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Employer Costs for Employee Compensation

Employer Costs for Employee Compensation Relative Standard Errors

Because the Employer Costs for Employee Compensation is a sample survey, it is subject to sampling errors. Sampling errors are differences that occur between the results computed from a sample of observations and those computed from all observations in the population. The estimates derived from different samples selected using the same sample design may differ from each other. A measure of the variation among these differing estimates is the standard error. The relative standard error is the standard error expressed as a percent of the cost. It can be used to measure the precision with which an estimate from a particular sample approximates the expected result of all possible samples. The chances are about 68 out of 100 that an estimate from the survey differs from a complete population figure by less than the standard error. The chances are about 90 out of 100 that this difference would be less than 1.6 times the standard error. Footnotes have been added for estimates with relative standard errors greater than 30 percent.

For a more detailed explanation of relative standard errors, see Measuring Trends in the Structure and Levels of Employer Costs for Employee Compensation, Compensation and Working Conditions, Summer 1997. For a detailed explanation of how to use standard error data to analyze differences in year-to-year changes, see Analyzing Year-to-Year Changes in Employer Costs for Employee Compensation, Compensation and Working Conditions, Spring 1998. This article supplements an article from the Summer 1997 issue of Compensation and Working Conditions, Explaining the Differential Growth Rates of the ECI and ECEC, which examined how differences in the construction of these measures contribute to differing trends.

Standard errors relate to differences that occur from sampling errors, but not from nonsampling errors. Sampling errors are differences between the results computed from a sample of observations and those computed from all observations in the population. Nonsampling errors are not measured and include survey nonresponse and data collection and processing errors. Survey nonresponse is when sample members are unwilling or unable to participate in the survey. Data collection errors include provision of inaccurate data by respondents and definitional difficulties. Processing errors include errors in recording, coding, and entering data. Although nonsampling errors are not measured, BLS quality assurance programs contain procedures for reducing such errors. These procedures include data collection reinterviews, observed interviews, computer data edits, and systematic review of reports on which data are recorded. Extensive field economist training also is conducted to maintain high data collection standards.

Obtaining information

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Table 1. Employer Costs for Employee Compensation by ownership [Sept. 2023]
Compensation component Civilian workers(1) Private industry
workers
State and local
government workers
Cost ($) Relative
standard error
Cost ($) Relative
standard error
Cost ($) Relative
standard error

Total compensation(2)

43.93 1.1 41.53 1.3 59.90 0.8

Wages and salaries

30.35 1.0 29.34 1.2 37.09 0.8

Total benefits

13.58 1.3 12.19 1.7 22.81 1.0

Paid leave

3.26 1.7 3.09 2.1 4.38 1.5

Vacation

1.59 1.9 1.59 2.2 1.63 2.4

Holiday

0.96 1.9 0.92 2.2 1.27 2.1

Sick

0.50 1.6 0.40 2.2 1.13 1.3

Personal

0.20 2.1 0.18 2.8 0.35 2.5

Supplemental pay

1.42 3.0 1.55 3.2 0.59 4.0

Overtime and premium(3)

0.38 1.7 0.40 1.8 0.27 4.7

Shift differentials

0.07 4.4 0.07 5.0 0.06 6.5

Nonproduction bonuses

0.97 4.2 1.07 4.4 0.27 5.4

Insurance

3.52 1.3 3.04 1.6 6.70 0.9

Life

0.05 2.0 0.05 2.2 0.09 4.4

Health

3.33 1.3 2.86 1.6 6.52 0.9

Short-term disability

0.08 2.9 0.09 3.0 0.03 4.3

Long-term disability

0.05 3.0 0.05 3.4 0.05 3.9

Retirement and savings

2.26 2.0 1.41 3.2 7.93 1.4

Defined benefit

1.33 2.5 0.43 6.5 7.40 1.5

Defined contribution

0.93 2.9 0.99 3.2 0.53 4.7

Legally Required benefits

3.12 0.9 3.11 1.0 3.20 1.3

Social Security and Medicare

2.49 1.0 2.48 1.2 2.55 1.2

Social Security(4)

1.99 1.0 1.99 1.2 1.94 1.5

Medicare

0.51 1.1 0.49 1.3 0.61 0.8

Federal unemployment insurance

0.03 4.0 0.03 3.9 (5)- (6)-

State unemployment insurance

0.13 2.4 0.14 2.6 0.07 9.0

Workers' compensation

0.47 1.1 0.46 1.3 0.58 2.7

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(2) Includes costs for wages and salaries and benefits.
(3) Includes premium pay for work (such as overtime, weekends, and holidays) in addition to the regular work schedule.
(4) Social Security refers to the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program.
(5) Cost per hour worked is $0.01 or less.
(6) The relative standard error is not available as the cost per hour worked is $0.01 or less.

Table 2. Employer Costs for Employee Compensation for civilian workers by occupational and industry group [Sept. 2023]
Series Total compensation(1) Wages and salaries Total benefits Paid leave Supplemental pay Insurance Retirement and savings Legally required benefits
Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2)

Civilian workers(3)

43.93 1.1 30.35 1.0 13.58 1.3 3.26 1.7 1.42 3.0 3.52 1.3 2.26 2.0 3.12 0.9

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

70.12 1.2 47.78 1.2 22.33 1.5 6.13 1.8 2.33 4.7 5.37 1.5 4.17 2.0 4.34 1.0

Management, business and financial

81.94 1.7 55.71 1.7 26.23 2.0 7.97 2.4 3.75 6.2 5.61 1.6 3.93 3.2 4.97 1.0

Professional and related

64.80 1.3 44.22 1.3 20.58 1.7 5.30 2.2 1.69 6.5 5.26 1.8 4.28 2.4 4.05 1.3

Teachers(4)

70.83 2.4 47.90 2.3 22.92 2.8 3.69 3.4 0.32 8.8 6.57 3.2 8.73 3.9 3.62 2.0

Primary, secondary, and special education school teachers

69.31 3.0 45.71 2.8 23.59 3.6 3.24 4.8 0.28 9.4 7.14 3.9 9.69 4.8 3.25 2.8

Registered nurses

68.83 1.9 45.46 2.2 23.37 1.8 6.92 3.7 2.71 5.4 5.68 1.9 3.37 3.9 4.69 2.3

Sales and office

32.91 0.9 23.42 1.0 9.49 1.3 2.25 1.8 0.89 3.4 2.81 1.9 1.15 2.5 2.39 1.0

Sales and related

31.76 2.1 24.19 2.2 7.57 2.4 1.85 4.3 0.92 6.8 1.67 3.3 0.72 4.6 2.41 2.0

Office and administrative support

33.74 1.0 22.86 0.9 10.88 1.5 2.54 1.5 0.86 3.5 3.63 2.1 1.46 3.1 2.37 0.8

Service

23.96 1.4 17.55 1.3 6.42 2.1 1.23 2.8 0.52 3.9 1.60 3.0 1.07 5.3 2.01 1.4

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

44.39 1.6 29.81 1.2 14.58 2.9 2.49 2.0 1.64 2.8 3.77 3.6 2.84 8.5 3.84 1.4

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry

44.62 2.6 29.88 2.0 14.74 4.3 1.95 3.3 1.68 3.8 3.77 6.1 3.26 10.0 4.08 2.1

Installation, maintenance, and repair

44.12 1.5 29.73 1.2 14.40 2.5 3.11 2.4 1.59 3.7 3.78 2.8 2.36 8.5 3.56 1.3

Production, transportation, and material moving

33.90 1.8 22.91 1.5 10.99 2.5 2.07 3.1 1.47 3.5 3.30 2.5 1.30 7.6 2.84 1.2

Production

33.74 2.0 22.48 1.5 11.26 3.1 2.11 3.0 1.90 5.5 3.55 3.9 0.98 5.2 2.72 1.4

Transportation and material moving

33.99 2.6 23.17 2.3 10.82 3.5 2.05 4.5 1.20 3.7 3.15 3.2 1.50 10.4 2.92 1.7

Industry group

Education and health services

50.16 1.5 34.20 1.4 15.96 1.8 3.92 2.3 0.85 4.5 4.42 2.0 3.60 3.1 3.17 0.9

Educational services

61.66 1.2 40.67 1.0 20.99 1.8 3.91 1.7 0.32 4.5 6.24 2.2 7.28 2.7 3.24 1.0

Elementary and secondary schools

60.21 1.1 39.16 0.9 21.05 1.8 3.12 3.5 0.26 4.2 6.56 2.2 8.16 2.3 2.96 1.3

Junior colleges, colleges, and universities

70.19 1.7 46.26 1.7 23.93 2.1 6.12 4.2 0.45 6.2 6.59 2.6 6.86 3.0 3.91 1.5

Health care and social assistance

43.89 2.4 30.68 2.3 13.22 2.8 3.92 3.4 1.13 5.5 3.44 2.9 1.60 6.0 3.12 1.3

Hospitals

60.98 3.8 40.34 4.1 20.65 3.4 5.89 4.8 2.26 6.1 5.52 3.3 3.04 6.8 3.93 2.0

Footnotes
(1) Includes costs for wages and salaries and benefits.
(2) The relative standard error (RSE) is the standard error expressed as a percent of the cost.
(3) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(4) Includes postsecondary teachers; primary, secondary, and special education teachers; and other teachers and instructors.

