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Employment Cost Trends
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Employer Costs for Employee Compensation Relative Standard Errors

Because the Employer Costs for Employee Compensation is a sample survey, it is subject to sampling errors. Sampling errors are differences that occur between the results computed from a sample of observations and those computed from all observations in the population. The estimates derived from different samples selected using the same sample design may differ from each other. A measure of the variation among these differing estimates is the standard error. The relative standard error is the standard error expressed as a percent of the cost. It can be used to measure the precision with which an estimate from a particular sample approximates the expected result of all possible samples. The chances are about 68 out of 100 that an estimate from the survey differs from a complete population figure by less than the standard error. The chances are about 90 out of 100 that this difference would be less than 1.6 times the standard error. Footnotes have been added for estimates with relative standard errors greater than 30 percent.

For a more detailed explanation of relative standard errors, see Measuring Trends in the Structure and Levels of Employer Costs for Employee Compensation, Compensation and Working Conditions, Summer 1997. For a detailed explanation of how to use standard error data to analyze differences in year-to-year changes, see Analyzing Year-to-Year Changes in Employer Costs for Employee Compensation, Compensation and Working Conditions, Spring 1998. This article supplements an article from the Summer 1997 issue of Compensation and Working Conditions, Explaining the Differential Growth Rates of the ECI and ECEC, which examined how differences in the construction of these measures contribute to differing trends.

Standard errors relate to differences that occur from sampling errors, but not from nonsampling errors. Sampling errors are differences between the results computed from a sample of observations and those computed from all observations in the population. Nonsampling errors are not measured and include survey nonresponse and data collection and processing errors. Survey nonresponse is when sample members are unwilling or unable to participate in the survey. Data collection errors include provision of inaccurate data by respondents and definitional difficulties. Processing errors include errors in recording, coding, and entering data. Although nonsampling errors are not measured, BLS quality assurance programs contain procedures for reducing such errors. These procedures include data collection reinterviews, observed interviews, computer data edits, and systematic review of reports on which data are recorded. Extensive field economist training also is conducted to maintain high data collection standards.

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Table 1. Employer Costs for Employee Compensation by ownership [Dec. 2019]
Compensation component Civilian workers(1) Private industry
workers
State and local
government workers
Cost ($) Relative
standard error
Cost ($) Relative
standard error
Cost ($) Relative
standard error

Total compensation(2)

37.10 1.2 34.72 1.4 52.14 0.8

Wages and salaries

25.47 1.1 24.36 1.3 32.50 0.7

Total benefits

11.63 1.5 10.37 1.8 19.63 1.0

Paid leave

2.72 2.0 2.53 2.4 3.89 1.6

Vacation

1.33 2.4 1.30 2.7 1.47 2.6

Holiday

0.80 1.8 0.75 2.1 1.11 2.2

Sick

0.43 2.1 0.34 2.8 1.01 1.3

Personal

0.16 2.3 0.14 2.8 0.31 2.5

Supplemental pay

1.09 2.9 1.19 3.1 0.51 3.1

Overtime and premium(3)

0.30 1.5 0.31 1.6 0.22 3.4

Shift differentials

0.07 4.6 0.08 5.0 0.05 6.2

Nonproduction bonuses

0.72 4.1 0.79 4.3 0.24 4.3

Insurance

3.22 1.4 2.76 1.8 6.08 1.1

Life

0.05 2.2 0.04 2.7 0.07 3.1

Health

3.06 1.4 2.61 1.8 5.93 1.1

Short-term disability

0.06 2.9 0.07 3.1 0.03 3.9

Long-term disability

0.04 2.9 0.04 3.3 0.05 3.4

Retirement and savings

1.92 2.3 1.22 3.3 6.30 1.4

Defined benefit

1.17 2.7 0.42 5.6 5.85 1.5

Defined contribution

0.75 3.2 0.80 3.5 0.45 5.4

Legally Required benefits

2.69 1.0 2.66 1.2 2.86 1.2

Social Security and Medicare

2.07 1.1 2.05 1.2 2.24 1.1

Social Security(4)

1.65 1.0 1.64 1.2 1.71 1.3

Medicare

0.42 1.2 0.41 1.4 0.53 0.7

Federal unemployment insurance

0.02 1.0 0.03 0.9 (5)- (5)-

State unemployment insurance

0.13 1.7 0.14 1.8 0.06 8.4

Workers' compensation

0.46 1.5 0.45 1.7 0.56 2.5

Footnotes
(1) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(2) Includes costs for wages and salaries and benefits.
(3) Includes premium pay for work (such as overtime, weekends, and holidays) in addition to the regular work schedule.
(4) Social Security refers to the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program.
(5) Cost per hour worked is $0.01 or less.

