The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

News Release Information

Thursday, July 13, 2023

Contacts Technical information: Media contact:
  • (312) 353-1138

Occupational Employment and Wages in Toledo — May 2022

Workers in the Toledo, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area had an average (mean) hourly wage of $26.00 in May 2022, 13 percent below the nationwide average of $29.76, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Regional Commissioner Jason Palmer noted that, after testing for statistical significance, wages in the local area were lower than their respective national averages in 18 of the 22 major occupational groups, including computer and mathematical; legal; and arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media. Three groups had significantly higher wages than their respective national averages, including construction and extraction and also production.

When compared to the nationwide distribution, Toledo area employment was more highly concentrated in 6 of the 22 occupational groups, including production, transportation and material moving, and healthcare practitioners and technical. Fourteen groups had employment shares significantly below their national representation, including business and financial operations, computer and mathematical, and office and administrative support. (See table A.)

Table A. Occupational employment and wages by major occupational group, United States and the Toledo metropolitan area, and measures of statistical significance, May 2022
Major occupational group Percent of total employment Mean hourly wage
United States Toledo United States Toledo Percent difference (1)

Total, all occupations

100.0 100.0 $29.76 $26.00* -13


6.7 5.5* 63.08 52.03* -18

Business and financial operations

6.5 4.6* 41.39 34.59* -16

Computer and mathematical

3.4 1.6* 51.99 37.87* -27

Architecture and engineering

1.7 1.7 45.52 40.44* -11

Life, physical, and social science

0.9 0.5* 40.21 36.54* -9

Community and social service

1.6 1.6 26.81 25.29* -6


0.8 0.5* 59.87 47.59* -21

Educational instruction and library

5.7 6.1* 30.41 30.54 0

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media

1.4 1.1* 36.78 25.40* -31

Healthcare practitioners and technical

6.1 7.5* 46.52 41.54* -11

Healthcare support

4.6 4.0* 17.10 16.73* -2

Protective service

2.3 2.1* 25.97 23.78* -8

Food preparation and serving related

8.5 9.3* 15.45 13.76* -11

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance

2.9 2.6* 17.26 15.62* -10

Personal care and service

1.9 1.8* 17.41 15.54* -11

Sales and related

8.9 7.8* 24.22 21.42* -12

Office and administrative support

12.6 11.4* 21.90 20.68* -6

Farming, fishing, and forestry

0.3 0.1* 18.21 21.13* 16

Construction and extraction

4.1 3.8* 28.08 29.53* 5

Installation, maintenance, and repair

3.9 4.2* 26.77 26.08* -3


5.9 11.7* 21.81 22.85* 5

Transportation and material moving

9.2 10.6* 21.12 19.95* -6

(1) A positive percent difference measures how much the mean wage in the Toledo, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area is above the national mean wage, while a negative difference reflects a lower wage.
* The mean hourly wage or percent share of employment is significantly different from the national average of all areas at the 90-percent confidence level.

One occupational group—production—was chosen to illustrate the diversity of data available for any of the 22 major occupational categories. Toledo had 33,140 jobs in production, accounting for 11.7 percent of local area employment, significantly higher than the 5.9-percent share nationally. The average hourly wage for this occupational group locally was $22.85, significantly above the national wage of $21.81.

Some of the larger detailed occupations within the production group included miscellaneous assemblers and fabricators (10,580); first-line supervisors of production and operating workers (1,860); and multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic (1,780). Among the higher-paying jobs in this group were first-line supervisors of production and operating workers with mean hourly wages of $33.41, computer numerically controlled tool programmers ($30.85), and tool and die makers($30.79). At the lower end of the wage scale were laundry and dry-cleaning workers ($12.79) and bakers ($14.91). (Detailed data for the production occupations are presented in table 1; for a complete listing of detailed occupations available go to

Location quotients allow us to explore the occupational make-up of a metropolitan area by comparing the composition of jobs in an area relative to the national average. (See table 1.) For example, a location quotient of 2.0 indicates that an occupation accounts for twice the share of employment in the area than it does nationally. In the Toledo area, above-average concentrations of employment were found in many of the occupations within the production group. For instance, engine and other machine assemblers were employed at 15.9 times the national rate in Toledo, and heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic, at 8.7 times the U.S. average. Welders, cutters, solderers, and brazers had a location quotient of 1.0 in Toledo, indicating that this particular occupation’s local and national employment shares were similar.

These statistics are from the Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics (OEWS) survey, a federal-state cooperative program between BLS and State Workforce Agencies, in this case, the Ohio Department of Job and Family Services.

Changes to the Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics (OEWS) Data

The May 2022 OEWS estimates use the model-based (MB3) estimation method implemented with the May 2021 estimates release. Additional updates were made to the MB3 wage processing methodology for May 2022. For more information, see the May 2022 Survey Methods and Reliability Statement.

The May 2022 estimates are the first OEWS estimates to be produced using the 2022 NAICS, which replaces the 2017 NAICS used for the May 2017-May 2021 estimates. See North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) at BLS for details.