Table 3. Employer Costs for Employee Compensation for state and local government workers by occupational and industry group [Sept. 2023]
Series Total compensation(1) Wages and salaries Total benefits Paid leave Supplemental pay Insurance Retirement and savings Legally required benefits
Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2)

State and local government workers

59.90 0.8 37.09 0.8 22.81 1.0 4.38 1.5 0.59 4.0 6.70 0.9 7.93 1.4 3.20 1.3

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

71.34 1.0 45.64 1.1 25.70 1.2 4.84 2.1 0.45 4.8 7.28 1.2 9.55 1.6 3.58 1.6

Professional and related

69.25 1.0 44.59 1.1 24.66 1.2 4.30 2.1 0.44 4.9 7.24 1.2 9.23 1.5 3.45 1.6

Teachers(3)

78.06 1.1 51.54 1.2 26.52 1.3 3.66 2.9 0.30 5.5 7.75 1.4 11.19 1.5 3.61 1.9

Primary, secondary, and special education school teachers

77.60 1.2 50.48 1.3 27.11 1.5 3.37 3.1 0.28 5.0 8.22 2.0 11.84 2.0 3.40 2.2

Sales and office

41.90 1.7 24.13 1.9 17.77 2.0 3.64 2.1 0.36 8.4 6.44 2.2 4.88 3.5 2.45 2.1

Office and administrative support

42.11 1.8 24.19 2.0 17.92 2.1 3.66 2.1 0.36 8.5 6.52 2.3 4.93 3.6 2.46 2.1

Service

45.06 2.5 25.90 2.2 19.16 3.1 3.76 3.5 0.98 7.0 5.31 1.9 6.41 5.0 2.71 2.4

Industry group

Education and health services

62.36 0.8 39.88 0.8 22.47 1.1 3.94 2.3 0.41 4.7 6.82 1.2 8.19 1.5 3.11 1.5

Educational services

63.84 0.8 41.05 0.7 22.79 1.1 3.73 2.3 0.30 5.0 6.92 1.1 8.75 1.4 3.10 1.6

Elementary and secondary schools

61.98 0.9 39.88 0.9 22.09 1.4 3.11 2.6 0.26 3.8 6.91 1.7 8.87 1.7 2.94 1.5

Junior colleges, colleges, and universities

69.71 2.1 44.70 2.3 25.01 2.2 5.65 3.9 0.38 12.7 6.94 3.3 8.44 4.0 3.59 3.0

Health care and social assistance

53.82 3.8 33.19 4.0 20.62 4.1 5.15 5.7 1.08 8.3 6.26 4.6 4.93 6.0 3.20 4.8

Hospitals

56.46 4.5 35.57 4.6 20.89 4.7 5.36 6.1 1.23 8.6 6.22 5.3 4.75 9.9 3.34 5.7

Public administration

58.24 1.8 33.74 2.1 24.50 1.7 5.36 2.2 0.88 6.5 6.69 1.7 8.15 2.9 3.42 2.4

Footnotes
(1) Includes costs for wages and salaries and benefits.
(2) The relative standard error (RSE) is the standard error expressed as a percent of the cost.
(3) Includes postsecondary teachers; primary, secondary, and special education teachers; and other teachers and instructors.

Table 4. Employer Costs for Employee Compensation for private industry workers by occupational and industry group [Sept. 2023]
Series Total compensation(1) Wages and salaries Total benefits Paid leave Supplemental pay Insurance Retirement and savings Legally required benefits
Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2)

Private industry workers

41.53 1.3 29.34 1.2 12.19 1.7 3.09 2.1 1.55 3.2 3.04 1.6 1.41 3.2 3.11 1.0

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related occupations

69.75 1.6 48.42 1.5 21.32 2.0 6.52 2.2 2.89 4.9 4.79 2.0 2.56 3.1 4.57 1.2

Management, business, and financial occupations

81.66 1.9 56.12 1.9 25.54 2.2 7.95 2.6 4.12 6.3 5.39 1.9 3.05 4.1 5.04 1.2

Professional and related occupations

63.00 1.9 44.06 1.8 18.94 2.5 5.70 2.7 2.20 6.9 4.45 2.5 2.28 3.6 4.30 1.7

Sales and office occupations

32.09 1.1 23.35 1.2 8.74 1.5 2.13 2.1 0.94 3.5 2.48 2.3 0.81 3.6 2.38 1.1

Sales and related occupations

31.74 2.1 24.21 2.2 7.54 2.4 1.85 4.3 0.93 6.8 1.65 3.4 0.70 4.6 2.41 2.0

Office and administrative support occupations

32.38 1.1 22.64 0.9 9.74 1.9 2.36 1.8 0.94 3.6 3.17 2.7 0.91 4.6 2.36 1.0

Service occupations

20.98 1.8 16.37 1.7 4.61 2.6 0.87 4.0 0.45 4.5 1.07 4.2 0.31 8.4 1.91 1.8

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

43.84 1.8 29.77 1.2 14.07 3.2 2.33 2.3 1.69 2.8 3.54 4.0 2.62 9.5 3.88 1.5

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

44.14 2.8 29.89 2.1 14.25 4.6 1.75 4.1 1.75 3.7 3.52 6.8 3.08 11.0 4.15 2.2

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

43.51 1.5 29.64 1.3 13.86 2.7 2.99 2.6 1.62 3.8 3.57 3.1 2.10 10.0 3.58 1.3

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

33.44 1.8 22.76 1.5 10.68 2.6 2.02 3.2 1.49 3.6 3.19 2.5 1.15 8.4 2.83 1.2

Production occupations

33.41 2.0 22.33 1.5 11.08 3.1 2.07 3.0 1.91 5.5 3.50 4.0 0.89 5.2 2.71 1.4

Transportation and material moving occupations

33.46 2.7 23.03 2.3 10.43 3.7 1.99 4.8 1.22 3.9 2.99 3.2 1.31 12.0 2.91 1.7

Industry and occupational group

Goods-producing industries(3)

44.46 1.8 30.09 1.7 14.38 2.3 2.83 2.6 2.12 2.6 3.86 2.5 1.97 7.4 3.59 1.6

Management, professional, and related occupations

73.25 1.7 50.16 1.6 23.09 2.4 6.52 2.3 3.22 7.1 5.17 2.2 3.27 4.8 4.91 1.7

Management, business, and financial occupations

76.74 1.5 53.49 1.3 23.25 2.3 6.80 2.3 3.23 6.3 5.07 2.7 3.02 5.8 5.13 1.6

Professional and related occupations

69.30 3.2 46.39 3.1 22.91 4.0 6.20 4.1 3.21 10.6 5.28 3.1 3.55 5.8 4.66 3.1

Sales and office occupations

37.87 3.1 27.28 3.3 10.59 3.3 2.41 4.8 1.25 7.3 3.14 4.3 0.89 6.2 2.89 2.6

Office and administrative support occupations

34.09 1.5 24.29 1.3 9.80 2.5 2.15 3.2 1.14 5.3 3.09 4.5 0.79 6.7 2.63 1.6

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

44.10 2.4 29.78 1.7 14.32 4.3 1.92 3.7 1.90 3.6 3.57 6.1 2.83 11.1 4.09 2.0

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing and forestry occupations

43.96 2.8 29.73 2.2 14.23 4.7 1.67 4.6 1.79 3.9 3.49 7.0 3.09 11.4 4.19 2.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