Table 2. Employer Costs for Employee Compensation for civilian workers by occupational and industry group [Dec. 2019]
Series Total compensation(1) Wages and salaries Total benefits Paid leave Supplemental pay Insurance Retirement and savings Legally required benefits
Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2)

Civilian workers(3)

37.10 1.2 25.47 1.1 11.63 1.5 2.72 2.0 1.09 2.9 3.22 1.4 1.92 2.3 2.69 1.0

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

61.28 1.4 41.84 1.4 19.44 1.5 5.27 2.1 1.76 4.1 4.92 1.4 3.71 2.4 3.78 1.0

Management, business and financial

69.73 1.6 47.63 1.5 22.10 1.9 6.67 2.5 2.87 6.6 4.78 1.7 3.46 3.2 4.32 1.1

Professional and related

57.48 1.8 39.24 1.8 18.25 1.8 4.63 2.4 1.26 4.1 4.99 1.7 3.82 2.9 3.54 1.2

Teachers(4)

65.17 1.6 44.33 1.6 20.84 2.0 3.44 3.3 0.25 5.3 6.44 2.1 7.36 2.3 3.35 2.0

Primary, secondary, and special education school teachers

64.87 1.5 43.11 1.3 21.76 2.0 2.99 3.6 0.22 6.8 7.13 2.4 8.34 2.5 3.08 1.9

Registered nurses

59.00 1.6 38.31 1.5 20.68 2.1 5.83 2.7 2.20 5.4 5.66 3.0 3.09 4.7 3.90 1.8

Sales and office

27.09 1.2 19.03 1.1 8.05 1.5 1.83 2.2 0.70 4.5 2.58 1.8 0.96 2.5 1.99 0.9

Sales and related

25.21 2.7 19.14 2.7 6.07 3.1 1.42 4.9 0.67 6.9 1.48 3.1 0.55 6.2 1.95 1.9

Office and administrative support

28.23 1.1 18.97 1.0 9.26 1.6 2.08 1.9 0.72 5.1 3.24 1.8 1.21 2.5 2.01 1.1

Service

19.82 1.9 14.13 1.5 5.69 3.0 1.04 4.2 0.42 4.1 1.67 4.8 0.86 5.5 1.69 1.6

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

37.11 1.8 24.88 1.4 12.23 2.7 2.03 2.9 1.31 2.8 3.32 3.2 2.07 7.5 3.50 1.6

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry

37.90 3.0 25.04 2.3 12.87 4.7 1.63 6.1 1.39 4.2 3.39 6.1 2.62 10.9 3.85 2.2

Installation, maintenance, and repair

36.26 1.8 24.72 1.6 11.55 2.8 2.46 2.6 1.22 3.7 3.25 3.8 1.49 7.0 3.13 1.6

Production, transportation, and material moving

29.37 2.1 19.42 1.7 9.95 3.0 1.78 3.5 1.26 3.9 3.04 3.4 1.25 7.3 2.63 1.8

Production

28.14 2.1 18.64 1.6 9.50 3.6 1.74 3.5 1.40 5.1 3.09 4.6 0.85 6.5 2.42 2.3

Transportation and material moving

30.47 3.8 20.11 3.1 10.36 5.2 1.82 6.4 1.13 6.6 3.00 5.7 1.60 10.8 2.81 2.7

Industry group

Education and health services

42.79 2.8 28.97 2.7 13.81 3.1 3.26 4.0 0.62 3.8 4.28 3.1 3.01 4.4 2.64 2.1

Educational services

53.80 1.0 35.63 0.8 18.17 1.5 3.50 2.1 0.25 3.8 5.80 1.9 5.74 2.1 2.87 1.2

Elementary and secondary schools

52.85 1.0 34.68 0.8 18.17 1.7 2.82 2.8 0.21 5.4 6.07 2.0 6.42 2.3 2.65 1.3

Junior colleges, colleges, and universities

59.89 1.9 39.72 2.0 20.17 1.9 5.27 2.8 0.36 8.1 5.90 2.4 5.22 3.3 3.41 2.6

Health care and social assistance

36.14 4.6 24.95 4.5 11.19 5.1 3.12 6.4 0.84 5.4 3.36 5.4 1.36 10.5 2.51 3.3

Hospitals

50.43 1.6 32.35 1.7 18.09 2.2 4.90 3.2 1.86 3.8 5.43 2.5 2.68 5.9 3.21 1.2

Footnotes
(1) Includes costs for wages and salaries and benefits.
(2) The relative standard error (RSE) is the standard error expressed as a percent of the cost.
(3) Includes workers in the private nonfarm economy except those in private households, and workers in the public sector, except the federal government.
(4) Includes postsecondary teachers; primary, secondary, and special education teachers; and other teachers and instructors.