Technical Note

The Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics (OEWS) survey is a semiannual survey measuring occupational employment and wage rates for wage and salary workers in nonfarm establishments in the United States. The OEWS data available from BLS include cross-industry occupational employment and wage estimates for the nation; over 580 areas, including states and the District of Columbia, metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs), nonmetropolitan areas, and territories; national industry-specific estimates at the NAICS sector, 3-digit, most 4-digit, and selected 5- and 6-digit industry levels, and national estimates by ownership across all industries and for schools and hospitals. OEWS data are available at

The OEWS survey is a cooperative effort between BLS and the State Workforce Agencies (SWAs). BLS funds the survey and provides the procedures and technical support, while the State Workforce Agencies collect most of the data. OEWS estimates are constructed from a sample of about 1.1 million establishments. Each year, two semiannual panels of approximately 179,000 to 187,000 sampled establishments are contacted, one panel in May and the other in November. Responses are obtained by Internet or other electronic means, mail, email, telephone, or personal visit. The May 2022 estimates are based on responses from six semiannual panels collected over a 3-year period: May 2022, November 2021, May 2021, November 2020, May 2020, and November 2019. The unweighted sampled employment of 80 million across all six semiannual panels represents approximately 57 percent of total national employment. The overall national response rate for the six panels, based on the 50 states and the District of Columbia, is 65.4 percent based on establishments and 62.5 percent based on weighted sampled employment. The sample in the Toledo, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area included 2,480 establishments with a response rate of 60 percent. For more information about OEWS concepts and methodology, go to

A value that is statistically different from another does not necessarily mean that the difference has economic or practical significance. Statistical significance is concerned with the ability to make confident statements about a universe based on a sample. It is entirely possible that a large difference between two values is not significantly different statistically, while a small difference is, since both the size and heterogeneity of the sample affect the relative error of the data being tested.

Metropolitan area definitions

The substate area data published in this release reflect the standards and definitions established by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget.

The Toledo, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area includes Fulton County, Lucas County, and Wood County.

For more information

Answers to frequently asked questions about the OEWS data are available at Detailed information about the OEWS program is available at

Information in this release will be made available to individuals with sensory impairments upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Telecommunications Relay Service: 7-1-1.

Table 1. Employment and wage data for production occupations, Toledo metropolitan area, May 2022
Occupation (1) Employment Mean wages
Level (2) Location quotient (3) Hourly Annual (4)

Production occupations

33,140 2.0 $22.85 $47,530

First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

1,860 1.5 33.41 69,500

Electrical, electronic, and electromechanical assemblers, except coil winders, tapers, and finishers

470 0.9 18.12 37,690

Engine and other machine assemblers

1,530 15.9 29.86 62,100

Structural metal fabricators and fitters

60 0.6 22.20 46,170

Miscellaneous assemblers and fabricators

10,580 3.8 21.25 44,190


340 0.9 14.91 31,020

Butchers and meat cutters

250 1.0 16.64 34,620

Food batchmakers

260 0.8 18.37 38,220

Food processing workers, all other

80 0.9 15.18 31,570

Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

100 0.8 18.92 39,340

Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

990 2.8 19.13 39,790

Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

(5) (5) 21.92 45,600

Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

60 1.6 21.79 45,330


1,550 2.5 25.67 53,400

Molding, coremaking, and casting machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

880 2.8 18.18 37,810

Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

1,780 6.7 24.29 50,530

Tool and die makers

520 4.4 30.79 64,040

Welders, cutters, solderers, and brazers

820 1.0 21.76 45,260

Welding, soldering, and brazing machine setters, operators, and tenders

60 1.0 20.51 42,660

Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

260 8.7 22.55 46,910

Plating machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic

120 2.0 18.55 38,590

Prepress technicians and workers

70 1.5 19.01 39,540

Printing press operators

380 1.3 18.98 39,470

Print binding and finishing workers

50 0.6 18.61 38,710

Laundry and dry-cleaning workers

410 1.2 12.79 26,590

Sewing machine operators

140 0.6 16.00 33,270

Tailors, dressmakers, and custom sewers

50 1.5 (5) (5)

Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters

150 0.8 16.76 34,860

Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood

50 0.6 19.08 39,690

Water and wastewater treatment plant and system operators

220 1.0 26.24 54,590

Chemical equipment operators and tenders

260 1.2 23.57 49,020

Separating, filtering, clarifying, precipitating, and still machine setters, operators, and tenders

90 0.9 23.98 49,870

Crushing, grinding, and polishing machine setters, operators, and tenders

60 1.2 20.38 42,380

Grinding and polishing workers, hand

30 1.1 18.13 37,710

Mixing and blending machine setters, operators, and tenders

240 1.2 20.89 43,450

Cutting and slicing machine setters, operators, and tenders

120 1.2 18.56 38,610

Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting machine setters, operators, and tenders

210 1.8 17.22 35,810

Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders

180 6.4 28.23 58,710

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers

1,580 1.4 22.68 47,180

Dental laboratory technicians

70 1.1 20.84 43,340

Medical appliance technicians

30 1.0 22.29 46,370

Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders

820 1.2 21.74 45,220

Coating, painting, and spraying machine setters, operators, and tenders

260 0.9 20.10 41,820

Computer numerically controlled tool operators

750 2.2 21.31 44,320

Computer numerically controlled tool programmers

110 2.1 30.85 64,170

Adhesive bonding machine operators and tenders

40 1.7 20.36 42,350

Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment operators and tenders

40 1.5 17.42 36,230

Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic

160 2.1 18.59 38,670

Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders

280 1.6 20.54 42,730

Helpers--production workers

250 0.7 18.57 38,620

Production workers, all other

900 1.9 17.50 36,400

(1) For a complete listing of all detailed occupations in the Toledo, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area, see
(2) Estimates for detailed occupations may not sum to the totals due to rounding, and because the totals may include occupations that are not shown separately. Estimates do not include self-employed workers.
(3) The location quotient is the ratio of the area concentration of occupational employment to the national average concentration. A location quotient greater than one indicates the occupation has a higher share of employment than average, and a location quotient less than one indicates the occupation is less prevalent in the area than average.
(4) Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a 'year-round, full-time' hours figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations where there is not an hourly mean wage published, the annual wage has been directly calculated from the reported survey data.
(5) Estimate not released.


Last Modified Date: Thursday, July 13, 2023