44.57 2.8 29.95 1.8 14.62 5.2 2.79 4.2 2.27 6.5 3.83 7.1 1.96 16.3 3.77 2.1

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

34.91 1.7 22.97 1.4 11.94 2.6 2.17 2.8 2.08 4.8 3.81 3.5 1.04 5.4 2.85 1.2

Production occupations

34.92 1.9 22.89 1.5 12.03 3.1 2.23 3.0 2.13 5.7 3.91 4.1 0.97 4.9 2.80 1.4

Transportation and material moving occupations

34.85 3.0 23.28 2.9 11.58 3.6 1.91 4.7 1.87 5.2 3.41 4.4 1.31 13.7 3.07 2.4

Construction industry

45.17 2.7 31.58 2.3 13.59 4.1 2.09 5.1 1.63 3.7 3.36 5.2 2.40 10.7 4.10 2.2

Manufacturing industry

44.04 1.8 29.21 1.7 14.82 2.4 3.31 2.9 2.37 3.8 4.17 2.7 1.70 7.0 3.27 1.4

Management, professional, and related occupations

75.54 2.1 51.02 1.8 24.52 2.9 7.03 2.8 3.43 8.2 5.52 2.5 3.63 5.6 4.91 1.9

Management, business, and financial occupations

80.57 2.4 55.32 2.2 25.24 3.1 7.61 3.0 3.53 7.4 5.54 2.7 3.43 7.7 5.14 2.4

Professional and related occupations

71.23 3.4 47.34 3.3 23.90 4.1 6.53 4.2 3.35 11.2 5.51 3.3 3.80 6.0 4.70 3.3

Sales and office occupations

37.48 4.3 26.21 4.2 11.26 4.9 2.68 6.7 1.52 9.1 3.32 4.7 1.04 6.9 2.70 3.7

Office and administrative support occupations

34.44 2.1 23.85 1.7 10.59 3.2 2.39 3.8 1.35 6.8 3.41 5.2 0.96 8.6 2.47 2.1

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

48.66 3.5 30.44 2.2 18.22 7.2 3.30 4.4 2.93 9.3 4.81 10.6 3.35 23.6 3.82 2.0

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

47.72 2.9 31.03 1.7 16.69 5.9 3.47 3.7 2.81 8.1 4.69 9.9 1.96 12.1 3.77 1.8

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

34.23 1.6 22.38 1.0 11.85 2.7 2.19 2.7 2.10 5.0 3.84 3.5 0.96 4.2 2.76 1.1

Production occupations

34.51 1.7 22.52 1.1 11.99 3.1 2.23 2.8 2.14 5.8 3.91 4.0 0.94 4.7 2.75 1.2

Transportation and material moving occupations

32.75 2.6 21.61 2.2 11.14 3.6 1.97 4.4 1.86 5.1 3.46 4.5 1.06 9.7 2.79 2.5

Aircraft manufacturing industry

84.01 3.1 51.63 3.2 32.38 3.0 8.01 4.6 5.39 4.2 7.87 1.5 5.69 4.7 5.43 2.3

Service-providing industries(4)