Table 3. Employer Costs for Employee Compensation for state and local government workers by occupational and industry group [Dec. 2019]
Series Total compensation(1) Wages and salaries Total benefits Paid leave Supplemental pay Insurance Retirement and savings Legally required benefits
Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2)

State and local government workers

52.14 0.8 32.50 0.7 19.63 1.0 3.89 1.6 0.51 3.1 6.08 1.1 6.30 1.4 2.86 1.2

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

62.63 1.0 40.39 1.0 22.24 1.2 4.40 2.2 0.40 4.3 6.64 1.3 7.57 1.5 3.23 1.5

Professional and related

60.83 1.0 39.53 1.1 21.30 1.2 3.91 2.2 0.37 4.6 6.61 1.4 7.30 1.6 3.11 1.4

Teachers(3)

68.94 1.2 46.03 1.2 22.91 1.5 3.45 3.3 0.25 5.2 7.16 1.7 8.73 1.7 3.32 1.8

Primary, secondary, and special education school teachers

68.53 1.2 45.15 1.2 23.38 1.6 3.10 3.4 0.23 6.4 7.64 2.3 9.27 1.9 3.14 2.0

Sales and office

35.81 1.5 20.67 1.5 15.15 1.9 3.13 2.3 0.31 7.0 5.66 2.1 3.91 3.0 2.13 1.8

Office and administrative support

35.99 1.6 20.72 1.6 15.27 2.0 3.14 2.3 0.31 7.1 5.74 2.2 3.94 3.1 2.13 1.7

Service

37.93 2.6 21.78 2.2 16.15 3.1 3.19 3.6 0.80 5.7 4.81 2.1 5.02 5.3 2.33 2.1

Industry group

Education and health services

54.61 0.8 35.24 0.8 19.37 1.2 3.60 2.4 0.34 4.2 6.25 1.4 6.39 1.4 2.80 1.4

Educational services

55.96 0.8 36.35 0.7 19.62 1.3 3.46 2.6 0.25 4.5 6.35 1.5 6.76 1.5 2.80 1.5

Elementary and secondary schools

54.30 1.0 35.32 0.9 18.98 1.5 2.82 3.0 0.22 5.0 6.39 1.9 6.91 1.8 2.64 1.4

Junior colleges, colleges, and universities

60.44 2.0 39.16 2.2 21.29 2.1 5.26 3.5 0.34 11.6 6.17 2.9 6.30 3.9 3.22 2.9

Health care and social assistance

46.28 3.9 28.44 4.2 17.84 4.0 4.46 5.7 0.89 7.4 5.59 4.1 4.10 6.4 2.80 4.6

Hospitals

48.77 4.6 30.57 5.0 18.20 4.7 4.71 6.3 1.05 7.4 5.54 4.8 3.96 9.2 2.93 5.6

Public administration

50.12 1.7 29.00 1.8 21.12 1.9 4.66 2.4 0.79 4.5 6.00 1.6 6.64 3.1 3.04 2.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes costs for wages and salaries and benefits.
(2) The relative standard error (RSE) is the standard error expressed as a percent of the cost.
(3) Includes postsecondary teachers; primary, secondary, and special education teachers; and other teachers and instructors.

Table 4. Employer Costs for Employee Compensation for private industry workers by occupational and industry group [Dec. 2019]
Series Total compensation(1) Wages and salaries Total benefits Paid leave Supplemental pay Insurance Retirement and savings Legally required benefits
Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2)

Private industry workers

34.72 1.4 24.36 1.3 10.37 1.8 2.53 2.4 1.19 3.1 2.76 1.8 1.22 3.3 2.66 1.2

Occupational group

Management, professional, and related

60.83 1.8 42.33 1.8 18.49 2.0 5.56 2.6 2.22 4.5 4.34 1.8 2.40 4.0 3.97 1.3

Management, business, and financial

69.26 1.8 47.92 1.7 21.33 2.2 6.59 2.8 3.18 6.7 4.50 1.9 2.69 3.9 4.37 1.3

Professional and related

55.95 2.6 39.10 2.6 16.85 2.7 4.96 3.2 1.67 4.6 4.24 2.6 2.23 5.5 3.74 1.7

Sales and office

26.32 1.3 18.89 1.3 7.43 1.7 1.72 2.4 0.73 4.7 2.30 2.0 0.70 3.3 1.97 1.0

Sales and related

25.18 2.7 19.14 2.7 6.04 3.0 1.41 4.9 0.67 6.9 1.47 3.0 0.54 6.1 1.95 1.9

Office and administrative support

27.12 1.3 18.72 1.1 8.40 2.0 1.93 2.3 0.77 5.4 2.88 2.3 0.82 3.6 1.99 1.2

Service

17.29 2.1 13.06 1.7 4.22 3.9 0.74 5.7 0.37 4.7 1.23 7.3 0.28 6.2 1.60 1.9

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

36.52 1.9 24.78 1.5 11.74 3.0 1.88 3.4 1.35 3.0 3.11 3.7 1.86 8.9 3.54 1.7

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry

37.42 3.3 24.99 2.5 12.43 5.1 1.45 7.3 1.45 4.4 3.17 6.8 2.44 12.5 3.92 2.4

Installation, maintenance, and repair

35.57 2.0 24.56 1.7 11.01 3.2 2.34 2.9 1.24 3.9 3.04 4.3 1.25 9.0 3.14 1.8

Production, transportation, and material moving

28.95 2.1 19.27 1.8 9.67 3.1 1.74 3.6 1.27 4.0 2.93 3.6 1.11 8.1 2.62 1.9

Production

27.87 2.2 18.52 1.6 9.35 3.7 1.71 3.5 1.40 5.1 3.04 4.7 0.78 6.8 2.42 2.3

Transportation and material moving

29.96 4.0 19.99 3.3 9.98 5.4 1.77 6.8 1.15 6.9 2.82 6.1 1.42 12.5 2.81 2.9

Industry group

Goods-producing(3)

39.91 1.7 26.80 1.6 13.11 2.0 2.57 2.7 1.74 2.6 3.68 2.3 1.77 6.6 3.35 1.4

Construction

39.86 2.7 27.46 2.1 12.40 4.6 1.75 5.5 1.36 5.2 3.27 6.2 2.13 11.6 3.89 1.9

Manufacturing

39.19 1.7 25.98 1.8 13.21 2.0 2.96 2.5 1.91 3.1 3.86 2.7 1.46 5.2 3.01 1.5

Aircraft manufacturing

71.97 2.0 43.65 2.4 28.31 1.7 6.42 3.0 5.13 4.8 6.98 1.8 5.21 3.4 4.58 1.9

Service-providing(4)

33.68 1.7 23.87 1.5 9.81 2.1 2.52 2.8 1.07 3.9 2.58 2.2 1.11 3.8 2.52 1.4

Trade, transportation, and utilities

29.04 2.4 20.47 2.0 8.56 3.4 1.86 4.0 0.86 4.3 2.35 3.6 1.12 7.8 2.37 1.8

Wholesale trade

37.92 2.7 26.80 2.7 11.12 3.5 2.80 4.3 1.23 9.7 2.95 4.1 1.26 8.8 2.88 1.8

Retail trade

20.57 1.2 15.55 1.2 5.02 1.8 1.00 3.1 0.50 6.0 1.36 2.9 0.41 4.1 1.76 1.2

Transportation and warehousing

39.85 5.7 25.85 5.1 14.00 7.1 2.88 8.2 1.38 10.5 4.05 7.1 2.36 14.1 3.33 4.8

Utilities

65.49 2.0 40.38 2.1 25.11 2.8 5.82 2.7 2.16 10.3 6.24 4.4 6.24 5.7 4.65 2.0

Information

56.37 3.8 38.17 3.9 18.19 4.2 5.20 5.7 2.58 8.1 4.74 4.1 1.99 6.6 3.68 3.1

Financial activities

49.43 1.8 33.12 1.7 16.31 2.6 4.34 2.1 2.92 10.4 4.16 1.9 1.75 3.1 3.14 1.4

Financial and insurance

54.48 1.5 36.06 1.7 18.42 2.2 4.95 1.9 3.43 10.2 4.63 1.1 2.11 2.4 3.30 1.2

Credit intermediation and related activities

47.25 2.0 31.45 1.9 15.80 2.5 4.37 2.6 2.46 7.9 4.31 1.6 1.71 4.2 2.96 1.8

Insurance carriers and related activities

51.16 1.8 33.48 1.7 17.68 2.8 4.54 2.7 3.08 12.3 4.62 2.0 2.21 5.1 3.23 1.5

Real estate and rental and leasing

35.09 8.0 24.77 7.6 10.32 10.5 2.61 12.8 (5)1.45 36.5 2.83 8.7 0.74 17.3 2.69 5.8