40.95 1.5 29.19 1.4 11.76 2.0 3.14 2.4 1.43 4.0 2.88 2.0 1.30 3.5 3.01 1.2

Management, professional, and related occupations

69.36 1.8 48.23 1.7 21.13 2.2 6.51 2.5 2.85 5.4 4.75 2.2 2.48 3.5 4.53 1.4

Management, business, and financial occupations

82.50 2.2 56.57 2.2 25.93 2.6 8.14 3.0 4.27 7.0 5.44 2.2 3.06 4.8 5.02 1.4

Professional and related occupations

62.51 2.0 43.88 1.9 18.63 2.7 5.66 3.0 2.12 7.6 4.39 2.7 2.18 3.9 4.27 1.8

Sales and office occupations

31.65 1.2 23.06 1.2 8.60 1.6 2.11 2.3 0.91 3.7 2.43 2.5 0.81 3.8 2.34 1.2

Sales and related occupations

31.08 2.2 23.73 2.2 7.35 2.5 1.80 4.4 0.90 7.1 1.61 3.5 0.68 4.7 2.36 2.1

Office and administrative support occupations

32.18 1.2 22.44 1.0 9.73 2.1 2.39 2.0 0.92 4.1 3.18 2.9 0.92 5.0 2.33 1.1

Service occupations

20.96 1.8 16.36 1.7 4.60 2.7 0.87 4.0 0.45 4.6 1.07 4.3 0.31 8.5 1.91 1.8

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

43.44 2.6 29.76 1.8 13.68 4.9 2.96 3.1 1.37 4.5 3.51 5.0 2.29 17.9 3.56 2.0

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

43.07 2.0 29.52 1.7 13.55 3.5 3.07 3.3 1.36 4.3 3.47 4.0 2.16 12.5 3.50 1.6

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

32.59 2.7 22.64 2.3 9.95 3.8 1.94 4.8 1.14 3.9 2.83 3.5 1.21 12.4 2.82 1.7

Production occupations

28.75 4.6 20.61 3.6 8.14 7.2 1.57 7.7 1.21 12.5 2.24 9.9 0.66 14.4 2.46 3.3

Transportation and material moving occupations

33.27 3.1 23.00 2.6 10.27 4.1 2.01 5.4 1.13 4.3 2.93 3.6 1.31 13.5 2.89 1.9

Trade, transportation, and utilities industry

35.03 1.8 25.04 1.6 9.99 2.5 2.28 3.3 1.11 3.2 2.56 2.4 1.27 7.0 2.78 1.1

Management, professional, and related occupations

67.19 4.0 48.20 3.9 18.99 4.5 5.88 4.9 2.27 8.9 4.00 4.1 2.40 6.0 4.45 3.3

Management, business, and financial occupations

77.94 3.6 55.52 3.7 22.42 3.8 7.13 4.3 3.02 8.7 4.53 3.5 2.80 5.8 4.95 2.8

Professional and related occupations

53.50 5.7 38.89 5.3 14.61 6.9 4.29 7.9 1.31 12.4 3.32 6.7 1.88 10.4 3.81 4.6

Sales and office occupations

27.55 2.0 20.85 2.0 6.70 2.2 1.53 3.9 0.72 3.7 1.63 2.9 0.65 5.0 2.17 1.6

Sales and related occupations

26.12 2.5 20.29 2.5 5.83 2.7 1.32 5.7 0.68 4.5 1.22 2.5 0.52 6.0 2.09 1.9

Office and administrative support occupations

32.86 1.4 22.94 1.4 9.92 2.3 2.31 2.9 0.87 7.6 3.14 3.3 1.12 7.2 2.48 1.5

Service occupations

22.85 2.8 17.06 2.4 5.79 4.6 1.12 6.8 0.63 10.1 1.41 6.1 0.65 10.8 1.99 2.8

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

47.83 2.7 31.99 2.4 15.84 3.7 3.41 4.4 1.76 5.3 4.00 4.8 2.81 7.6 3.86 2.6

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

48.15 2.9 32.32 2.5 15.83 4.2 3.47 4.6 1.78 6.3 3.96 5.4 2.74 8.4 3.86 2.7

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

35.58 2.8 24.27 2.5 11.30 3.6 2.24 5.0 1.24 3.8 3.22 2.8 1.56 12.2 3.03 1.3

Transportation and material moving occupations

35.62 3.0 24.33 2.7 11.28 3.9 2.24 5.3 1.21 4.0 3.21 3.0 1.58 13.1 3.04 1.5

Wholesale trade industry

47.42 3.5 33.71 3.5 13.72 3.7 3.62 5.0 1.85 4.3 3.27 4.4 1.47 6.7 3.50 2.8

Sales and office occupations

49.98 4.7 36.33 5.2 13.64 4.2 3.75 7.1 1.59 6.4 3.25 4.3 1.57 9.7 3.48 4.2

Office and administrative support occupations

34.27 2.6 24.12 2.5 10.15 3.5 2.53 5.4 1.20 10.8 3.07 4.2 0.82 7.6 2.52 3.2

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

31.45 3.4 21.64 2.9 9.81 5.0 1.92 5.7 1.45 5.4 2.78 6.6 0.87 11.7 2.79 2.8

Transportation and material moving occupations

31.38 4.1 21.61 3.5 9.76 6.1 1.89 6.7 1.39 6.7 2.74 7.7 0.94 13.8 2.80 3.3

Retail trade industry

24.72 1.3 18.99 1.2 5.73 2.0 1.24 3.2 0.62 3.8 1.36 2.8 0.45 4.3 2.05 1.0

Sales and office occupations

21.66 1.1 17.09 1.0 4.57 1.9 0.92 2.4 0.52 5.7 1.01 3.1 0.30 4.9 1.82 0.9

Sales and related occupations

21.17 1.0 16.80 1.0 4.37 1.9 0.86 2.6 0.51 6.1 0.92 3.6 0.29 5.2 1.79 0.8

Office and administrative support occupations

27.03 2.5 20.24 1.9 6.79 5.6 1.67 7.6 0.59 13.1 1.99 9.6 0.44 11.4 2.10 2.1

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

23.75 0.9 17.40 0.8 6.35 1.6 1.22 2.4 0.62 4.4 1.84 2.4 0.62 4.4 2.05 1.1

Transportation and material moving occupations

23.48 0.9 17.24 0.8 6.24 1.8 1.19 2.4 0.61 4.4 1.80 2.9 0.61 4.9 2.03 1.2

Transportation and warehousing industry

44.55 4.4 29.65 4.0 14.90 5.6 3.11 7.1 1.46 6.1 4.30 5.4 2.40 14.1 3.63 2.8

Utilities industry

78.31 2.2 47.89 2.2 30.42 2.4 7.02 3.8 2.75 7.3 7.42 2.9 7.84 4.2 5.38 2.2

Information industry

70.23 3.1 45.92 2.7 24.31 4.3 6.93 5.3 3.26 6.2 6.19 4.0 3.52 10.7 4.41 2.6

Management, professional, and related occupations

89.21 3.1 59.14 2.9 30.07 4.2 9.46 6.6 4.53 7.0 7.17 3.7 3.45 8.0 5.45 2.5

Professional and related occupations

84.16 5.3 55.55 5.1 28.62 6.1 8.82 10.8 4.06 9.4 7.07 3.8 3.40 9.8 5.27 4.1

Sales and office occupations

45.93 5.4 30.11 5.3 15.81 9.4 3.82 7.4 1.77 11.8 4.95 10.0 2.28 29.9 2.98 4.6

Financial activities industry

58.01 2.1 38.67 2.1 19.34 2.4 5.21 2.5 3.59 7.0 4.88 1.9 2.04 3.4 3.62 1.7

Management, professional, and related occupations

85.91 1.8 56.33 1.8 29.58 2.8 8.40 2.5 6.36 8.9 6.42 1.4 3.32 3.0 5.07 1.3

Management, business, and financial occupations

86.78 2.3 57.01 2.2 29.77 3.7 8.44 3.5 6.70 11.3 6.35 2.0 3.24 3.5 5.03 1.5

Professional and related occupations

82.87 2.9 53.95 2.8 28.92 3.1 8.28 2.9 5.17 7.8 6.67 1.7 3.61 4.3 5.20 2.5

Sales and office occupations

41.02 2.2 27.85 2.3 13.17 2.5 3.30 3.4 1.90 9.8 4.04 2.1 1.31 4.6 2.62 1.7

Sales and related occupations

53.33 6.1 38.01 6.3 15.32 6.8 4.16 8.6 2.75 23.9 3.47 6.1 1.70 10.0 3.24 4.8

Office and administrative support occupations

35.85 1.2 23.58 1.0 12.27 1.8 2.94 1.5 1.55 4.3 4.28 2.3 1.15 3.7 2.36 1.1

Finance and insurance industry

65.58 2.3 43.10 2.4 22.48 2.5 6.07 2.4 4.46 7.6 5.54 1.4 2.50 3.1 3.91 1.8

Credit intermediation and related activities industry

59.62 3.2 39.14 3.5 20.47 3.1 5.66 3.0 3.80 9.6 5.23 1.5 2.20 3.2 3.57 2.4

Insurance carriers and related activities industry

59.08 2.9 38.83 2.9 20.25 3.3 5.36 3.6 3.46 6.5 5.38 2.6 2.32 5.4 3.73 2.5

Real estate and rental and leasing industry

36.54 4.1 26.11 3.6 10.43 6.2 2.80 6.7 1.10 13.4 3.00 8.2 0.73 11.6 2.80 3.7

Professional and business services industry

51.90 3.5 36.95 3.1 14.95 4.9 4.14 5.9 2.31 9.9 3.42 4.5 1.42 7.4 3.67 3.0

Management, professional, and related occupations

77.16 2.7 53.85 2.5 23.31 4.2 7.04 4.5 3.89 9.7 4.89 4.5 2.44 6.4 5.05 2.2

Management, business, and financial occupations

87.81 3.2 60.22 3.2 27.59 4.0 8.59 4.0 5.06 11.9 5.52 4.8 3.02 7.0 5.40 2.2

Professional and related occupations

69.76 3.4 49.42 3.1 20.34 6.0 5.97 5.9 3.07 15.7 4.45 6.1 2.04 8.8 4.81 3.4

Sales and office occupations

34.82 2.4 25.67 2.9 9.15 3.4 2.29 4.5 0.95 11.5 2.65 5.4 0.67 6.9 2.58 2.5

Office and administrative support occupations

31.58 2.8 22.87 2.3 8.71 4.6 2.15 5.6 0.96 13.0 2.68 5.6 0.59 8.9 2.33 2.2

Service occupations

24.62 5.0 19.02 5.1 5.60 6.5 1.09 10.3 0.75 15.2 1.40 10.6 0.18 15.9 2.18 5.0

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

26.79 5.5 19.76 4.5 7.03 9.1 1.17 12.5 1.15 14.1 1.97 12.4 0.35 24.5 2.39 4.4

Transportation and material moving occupations

27.55 5.7 20.19 5.2 7.37 8.9 1.18 13.8 1.17 17.9 2.16 11.0 0.36 25.5 2.50 5.3

Professional, scientific, and technical services industry

67.59 3.9 47.52 3.5 20.07 5.5 6.00 5.4 3.10 14.0 4.44 4.7 2.05 7.7 4.49 3.1

Administrative and waste services industry

31.09 8.0 23.45 8.0 7.64 8.5 1.58 7.7 0.97 13.8 1.95 7.4 0.51 25.3 2.63 8.4

Education and health services industry

44.54 2.2 31.58 2.1 12.96 2.7 3.91 3.3 1.04 5.6 3.32 2.9 1.50 5.8 3.19 1.3

Management, professional, and related occupations

60.00 3.3 42.24 3.3 17.76 3.6 5.69 4.5 1.46 6.5 4.31 3.5 2.24 6.5 4.06 2.3

Management, business, and financial occupations

75.76 13.8 53.57 13.9 22.19 13.5 8.45 16.7 1.08 28.5 5.03 7.9 3.04 20.5 4.59 7.9

Professional and related occupations

58.19 2.5 40.94 2.5 17.25 3.0 5.38 3.8 1.51 5.9 4.23 3.5 2.14 5.6 3.99 2.1

Sales and office occupations

32.17 4.1 22.81 4.3 9.35 4.6 2.62 6.7 0.45 8.2 3.02 6.9 0.82 7.7 2.43 5.4

Office and administrative support occupations

30.80 2.4 21.70 2.3 9.10 4.2 2.50 4.6 0.47 7.8 3.00 7.2 0.83 7.2 2.30 2.4

Service occupations

24.94 2.6 18.19 2.2 6.75 4.1 1.55 4.7 0.63 6.1 1.87 5.5 0.59 13.7 2.11 2.3

Educational services industry

54.70 4.6 39.46 3.9 15.24 6.7 4.49 9.5 0.40 14.7 4.04 7.4 2.59 8.7 3.71 3.7

Management, professional, and related occupations

60.48 4.6 43.86 4.0 16.62 6.7 5.01 9.7 0.41 16.4 4.29 7.8 2.87 8.6 4.04 3.8

Management, business, and financial occupations

74.83 9.6 52.88 9.3 21.95 11.2 8.38 12.8 (5)0.69 33.4 4.87 12.3 3.47 12.9 4.54 7.1