Professional and business services

42.21 3.5 30.17 3.3 12.04 4.5 3.43 5.5 1.54 7.3 2.71 4.9 1.29 8.3 3.07 3.0

Professional and technical services

55.64 2.4 39.64 2.0 16.00 3.6 4.98 3.9 1.98 9.8 3.55 3.7 1.71 5.6 3.78 2.0

Administrative and waste services

23.56 3.8 17.77 2.8 5.79 7.3 1.18 9.7 0.67 12.0 1.45 10.0 0.34 17.0 2.14 3.6

Education and health services

36.71 4.2 25.75 4.1 10.96 4.6 3.09 5.7 0.76 5.4 3.27 5.0 1.27 9.6 2.57 3.1

Educational services

46.30 2.8 33.14 2.9 13.16 4.0 3.67 4.7 0.26 7.8 3.89 4.8 2.21 7.1 3.14 3.1

Junior colleges, colleges, universities and professional schools

58.83 3.1 40.81 3.4 18.01 2.8 5.30 4.0 0.42 6.8 5.38 2.6 3.12 3.7 3.79 4.5

Health care and social assistance

35.31 4.9 24.67 4.8 10.64 5.3 3.01 6.6 0.84 5.9 3.18 5.8 1.14 11.9 2.48 3.5

Leisure and hospitality

15.76 3.2 12.44 2.7 3.33 5.1 0.51 9.0 0.24 13.1 0.81 7.0 0.23 14.0 1.54 2.3

Accommodation and food services

15.11 3.8 11.94 3.4 3.18 6.2 0.46 12.0 0.24 15.1 0.76 8.2 0.22 16.4 1.50 2.9

Other services

27.87 5.8 20.89 5.4 6.98 8.0 1.62 13.5 0.44 12.9 1.75 11.8 0.84 24.6 2.33 2.9

Footnotes
(1) Includes costs for wages and salaries and benefits.
(2) The relative standard error (RSE) is the standard error expressed as a percent of the cost.
(3) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing. The agriculture, forestry, farming, and hunting sector is excluded.
(4) Includes utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.
(5) The relative standard error for this estimate is greater than 30 percent.

Table 5. Employer Costs for Employee Compensation for private industry workers by bargaining and work status [Dec. 2019]
Series Total compensation(1) Wages and salaries Total benefits Paid leave Supplemental pay Insurance Retirement and savings Legally required benefits
Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2)

Union

All workers

48.15 2.6 28.62 2.6 19.53 2.7 3.42 3.9 1.72 5.0 6.78 2.0 3.97 6.0 3.65 2.7

Goods-producing(3)

51.68 3.8 29.57 3.9 22.10 4.1 2.81 5.0 2.37 6.0 7.59 2.3 5.03 11.3 4.30 4.1

Service-providing(4)

46.61 3.3 28.20 3.3 18.41 3.5 3.68 4.9 1.43 6.8 6.42 2.7 3.51 7.1 3.36 3.4

Nonunion

All workers

33.53 1.6 23.98 1.5 9.55 1.9 2.45 2.5 1.14 3.3 2.41 2.0 0.98 3.7 2.57 1.2

Goods-producing(3)

37.87 1.7 26.32 1.7 11.55 1.9 2.53 2.8 1.63 2.3 3.00 2.2 1.21 7.5 3.18 1.2

Service-providing(4)