Professional and related occupations

57.44 4.1 41.95 3.7 15.48 6.0 4.30 8.8 0.36 15.4 4.16 7.4 2.74 8.6 3.93 3.6

Sales and office occupations

32.92 7.0 22.61 4.2 10.31 13.7 2.64 16.0 0.26 16.7 3.65 18.3 1.49 18.4 2.28 5.0

Office and administrative support occupations

32.85 7.1 22.55 4.4 10.30 13.9 2.64 16.2 0.25 17.2 3.65 18.5 1.49 18.6 2.27 5.1

Service occupations

28.75 7.4 20.72 8.4 8.02 9.2 1.90 13.3 0.35 16.1 2.14 13.3 1.21 15.4 2.43 10.9

Junior colleges, colleges, universities and professional schools industry

71.06 3.1 49.07 2.8 21.99 4.7 6.96 9.7 0.56 8.1 5.97 3.6 4.02 3.8 4.48 2.7

Health care and social assistance industry

43.12 2.5 30.48 2.3 12.64 3.0 3.83 3.6 1.14 6.0 3.22 3.1 1.34 7.1 3.12 1.4

Registered nurse occupations

69.21 2.1 46.01 2.3 23.20 2.1 7.09 4.3 2.84 5.8 5.51 2.1 2.94 4.3 4.83 2.5

Management, professional, and related occupations

59.89 3.9 41.88 3.9 18.02 4.1 5.85 4.9 1.70 7.1 4.31 3.9 2.09 7.9 4.06 2.6

Professional and related occupations

58.34 2.9 40.74 2.9 17.61 3.4 5.60 4.1 1.74 6.3 4.24 3.9 2.02 6.7 4.01 2.4

Sales and office occupations

32.09 4.5 22.83 4.8 9.26 4.9 2.62 7.2 0.47 8.7 2.96 7.4 0.75 8.5 2.45 5.9

Office and administrative support occupations

30.58 2.6 21.61 2.5 8.97 4.4 2.48 4.8 0.49 8.1 2.93 7.8 0.76 8.0 2.31 2.6

Service occupations

24.80 2.7 18.10 2.3 6.70 4.2 1.54 4.8 0.64 6.2 1.86 5.7 0.56 14.7 2.10 2.3

Hospitals industry

61.87 4.5 41.27 4.8 20.60 4.1 6.00 5.5 2.47 6.7 5.39 4.0 2.70 7.6 4.05 2.2

Management, professional, and related occupations

73.85 5.9 49.73 6.3 24.12 5.3 7.35 6.9 2.91 8.3 5.85 3.9 3.25 9.3 4.75 2.9

Registered nurse occupations

71.09 1.3 46.46 1.2 24.63 1.9 7.14 3.3 3.28 6.4 6.08 3.1 3.31 5.0 4.83 1.6

Service occupations

32.75 2.5 20.76 1.5 11.99 4.6 2.56 3.0 1.67 5.0 3.93 9.1 1.46 11.0 2.36 1.5

Nursing and residential care facilities industry

29.82 1.6 21.79 1.5 8.03 2.3 2.13 2.9 0.76 6.2 2.28 3.3 0.43 7.6 2.43 1.4

Management, professional, and related occupations

44.35 2.1 32.34 2.1 12.01 3.4 3.61 4.1 1.11 8.6 3.13 4.3 0.80 10.6 3.35 1.9

Service occupations

23.88 1.3 17.47 1.0 6.41 2.6 1.51 2.7 0.65 4.9 1.89 5.3 0.29 9.4 2.06 1.4

Nursing care facilities industry

33.04 2.6 23.95 2.3 9.09 4.5 2.38 5.1 0.92 10.2 2.68 4.9 0.47 15.3 2.64 2.7

Management, professional, and related occupations

47.46 3.0 34.93 2.6 12.52 5.6 3.69 6.3 1.29 13.2 3.23 6.1 0.72 14.1 3.61 3.0

Service occupations

25.22 2.4 17.99 1.8 7.23 4.6 1.65 4.8 0.77 7.9 2.34 6.0 0.35 20.7 2.12 2.7

Leisure and hospitality industry

18.87 1.7 15.41 1.6 3.46 3.2 0.56 8.1 0.26 7.0 0.68 7.7 0.18 9.4 1.79 2.0

Sales and office occupations

21.33 6.0 16.71 4.3 4.62 14.3 0.92 15.2 0.29 19.1 (5)1.41 31.6 0.23 23.2 1.76 5.4

Service occupations

17.11 2.0 14.20 1.8 2.91 3.4 0.37 9.4 0.24 7.7 0.48 8.3 0.14 10.6 1.68 2.4

Accommodation and food services industry

17.71 2.2 14.57 2.0 3.14 3.4 0.43 7.5 0.26 9.0 0.59 8.2 0.15 8.7 1.71 2.5

Other services industry

36.95 6.5 27.59 5.9 9.36 8.7 2.68 12.1 0.49 12.4 2.02 8.1 1.30 24.3 2.86 4.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes costs for wages and salaries and benefits.
(2) The relative standard error (RSE) is the standard error expressed as a percent of the cost.
(3) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing. The agriculture, forestry, farming, and hunting sector is excluded.
(4) Includes utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional, scientific, and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.
(5) The relative standard error for this estimate is equal to or greater than 30 percent.

Table 5. Employer Costs for Employee Compensation for private industry workers by bargaining and work status [Sept. 2023]
Series Total compensation(1) Wages and salaries Total benefits Paid leave Supplemental pay Insurance Retirement and savings Legally required benefits
Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2)

Union workers

56.13 2.3 33.86 2.3 22.26 2.5 3.98 3.7 2.21 4.6 7.10 2.0 4.85 6.3 4.11 1.7

Goods-producing industries(3)

55.93 2.9 32.57 2.4 23.36 4.3 2.99 3.7 2.78 8.4 7.75 3.7 5.52 11.7 4.33 3.2

Manufacturing industry

47.47 3.3 27.07 2.5 20.40 4.7 3.30 4.5 3.30 9.9 7.20 4.8 3.12 14.0 3.47 2.9

Service-providing industries(4)

56.23 3.2 34.54 3.3 21.68 3.2 4.51 4.5 1.92 5.1 6.76 2.4 4.50 7.4 4.00 2.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities industry

54.92 4.9 33.90 5.2 21.02 4.6 4.15 6.2 1.88 6.0 6.45 3.1 4.57 10.2 3.97 3.0

Retail trade industry

27.30 1.8 17.37 1.4 9.93 3.0 1.61 3.6 0.67 6.3 3.50 2.1 1.95 8.4 2.20 1.8

Transportation and warehousing industry

65.47 6.2 40.80 6.7 24.68 6.0 5.11 7.6 2.27 8.8 7.48 4.1 5.22 14.7 4.60 3.4

Education and health services industry

65.38 2.8 40.03 2.9 25.35 3.6 5.97 3.7 2.44 10.4 7.87 4.5 4.58 6.6 4.48 2.7

Health care and social assistance industry

65.07 3.0 39.46 3.0 25.61 3.8 6.04 3.8 2.66 10.6 7.86 4.8 4.58 7.3 4.47 2.8

Nonunion workers

40.27 1.3 28.95 1.2 11.32 1.7 3.01 2.1 1.49 3.5 2.69 1.8 1.12 2.8 3.02 1.0

Goods-producing industries(3)

42.18 1.8 29.59 1.7 12.59 2.0 2.80 3.1 1.99 2.9 3.09 1.9 1.26 4.4 3.45 1.4

Manufacturing industries

43.38 2.0 29.63 1.8 13.75 2.6 3.31 3.3 2.19 4.3 3.59 2.2 1.43 5.9 3.23 1.6

Service-providing industries(4)

39.93 1.5 28.83 1.4 11.09 2.0 3.05 2.4 1.40 4.2 2.61 2.2 1.09 3.3 2.95 1.2

Trade, transportation, and utilities industries

32.22 1.4 23.79 1.4 8.43 1.8 2.01 2.9 1.00 3.8 2.00 2.1 0.80 4.1 2.61 0.9

Retail trade industries

24.54 1.4 19.10 1.3 5.44 1.9 1.22 3.3 0.62 4.0 1.22 2.8 0.35 3.4 2.04 1.0

Transportation and warehousing industries

34.78 3.0 24.45 2.6 10.33 4.8 2.17 6.3 1.08 9.4 2.81 7.6 1.09 11.0 3.18 2.3

Education and health services industries

43.17 2.2 31.03 2.2 12.14 2.7 3.77 3.4 0.95 6.0 3.02 3.0 1.29 6.0 3.11 1.3

Health care and social assistance industries

41.64 2.5 29.87 2.5 11.76 3.0 3.68 3.7 1.03 6.3 2.90 3.2 1.12 7.6 3.03 1.5

Full-time workers

47.77 1.2 33.01 1.1 14.76 1.4 3.83 1.7 1.92 3.1 3.83 1.3 1.76 3.1 3.43 0.9

Occupational group

Management, professional and related occupations

71.84 1.6 49.41 1.6 22.43 1.9 6.85 2.0 3.07 4.9 5.17 1.7 2.72 3.2 4.62 1.2

Management, business, and financial occupations

82.52 1.9 56.64 1.9 25.89 2.2 8.06 2.6 4.18 6.2 5.47 1.9 3.09 4.1 5.08 1.2

Professional and related occupations

64.85 2.1 44.68 1.9 20.17 2.5 6.05 2.6 2.34 7.4 4.97 2.2 2.47 3.7 4.32 1.7

Sales and office occupations

37.10 1.1 26.25 1.3 10.85 1.3 2.76 1.8 1.18 3.7 3.23 1.9 1.05 3.2 2.63 1.2

Sales and related occupations

42.72 2.6 31.49 2.8 11.23 2.6 3.00 4.1 1.44 8.2 2.68 2.4 1.11 4.7 3.00 2.7

Office and administrative support occupations

34.01 1.1 23.36 0.9 10.65 1.9 2.63 1.7 1.04 3.9 3.54 2.5 1.01 4.7 2.42 0.9

Service occupations

25.16 1.6 18.54 1.6 6.62 2.4 1.42 3.3 0.73 4.3 1.90 3.5 0.49 6.9 2.08 1.8

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

44.58 1.8 30.13 1.3 14.45 3.1 2.40 2.3 1.73 2.9 3.69 3.9 2.70 9.2 3.93 1.5

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

44.50 2.7 30.02 2.2 14.48 4.3 1.78 3.9 1.77 3.9 3.63 6.6 3.13 10.2 4.18 2.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

44.67 1.5 30.25 1.2 14.42 2.8 3.11 2.6 1.69 3.7 3.76 3.0 2.21 10.3 3.64 1.3

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

36.09 2.0 24.19 1.7 11.91 2.6 2.32 3.3 1.72 3.5 3.64 2.2 1.28 9.1 2.95 1.3

Production occupations

34.22 1.9 22.71 1.5 11.51 3.1 2.16 2.9 1.98 5.7 3.68 3.7 0.94 5.2 2.75 1.4

Transportation and material moving occupations

37.71 3.1 25.46 2.9 12.25 3.9 2.45 5.2 1.49 3.1 3.61 2.8 1.57 13.7 3.13 1.9

Industry group

Goods-producing industries(3)

45.04 1.8 30.38 1.7 14.66 2.2 2.90 2.6 2.16 2.6 3.97 2.4 2.01 6.9 3.62 1.6

Construction industry

45.69 2.7 31.82 2.4 13.87 4.0 2.15 5.0 1.66 3.8 3.47 5.0 2.48 10.7 4.12 2.2

Manufacturing industry

44.67 1.8 29.56 1.7 15.11 2.3 3.39 2.9 2.41 3.8 4.28 2.6 1.72 6.8 3.30 1.4

Service-providing industries(4)

48.52 1.4 33.73 1.3 14.79 1.7 4.08 1.9 1.86 4.0 3.79 1.6 1.69 3.4 3.38 1.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities industry

42.66 1.9 29.71 1.7 12.95 2.4 3.15 3.1 1.49 3.1 3.41 2.3 1.69 7.3 3.21 1.2

Information industry

75.86 3.1 49.24 2.8 26.62 4.3 7.49 5.0 3.61 6.1 6.90 3.0 3.92 11.0 4.70 2.6

Financial activities industry

59.89 2.0 39.74 2.1 20.15 2.4 5.45 2.4 3.77 7.2 5.10 1.8 2.14 3.2 3.70 1.7

Professional and business services industry

55.45 3.7 38.93 3.3 16.52 4.8 4.69 5.4 2.55 10.0 3.87 4.0 1.62 7.3 3.80 3.0

Education and health services industry

47.53 2.5 33.03 2.3 14.50 2.9 4.38 3.3 1.13 5.9 4.01 2.9 1.72 6.1 3.27 1.5

Leisure and hospitality industry

25.00 2.3 19.31 2.2 5.69 3.9 1.18 8.7 0.50 7.1 1.52 6.1 0.37 11.0 2.12 2.4

Other services industry

43.25 7.5 31.49 6.8 11.76 9.5 3.52 12.7 0.61 12.8 2.68 8.5 1.75 25.0 3.19 4.4

Part-time workers

22.83 2.7 18.34 2.9 4.50 2.9 0.87 6.8 0.43 6.4 0.68 5.7 0.37 6.8 2.14 2.5

Occupational group

Management, professional and related occupations

51.73 5.8 39.92 6.1 11.81 7.1 3.64 12.4 1.34 10.4 1.52 11.6 1.19 10.9 4.12 6.7

Professional and related occupations

52.62 5.9 40.58 6.2 12.04 7.5 3.74 13.2 1.37 10.8 1.53 12.6 1.21 11.6 4.19 6.9

Sales and office occupations

19.49 1.1 16.08 0.9 3.41 3.2 0.53 5.2 0.31 7.3 0.58 12.6 0.22 7.4 1.77 1.3

Sales and related occupations

17.87 1.1 15.00 1.1 2.87 2.4 0.39 3.7 0.28 9.6 0.36 7.5 0.18 7.9 1.66 1.2

Office and administrative support occupations

23.41 3.4 18.68 2.6 4.73 8.1 0.89 9.6 0.39 16.0 1.13 22.6 0.31 11.8 2.03 3.4

Service occupations

17.08 2.0 14.34 1.9 2.74 3.9 0.35 7.7 0.20 9.4 0.30 13.4 0.14 16.9 1.75 2.1

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

23.13 2.4 17.22 1.8 5.92 5.0 0.88 5.8 0.59 9.9 1.44 9.8 0.63 11.6 2.37 3.1

Transportation and material moving occupations

23.48 2.8 17.35 2.0 6.14 5.9 0.91 6.6 0.58 11.6 1.54 10.7 0.70 12.2 2.40 3.4

Industry group

Service-providing industries(4)

22.75 2.8 18.28 3.0 4.47 2.9 0.87 7.0 0.42 6.6 0.68 5.8 0.36 6.2 2.13 2.5

Trade, transportation, and utilities industry

20.91 1.9 16.39 1.1 4.52 5.1 0.66 6.4 0.41 8.5 0.98 8.6 0.48 11.5 1.99 2.3

Professional and business services industry

29.42 15.5 24.43 16.3 4.99 12.9 0.67 13.7 0.76 26.7 0.54 20.6 0.18 25.3 2.85 15.8

Education and health services industry

35.21 4.7 27.08 4.5 8.13 6.0 2.44 10.1 0.79 7.8 1.15 8.9 0.81 7.1 2.94 4.1

Leisure and hospitality industry

15.30 2.0 13.14 1.8 2.16 4.9 0.19 13.0 0.12 14.7 (5)0.19 31.8 0.06 17.3 1.60 2.7

Footnotes
(1) Includes costs for wages and salaries and benefits.
(2) The relative standard error (RSE) is the standard error expressed as a percent of the cost.
(3) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing. The agriculture, forestry, farming, and hunting sector is excluded.
(4) Includes utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.
(5) The relative standard error for this estimate is equal to or greater than 30 percent.

Table 6. Employer Costs for Employee Compensation for private industry workers by establishment size and industry group [Sept. 2023]
Series Total compensation(1) Wages and salaries Total benefits Paid leave Supplemental pay Insurance Retirement and savings Legally required benefits
Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2)

All workers

41.53 1.3 29.34 1.2 12.19 1.7 3.09 2.1 1.55 3.2 3.04 1.6 1.41 3.2 3.11 1.0

1-99 workers

34.71 1.6 25.81 1.5 8.90 2.2 2.19 2.8 0.95 5.0 2.13 2.6 0.85 6.7 2.77 1.2

1-49 workers

33.57 2.0 25.25 1.8 8.32 2.8 2.07 3.5 0.86 7.1 1.94 3.4 0.73 7.7 2.72 1.5

50-99 workers

38.54 3.0 27.71 2.9 10.83 3.6 2.62 5.1 1.25 6.1 2.76 3.8 1.24 9.2 2.96 2.2

100 workers or more

49.89 1.5 33.66 1.5 16.23 1.8 4.18 2.4 2.28 3.3 4.15 1.6 2.11 3.4 3.52 1.2

100-499 workers

42.53 2.2 29.59 2.1 12.94 2.6 3.30 3.8 1.61 4.8 3.38 2.2 1.51 5.1 3.15 1.5

500 workers or more

60.00 1.8 39.25 2.0 20.75 2.0 5.39 2.6 3.20 3.8 5.21 2.0 2.93 4.0 4.03 1.9

Goods-producing industries(3)

44.46 1.8 30.09 1.7 14.38 2.3 2.83 2.6 2.12 2.6 3.86 2.5 1.97 7.4 3.59 1.6

1-99 workers

38.39 2.8 27.51 2.1 10.87 5.0 1.94 4.2 1.31 2.9 2.71 6.2 1.46 17.8 3.45 2.3

1-49 workers

36.70 3.1 26.78 2.3 9.92 5.9 1.77 4.0 1.08 4.9 2.35 8.3 1.28 20.7 3.44 2.8

50-99 workers

42.44 3.3 29.27 3.0 13.16 4.7 2.35 7.2 1.85 6.2 3.57 6.8 1.89 16.0 3.49 2.7

100 workers or more

49.84 2.4 32.36 2.4 17.48 2.7 3.62 3.6 2.84 3.5 4.89 2.5 2.42 6.6 3.72 2.1

100-499 workers

46.44 2.5 30.89 2.3 15.55 2.9 3.11 3.9 2.28 3.9 4.40 3.0 2.11 8.5 3.64 2.3

500 workers or more

54.75 3.8 34.48 4.1 20.27 3.7 4.36 6.0 3.64 4.8 5.59 3.4 2.86 6.4 3.82 3.4

Manufacturing industry

44.04 1.8 29.21 1.7 14.82 2.4 3.31 2.9 2.37 3.8 4.17 2.7 1.70 7.0 3.27 1.4

1-99 workers

34.49 2.5 24.61 2.1 9.88 4.3 2.14 4.5 1.21 5.0 2.79 6.0 0.92 23.3 2.83 2.1

1-49 workers

32.31 3.3 23.66 2.8 8.65 6.2 1.94 5.9 0.92 8.0 2.26 8.1 (4)0.80 37.4 2.73 2.6

50-99 workers

38.26 3.8 26.24 3.6 12.02 5.5 2.49 7.0 1.69 6.9 3.70 7.5 1.13 22.4 3.01 3.8

100 workers or more

49.15 2.6 31.68 2.6 17.47 2.7 3.93 3.9 2.99 4.1 4.92 2.6 2.12 6.3 3.51 2.2

100-499 workers

43.62 2.1 29.15 2.1 14.46 2.3 3.36 3.7 2.21 4.9 4.17 2.3 1.46 5.6 3.27 1.6

500 workers or more

55.23 4.3 34.46 4.6 20.77 4.0 4.56 6.2 3.84 4.9 5.74 3.6 2.85 7.8 3.78 4.0

Service-providing industries(5)