32.73 1.8 23.55 1.6 9.18 2.3 2.44 2.9 1.05 4.1 2.30 2.3 0.94 4.1 2.46 1.4

Full-time

All workers

40.39 1.3 27.79 1.2 12.60 1.5 3.18 2.0 1.48 3.0 3.43 1.4 1.54 3.1 2.97 1.1

Occupational group

Management, professional and related

63.28 1.8 43.70 1.8 19.58 1.9 5.93 2.4 2.38 4.5 4.63 1.5 2.57 4.0 4.07 1.2

Management, business, and financial

70.14 1.8 48.40 1.8 21.74 2.1 6.74 2.8 3.23 6.5 4.61 1.7 2.76 4.0 4.41 1.3

Professional and related

58.74 2.5 40.59 2.6 18.15 2.6 5.40 3.1 1.82 4.8 4.64 2.1 2.45 5.5 3.84 1.6

Sales and office

30.78 1.6 21.53 1.6 9.26 1.9 2.26 2.5 0.95 4.9 2.96 1.8 0.90 3.4 2.20 1.3

Sales and related

34.30 3.6 25.32 3.7 8.98 3.7 2.33 5.3 1.07 7.7 2.29 2.7 0.84 6.9 2.44 2.8

Office and administrative support

29.16 1.2 19.77 1.1 9.39 1.7 2.22 2.0 0.89 5.3 3.27 2.0 0.92 3.4 2.08 1.2

Service

20.81 1.9 14.89 1.7 5.92 2.7 1.18 3.8 0.55 4.5 1.99 4.4 0.44 5.7 1.75 1.5

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance

37.50 2.0 25.30 1.6 12.20 3.2 1.97 3.5 1.41 3.0 3.26 3.8 1.96 9.1 3.60 1.8

Construction, extraction, farming, fishing, and forestry

38.30 3.3 25.47 2.5 12.84 5.2 1.51 7.3 1.51 4.4 3.29 6.9 2.55 12.5 3.97 2.4

Installation, maintenance, and repair

36.64 1.9 25.12 1.6 11.52 2.9 2.46 2.8 1.30 3.9 3.23 3.8 1.33 8.4 3.19 1.8

Production, transportation, and material moving

31.03 2.3 20.41 1.9 10.62 3.1 1.99 3.7 1.43 3.9 3.25 3.3 1.23 8.5 2.71 2.0

Production

29.03 2.1 19.11 1.5 9.93 3.5 1.83 3.3 1.51 4.9 3.27 4.3 0.84 6.8 2.47 2.1

Transportation and material moving

33.32 4.4 21.91 3.8 11.41 5.7 2.17 7.1 1.35 7.1 3.24 5.7 1.68 13.3 2.97 3.4

Industry group

Goods-producing(3)

40.38 1.6 27.05 1.6 13.32 2.0 2.63 2.7 1.77 2.5 3.75 2.3 1.81 6.6 3.36 1.4

Construction

40.35 2.9 27.70 2.3 12.66 4.8 1.79 5.8 1.39 5.3 3.38 6.3 2.19 11.8 3.91 2.1

Manufacturing

39.63 1.7 26.24 1.8 13.39 2.1 3.02 2.5 1.94 3.2 3.92 2.7 1.49 5.3 3.03 1.5

Service-providing(4)