40.95 1.5 29.19 1.4 11.76 2.0 3.14 2.4 1.43 4.0 2.88 2.0 1.30 3.5 3.01 1.2

1-99 workers

34.10 1.8 25.53 1.7 8.57 2.5 2.24 3.2 0.89 6.2 2.04 2.9 0.75 6.8 2.66 1.4

1-49 workers

33.10 2.3 25.02 2.1 8.08 3.1 2.11 3.9 0.83 8.4 1.88 3.8 0.65 7.9 2.61 1.7

50-99 workers

37.68 3.7 27.36 3.5 10.32 4.5 2.68 6.0 1.11 8.0 2.58 4.5 1.10 11.6 2.84 2.7

100 workers or more

49.91 1.8 33.98 1.8 15.93 2.2 4.31 2.7 2.14 4.2 3.97 1.9 2.03 4.0 3.47 1.4

100-499 workers

41.55 2.7 29.26 2.6 12.29 3.3 3.35 4.6 1.44 6.5 3.12 2.8 1.36 6.2 3.02 1.9

500 workers or more

61.23 2.0 40.36 2.2 20.87 2.2 5.63 2.8 3.10 4.6 5.12 2.3 2.95 4.7 4.07 2.1

Trade, transportation, and utilities industry

35.03 1.8 25.04 1.6 9.99 2.5 2.28 3.3 1.11 3.2 2.56 2.4 1.27 7.0 2.78 1.1

1-99 workers

31.31 1.9 23.51 1.7 7.80 2.8 1.78 3.9 0.85 6.2 1.88 3.8 0.70 5.6 2.59 1.3

1-49 workers

30.67 2.4 23.39 2.2 7.28 3.5 1.67 4.7 0.80 7.5 1.66 4.3 0.59 7.0 2.56 1.7

50-99 workers

33.47 3.3 23.93 2.7 9.54 5.3 2.15 5.9 1.03 9.8 2.61 8.2 1.05 8.9 2.70 3.1

100 workers or more

39.53 3.3 26.89 3.0 12.64 3.9 2.87 4.4 1.43 3.8 3.38 3.4 1.96 10.0 3.01 2.1

100-499 workers

33.20 1.8 23.30 1.9 9.90 2.1 2.22 3.3 1.17 3.3 2.63 3.4 1.24 4.7 2.65 1.3

500 workers or more

54.69 6.2 35.48 6.1 19.21 6.7 4.44 7.7 2.03 8.0 5.18 5.7 3.68 14.2 3.87 4.1

Wholesale trade industry

47.42 3.5 33.71 3.5 13.72 3.7 3.62 5.0 1.85 4.3 3.27 4.4 1.47 6.7 3.50 2.8

1-99 workers

46.17 4.0 33.40 3.8 12.77 5.0 3.34 6.3 1.69 8.4 3.04 5.3 1.23 8.1 3.47 3.2

1-49 workers

45.72 4.4 33.46 4.2 12.26 5.8 3.20 6.4 1.56 10.7 2.88 6.3 1.18 9.4 3.44 3.6

100 workers or more

49.58 4.7 34.24 5.0 15.34 4.5 4.10 6.5 2.12 6.4 3.67 4.4 1.89 11.1 3.56 3.8

100-499 workers

49.58 6.2 34.53 6.5 15.05 5.8 4.06 9.6 2.07 7.6 3.60 3.4 1.78 13.9 3.54 4.8

Retail trade industry

24.72 1.3 18.99 1.2 5.73 2.0 1.24 3.2 0.62 3.8 1.36 2.8 0.45 4.3 2.05 1.0

1-99 workers

23.90 2.1 18.94 1.9 4.96 3.1 1.07 6.1 0.47 7.0 1.08 4.6 0.32 5.6 2.02 1.4

1-49 workers

23.52 2.4 18.89 2.0 4.63 4.1 1.00 7.9 0.45 7.4 0.94 6.7 0.24 7.3 2.01 1.6

50-99 workers

25.22 3.8 19.12 3.5 6.10 5.5 1.32 7.2 0.54 15.0 1.58 6.9 0.58 10.6 2.09 3.0

100 workers or more

25.97 2.0 19.06 1.9 6.90 2.6 1.50 4.0 0.86 3.7 1.80 3.1 0.66 6.2 2.09 1.5

100-499 workers

25.38 1.4 18.67 1.5 6.71 2.1 1.42 2.8 0.83 2.5 1.76 3.3 0.63 6.3 2.06 1.1

Transportation and warehousing industry

44.55 4.4 29.65 4.0 14.90 5.6 3.11 7.1 1.46 6.1 4.30 5.4 2.40 14.1 3.63 2.8

1-99 workers

33.51 3.6 24.21 3.2 9.30 6.8 1.74 8.8 0.85 10.3 2.74 12.2 0.73 17.1 3.23 2.9

1-49 workers

31.93 4.3 23.68 3.7 8.25 7.0 1.54 10.1 0.74 13.9 2.22 12.2 0.55 22.0 3.19 3.5

100 workers or more

50.54 5.6 32.61 5.3 17.94 6.4 3.84 7.4 1.79 6.7 5.14 5.9 3.31 14.7 3.85 3.6

100-499 workers

39.33 5.6 25.69 5.1 13.65 7.0 2.61 10.1 1.35 8.8 4.09 8.5 2.12 14.3 3.48 4.0

Information industry

70.23 3.1 45.92 2.7 24.31 4.3 6.93 5.3 3.26 6.2 6.19 4.0 3.52 10.7 4.41 2.6

1-99 workers

53.27 4.1 35.86 3.7 17.42 8.4 4.62 4.6 1.91 15.8 4.66 6.7 (4)2.61 44.6 3.62 3.3

100 workers or more

85.74 3.6 55.13 3.6 30.61 4.2 9.05 7.3 4.49 7.4 7.59 2.9 4.35 14.0 5.13 3.4

100-499 workers

66.18 7.5 43.74 8.1 22.44 7.9 6.28 8.7 2.38 12.7 6.51 7.2 3.13 23.0 4.14 5.7

500 workers or more

100.78 6.9 63.89 7.1 36.89 7.5 11.17 10.9 6.11 8.9 8.42 5.4 5.29 20.1 5.89 6.1

Financial activities industry

58.01 2.1 38.67 2.1 19.34 2.4 5.21 2.5 3.59 7.0 4.88 1.9 2.04 3.4 3.62 1.7

1-99 workers

47.98 3.7 33.34 3.5 14.64 4.6 4.01 4.0 2.25 16.1 3.93 4.0 1.33 5.7 3.13 2.7

1-49 workers

46.30 3.9 32.29 3.7 14.01 5.2 3.81 4.4 2.18 18.9 3.72 4.5 1.23 6.3 3.06 2.8

100 workers or more

71.48 2.4 45.83 2.1 25.64 3.3 6.84 3.3 5.38 8.0 6.15 2.5 3.00 3.3 4.27 1.7

100-499 workers

66.93 4.9 43.89 4.7 23.04 5.8 6.20 6.7 4.39 17.8 5.80 4.2 2.59 6.5 4.06 3.7

500 workers or more

75.09 2.2 47.38 2.3 27.71 3.1 7.34 2.4 6.17 8.4 6.44 2.8 3.32 3.3 4.44 1.6

Professional and business services industry

51.90 3.5 36.95 3.1 14.95 4.9 4.14 5.9 2.31 9.9 3.42 4.5 1.42 7.4 3.67 3.0

1-99 workers

49.00 4.3 36.04 4.1 12.96 5.5 3.65 6.9 1.72 15.0 2.98 6.3 1.04 8.1 3.57 3.4

1-49 workers

45.05 5.9 33.46 5.6 11.59 7.4 3.19 9.3 1.50 21.6 2.70 8.8 0.84 11.5 3.38 4.7

50-99 workers

60.96 7.5 43.85 7.5 17.11 7.8 5.06 10.7 2.38 16.9 3.84 6.5 1.65 14.3 4.17 5.6

100 workers or more

54.68 4.7 37.82 4.4 16.86 6.3 4.60 7.4 2.88 11.9 3.84 4.5 1.78 9.3 3.76 4.6

100-499 workers

48.91 6.4 34.56 5.8 14.35 8.2 4.10 10.3 1.88 16.0 3.62 5.8 1.34 14.0 3.41 5.2

500 workers or more

62.67 4.4 42.33 5.1 20.34 6.1 5.30 7.0 4.27 13.2 4.14 6.0 2.39 7.7 4.24 6.1

Education and health services industry

44.54 2.2 31.58 2.1 12.96 2.7 3.91 3.3 1.04 5.6 3.32 2.9 1.50 5.8 3.19 1.3

1-99 workers

35.04 3.5 26.43 3.2 8.61 5.2 2.63 5.9 0.41 12.6 2.14 7.1 0.72 14.0 2.69 2.5

1-49 workers

34.78 4.3 26.49 3.7 8.29 6.9 2.58 8.0 0.38 16.6 1.98 9.5 0.67 18.0 2.68 2.9

50-99 workers

36.04 6.2 26.17 6.1 9.87 7.9 2.87 11.1 0.54 16.8 2.80 8.3 0.90 13.2 2.76 5.5

100 workers or more