40.40 1.5 28.00 1.4 12.40 1.8 3.34 2.3 1.40 3.9 3.34 1.6 1.46 3.5 2.86 1.3

Trade, transportation, and utilities

35.43 2.3 24.40 2.0 11.03 3.1 2.58 3.5 1.17 4.1 3.03 3.1 1.49 7.7 2.77 1.9

Information

61.98 3.2 41.70 3.3 20.28 3.7 5.86 4.9 2.89 7.7 5.28 3.8 2.26 6.6 3.99 2.7

Financial activities

51.89 1.8 34.55 1.6 17.34 2.8 4.66 1.7 3.11 10.8 4.43 1.5 1.88 3.3 3.26 1.4

Professional and business services

46.38 3.4 32.76 3.3 13.61 4.0 3.95 5.1 1.75 7.4 3.13 3.6 1.51 7.7 3.26 3.0

Education and health services

40.07 3.7 27.61 3.8 12.46 3.6 3.61 4.9 0.83 4.2 3.85 3.5 1.49 8.9 2.68 2.2

Leisure and hospitality

20.82 4.8 15.41 4.4 5.41 6.4 1.07 8.8 0.42 14.3 1.67 6.7 0.47 14.5 1.78 3.7

Other services

33.06 7.1 23.92 6.8 9.14 8.8 2.29 12.8 0.53 11.7 2.53 10.8 1.23 26.0 2.55 4.2

Part-time

All workers

18.11 1.8 14.29 1.6 3.82 3.4 0.63 5.0 0.32 5.4 0.82 7.9 0.30 6.4 1.75 1.6

Occupational group

Management, professional and related

40.35 3.7 30.93 3.5 9.43 5.8 2.46 6.6 0.89 10.0 1.90 11.8 0.99 11.0 3.19 3.4

Professional and related

40.43 4.4 30.83 4.1 9.60 6.3 2.53 7.4 0.82 9.1 2.02 12.3 1.05 11.2 3.18 3.9

Sales and office

15.98 1.1 12.78 0.8 3.20 3.2 0.48 5.4 0.23 8.1 0.79 7.3 0.25 7.3 1.45 1.1

Sales and related

14.47 1.2 11.89 0.8 2.59 4.1 0.32 6.5 0.21 6.5 0.51 13.5 0.18 12.2 1.37 1.3

Office and administrative support

18.50 2.1 14.26 1.6 4.23 5.0 0.73 7.3 0.28 14.3 1.26 8.5 0.37 9.9 1.59 2.0

Service

13.80 3.0 11.26 2.4 2.54 6.8 0.31 15.5 0.19 11.7 0.47 21.4 0.12 11.6 1.45 2.8

Production, transportation, and material moving

18.74 3.6 13.70 2.7 5.04 7.1 0.52 9.1 0.48 15.1 1.34 12.7 0.51 14.2 2.19 2.7

Transportation and material moving

19.87 4.6 14.20 3.6 5.67 8.4 0.58 11.6 0.55 16.7 1.59 14.2 0.65 15.9 2.30 3.0

Industry group

Service-providing(4)

18.03 1.9 14.24 1.6 3.80 3.5 0.63 5.1 0.31 5.5 0.82 8.0 0.30 6.4 1.73 1.7

Trade, transportation, and utilities

16.93 1.8 13.03 1.2 3.90 4.2 0.49 6.0 0.29 7.3 1.06 7.9 0.42 7.4 1.63 1.6

Professional and business services

19.99 4.5 16.32 4.7 3.66 6.7 0.68 12.3 0.40 19.4 0.47 22.9 (5)0.10 37.0 2.02 2.4

Education and health services

27.34 7.6 20.55 6.9 6.79 10.7 1.65 12.2 0.58 11.8 1.65 17.6 0.66 15.3 2.26 7.4

Leisure and hospitality

12.25 2.1 10.37 1.8 1.88 5.0 0.12 14.8 0.11 20.9 0.21 23.5 0.07 28.2 1.37 2.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes costs for wages and salaries and benefits.
(2) The relative standard error (RSE) is the standard error expressed as a percent of the cost.
(3) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing. The agriculture, forestry, farming, and hunting sector is excluded.
(4) Includes utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.
(5) The relative standard error for this estimate is greater than 30 percent.

Table 6. Employer Costs for Employee Compensation for private industry workers by establishment size and industry group [Dec. 2019]
Series Total compensation(1) Wages and salaries Total benefits Paid leave Supplemental pay Insurance Retirement and savings Legally required benefits
Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2) Cost ($) RSE(2)

All workers

1-99 workers

28.77 1.3 21.27 1.2 7.50 1.9 1.78 2.6 0.74 4.6 1.89 2.5 0.70 5.0 2.39 1.1

1-49 workers

27.84 1.7 20.84 1.6 7.00 2.5 1.67 3.4 0.68 5.2 1.70 3.2 0.60 6.6 2.34 1.4

50-99 workers

31.96 2.3 22.73 2.2 9.23 2.8 2.14 4.1 0.94 9.4 2.56 3.3 1.04 6.3 2.55 1.8

100 workers or more

41.75 2.1 28.01 2.0 13.75 2.3 3.42 3.1 1.71 3.5 3.79 2.1 1.85 4.2 2.98 1.7

100-499 workers

35.86 2.7 24.86 2.8 11.00 2.8 2.68 3.8 1.16 3.5 3.10 2.7 1.33 6.7 2.73 1.9

500 workers or more

49.46 3.0 32.12 2.9 17.34 3.2 4.39 4.3 2.43 4.7 4.70 2.9 2.53 5.2 3.30 2.6

Goods-producing(3)

1-99 workers

33.95 2.6 24.04 2.3 9.92 3.7 1.72 4.5 1.19 5.5 2.65 4.4 1.17 11.4 3.19 2.1

1-49 workers

32.34 3.0 23.31 2.6 9.03 4.8 1.52 5.6 1.11 7.0 2.27 6.0 0.98 14.3 3.16 2.6

50-99 workers

37.77 3.4 25.75 3.3 12.02 4.3 2.22 7.4 1.36 8.6 3.56 5.0 1.61 12.8 3.27 2.7

100 workers or more

45.10 2.3 29.21 2.4 15.89 2.4 3.32 3.2 2.22 3.3 4.57 2.1 2.29 7.5 3.49 1.8

100-499 workers

42.15 3.5 27.94 3.6 14.21 3.7 2.91 5.6 1.71 3.7 4.14 3.0 2.04 11.7 3.41 2.4

500 workers or more

49.74 2.7 31.20 3.1 18.53 2.8 3.95 3.8 3.01 5.3 5.25 3.5 2.70 5.6 3.61 2.8

Service-providing(4)