52.84 3.0 36.08 3.1 16.75 2.9 5.02 3.7 1.59 5.2 4.34 2.8 2.17 5.3 3.62 1.9

100-499 workers

43.53 8.4 31.13 8.1 12.40 9.8 3.94 11.6 0.97 16.6 3.05 8.3 1.33 22.3 3.11 5.3

500 workers or more

60.52 1.8 40.18 2.0 20.35 1.8 5.91 2.9 2.11 5.1 5.41 2.1 2.87 3.2 4.05 2.2

Educational services industry

54.70 4.6 39.46 3.9 15.24 6.7 4.49 9.5 0.40 14.7 4.04 7.4 2.59 8.7 3.71 3.7

1-99 workers

39.01 6.8 30.48 5.6 8.53 12.6 2.12 17.9 0.15 22.9 2.07 20.5 1.20 23.1 2.99 6.1

100 workers or more

66.22 3.2 46.06 3.2 20.16 3.5 6.23 6.1 0.58 13.0 5.49 3.8 3.61 5.7 4.24 2.9

100-499 workers

53.64 7.3 38.92 7.3 14.72 9.3 4.49 15.5 (4)0.30 45.6 4.15 11.0 2.03 17.9 3.75 6.9

500 workers or more

74.96 3.0 51.02 3.0 23.94 4.0 7.45 10.0 0.77 10.3 6.42 2.0 4.71 2.8 4.59 3.2

Health care and social assistance industry

43.12 2.5 30.48 2.3 12.64 3.0 3.83 3.6 1.14 6.0 3.22 3.1 1.34 7.1 3.12 1.4

1-99 workers

34.54 3.9 25.92 3.6 8.62 5.6 2.70 6.1 0.45 13.0 2.15 7.6 0.66 16.8 2.66 2.7

1-49 workers

34.63 4.7 26.22 4.1 8.41 7.3 2.67 8.2 0.41 17.1 2.03 9.7 0.65 20.3 2.65 3.1

50-99 workers

34.14 7.7 24.62 7.5 9.52 9.7 2.84 12.3 0.61 17.6 2.68 10.3 0.72 20.0 2.67 6.7

100 workers or more

50.79 3.6 34.56 3.8 16.23 3.4 4.83 4.4 1.75 5.3 4.17 3.2 1.95 6.8 3.53 2.2

100-499 workers

42.15 9.9 30.06 9.5 12.09 11.5 3.86 13.4 1.06 16.6 2.90 10.0 1.24 27.3 3.02 6.2

500 workers or more

58.12 2.2 38.37 2.4 19.75 2.2 5.66 3.1 2.33 5.3 5.24 2.6 2.56 4.5 3.96 2.7

Leisure and hospitality industry

18.87 1.7 15.41 1.6 3.46 3.2 0.56 8.1 0.26 7.0 0.68 7.7 0.18 9.4 1.79 2.0

1-99 workers

17.51 2.0 14.62 1.8 2.89 3.6 0.37 8.2 0.22 7.9 0.52 9.9 0.09 16.6 1.70 2.2

1-49 workers

17.18 2.5 14.39 2.3 2.79 4.8 0.36 7.9 0.20 9.6 0.48 15.1 0.06 21.8 1.68 3.0

50-99 workers

18.52 3.7 15.31 3.2 3.21 7.8 0.39 19.8 0.28 16.4 0.62 21.3 0.17 24.4 1.74 4.0

100 workers or more

24.48 4.7 18.69 4.3 5.79 6.8 1.32 10.8 0.42 12.5 1.34 12.2 0.54 10.3 2.17 4.0

100-499 workers

23.74 5.8 18.46 5.6 5.28 8.3 1.19 14.2 0.44 16.5 1.09 15.4 0.38 19.3 2.18 4.6

500 workers or more

26.22 9.6 19.23 9.1 6.99 12.2 1.64 16.8 0.36 20.6 1.91 17.8 0.94 13.1 2.14 9.2

Footnotes
(1) Includes costs for wages and salaries and benefits.
(2) The relative standard error (RSE) is the standard error expressed as a percent of the cost.
(3) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing. The agriculture, forestry, farming, and hunting sector is excluded.
(4) The relative standard error for this estimate is equal to or greater than 30 percent.
(5) Includes utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

Table 7. Employer Costs for Employee Compensation for private industry workers by census region and division [Sept. 2023]
Area(1) Total compensation(2) Wages and salaries Total benefits Paid leave Supplemental pay Insurance Retirement and savings Legally required benefits
Cost ($) RSE(3) Cost ($) RSE(3) Cost ($) RSE(3) Cost ($) RSE(3) Cost ($) RSE(3) Cost ($) RSE(3) Cost ($) RSE(3) Cost ($) RSE(3)

Northeast

48.29 2.1 33.45 2.3 14.84 2.2 3.78 2.7 1.87 6.9 3.70 2.5 1.89 6.7 3.60 2.2

New England

47.97 2.2 32.97 2.3 15.00 2.9 3.88 5.3 2.33 17.6 3.69 4.5 1.64 7.4 3.47 2.0

Middle Atlantic

48.39 2.5 33.61 2.8 14.78 2.8 3.75 3.2 1.71 6.2 3.70 3.0 1.98 8.5 3.65 2.5

South

36.65 2.5 26.59 2.2 10.06 3.5 2.65 4.2 1.26 6.2 2.40 3.4 1.05 5.3 2.69 1.9

South Atlantic

37.94 2.8 27.46 2.5 10.48 3.9 2.83 4.8 1.22 6.9 2.50 4.5 1.12 6.5 2.82 2.2

East South Central

32.70 2.0 23.66 2.2 9.04 2.3 2.26 2.2 1.14 5.1 2.39 2.5 0.84 8.1 2.40 2.1

West South Central

36.22 6.4 26.42 5.4 9.80 9.0 2.53 10.5 1.38 14.6 2.25 7.9 1.03 11.7 2.61 4.9

Midwest

40.07 2.5 27.68 2.2 12.39 3.4 2.92 4.5 1.77 5.5 3.28 2.8 1.50 8.2 2.93 1.9

East North Central

42.14 3.4 29.10 2.9 13.03 4.4 3.13 5.7 1.86 6.6 3.34 3.9 1.68 10.6 3.03 2.5

West North Central

35.82 2.5 24.75 2.1 11.07 3.7 2.49 5.5 1.58 9.4 3.16 2.7 1.13 7.0 2.71 2.1

West

44.91 2.8 31.83 2.6 13.08 3.5 3.35 4.8 1.50 6.3 3.22 3.5 1.49 4.8 3.52 1.7

Mountain

37.76 2.7 26.94 2.9 10.82 2.7 2.60 6.4 1.33 4.3 2.85 2.5 1.16 4.6 2.88 2.4

Pacific

48.14 3.5 34.04 3.2 14.10 4.6 3.69 5.9 1.57 8.6 3.39 4.8 1.65 5.9 3.80 2.1

Footnotes
(1) The census divisions are defined as follows: New England: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont; Middle Atlantic: New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania; South Atlantic: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; East South Central: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee; West South Central: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas; East North Central: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin; West North Central: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota; Mountain: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming; and Pacific: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington.
(2) Includes costs for wages and salaries and benefits.
(3) The relative standard error (RSE) is the standard error expressed as a percent of the cost.

 

Last Modified Date: December 15, 2023