1-99 workers

27.89 1.5 20.80 1.4 7.09 2.2 1.79 2.9 0.67 5.5 1.77 2.9 0.62 5.5 2.26 1.2

1-49 workers

27.16 2.0 20.47 1.8 6.69 2.8 1.69 3.8 0.62 6.1 1.61 3.7 0.54 7.3 2.22 1.6

50-99 workers

30.61 2.8 22.02 2.7 8.58 3.5 2.12 4.6 0.84 12.7 2.33 4.2 0.90 7.8 2.39 2.1

100 workers or more

40.94 2.6 27.71 2.5 13.23 2.8 3.45 3.7 1.58 4.5 3.60 2.6 1.74 5.0 2.85 2.1

100-499 workers

34.18 3.4 24.03 3.4 10.14 3.6 2.62 4.7 1.01 4.9 2.83 3.6 1.14 7.9 2.55 2.3

500 workers or more

49.40 3.5 32.32 3.4 17.08 3.8 4.48 5.0 2.30 5.9 4.58 3.4 2.49 6.2 3.23 3.1

Footnotes
(1) Includes costs for wages and salaries and benefits.
(2) The relative standard error (RSE) is the standard error expressed as a percent of the cost.
(3) Includes mining, construction, and manufacturing. The agriculture, forestry, farming, and hunting sector is excluded.
(4) Includes utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing; information; finance and insurance; real estate and rental and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies and enterprises; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except public administration.

Table 7. Employer Costs for Employee Compensation for private industry workers by census region and division [Dec. 2019]
Area(1) Total compensation(2) Wages and salaries Total benefits Paid leave Supplemental pay Insurance Retirement and savings Legally required benefits
Cost ($) RSE(3) Cost ($) RSE(3) Cost ($) RSE(3) Cost ($) RSE(3) Cost ($) RSE(3) Cost ($) RSE(3) Cost ($) RSE(3) Cost ($) RSE(3)

Northeast

39.22 3.2 26.92 3.1 12.30 3.7 3.09 6.0 1.36 8.6 3.31 2.1 1.49 7.0 3.05 2.5

New England

40.42 3.5 27.86 3.5 12.56 3.9 3.20 5.1 1.28 6.1 3.32 4.7 1.76 9.8 3.00 2.0

Middle Atlantic

38.79 4.4 26.59 4.3 12.20 4.8 3.05 7.9 1.38 10.9 3.31 2.3 1.40 7.4 3.07 3.5

South

30.48 2.6 21.88 2.3 8.60 3.7 2.11 4.2 1.09 6.0 2.14 4.1 0.97 6.8 2.29 2.3

South Atlantic

31.10 3.4 22.33 2.9 8.77 5.1 2.18 5.6 1.03 8.8 2.21 5.7 0.98 7.3 2.36 2.7

East South Central

27.94 2.8 19.74 2.3 8.20 4.7 1.91 3.2 1.11 18.0 2.17 8.0 0.93 4.0 2.08 4.1

West South Central

30.58 5.7 22.10 5.0 8.49 7.5 2.09 9.0 1.18 8.6 1.99 8.0 0.98 17.7 2.24 4.9

Midwest

33.05 2.4 22.85 2.2 10.19 2.9 2.32 3.9 1.24 3.0 2.91 3.4 1.19 5.9 2.53 2.0

East North Central

33.76 3.0 23.23 2.8 10.52 3.7 2.36 5.1 1.33 3.7 2.98 4.2 1.28 7.4 2.57 2.7

West North Central

31.51 3.4 22.03 3.2 9.48 4.3 2.24 5.5 1.05 5.6 2.77 5.7 0.99 9.0 2.43 2.7

West

39.37 2.6 27.67 2.6 11.69 3.0 2.95 4.2 1.13 5.8 3.13 2.8 1.43 6.3 3.06 1.6

Mountain

33.16 2.4 23.40 2.4 9.76 2.8 2.34 5.1 1.11 8.9 2.63 3.2 1.19 7.1 2.49 1.7

Pacific

42.04 3.4 29.51 3.4 12.52 3.9 3.21 5.2 1.13 7.4 3.35 3.6 1.53 8.2 3.31 1.9

Footnotes
(1) The census divisions are defined as follows: New England: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont; Middle Atlantic: New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania; South Atlantic: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; East South Central: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee; West South Central: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas; East North Central: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin; West North Central: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota; Mountain: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming; and Pacific: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington.
(2) Includes costs for wages and salaries and benefits.
(3) The relative standard error (RSE) is the standard error expressed as a percent of the cost.

 

Last Modified Date: March 19, 2020