International Comparisons of Hourly Compensation Costs in Manufacturing Industries, 2012

REPORT (PDF)
Technical Notes (PDF)
Country Notes and Data Sources (PDF)

   
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Charts and Analysis

Hourly compensation costs, or the hourly cost to the manufacturer of employing labor, is one of the most important indicators of international competitiveness in manufacturing. Average measures of compensation costs for the manufacturing sector as a whole, however, often mask important cost differences and competitiveness among sub-manufacturing industries. Under an international comparative lens, this report highlights the differences in compensation costs across both countries and industries.

Chart 1 Highlights

Within each country, industry compensation costs can vary greatly from average compensation in total manufacturing (see Chart 1). The overall spread of compensation costs across industries can be compared across countries by looking at the relative—and not the absolute—distance of costs between the highest and lowest compensated industries. In 2012, for example, the highest paid industry was more than double the lowest paid industry in 13 of 23 countries compared. The greatest variation in compensation across industries occurred primarily in Brazil and Mexico and countries in Eastern Europe and Asia. Historically, the highest and lowest compensated industries have tended to be similar across countries. In 2012, coke and petroleum products and pharmaceuticals were among the highly paid industries, while the lower paid industries included apparel and wood products manufacturing.

Chart 1.



Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing, 2012

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Chart 2 Highlights

In Chart 2, bold diamonds represent the average compensation cost in manufacturing for each country, and each notch along a country line represents average costs in a particular sub-manufacturing industry. The spread, or dispersion, of compensation within countries is shown against the horizontal axis (each country's manufacturing average is set equal to 100), while a country's position relative to the United States is shown against the vertical axis (average U.S. manufacturing compensation is set equal to 100).

The overall spread of manufacturing compensation is determined not only by the industries at the upper and lower ends of the compensation spectrum, but also by how closely together or far apart industries fall between the two extremes (see Chart 2). The dispersion of manufacturing compensation is high and driven largely by variations in the top (red) end of the compensation spectrum in Latin America, Asia, and eastern Europe. On the other hand, the dispersion of compensation costs is lower in northern Europe primarily because industry compensation is more tightly clustered around the manufacturing average in these countries.

Chart 2.



. Industry compensation costs as a percent of average costs in manufacturing, by region, 2012

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Chart 3 Highlights

Because compensation costs can differ so much from one industry within manufacturing to another, Chart 3 focuses the analysis at the industry level and provides a snapshot of U.S. competitiveness for the industries shown. In the charts, compensation costs for the industry in each country are compared to the country's average manufacturing compensation along the horizontal axis and to U.S. compensation for that industry along the vertical axis.

Industries for which most countries lie in the left (red) portion of the chart (apparel and fabricated metals) are industries that are generally lower compensated than the manufacturing average in each country, while industries for which most countries lie in the right (green) portion of the chart (pharmaceuticals, computers, motor vehicles, and other transport) are generally higher compensated industries.

Similar to the pattern seen at the sector level, industry compensation costs in western and northern Europe are generally higher than in the United States, while costs in Asia, Latin America, and eastern Europe are generally lower. Based on 2012 compensation levels for the industries shown, the United States was relatively more competitive in the manufacture of fabricated metal and paper products and relatively less competitive in computer, electronic, and optical products and other transport equipment (also see Table 3).

Chart 3.



Industry compensation costs as a percent of average costs in manufacturing, and as a percent of average U.S. industry costs, by industry, 2012

(Continued) Industry compensation costs as a percent of average costs in manufacturing, and as a percent of average U.S. industry costs, by industry, 2012

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Report Tables

Table 1a. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, U.S. dollars, 2012
IndustryISIC Rev.4 CodeUnited StatesArgentinaAustraliaAustriaBelgiumBrazilCanada

Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

C
35.6718.8747.6841.5352.1911.2036.59

Food products, beverages and tobacco

10-12
27.20NA41.2132.4646.248.81NA

          Food and beverages

10-11
NANANA31.8846.228.70NA

                    Food products

10
26.25NA39.1530.1044.848.44NA

                    Beverages

11
NANANA42.8455.1411.47NA

          Tobacco products

12
NANANANA46.4116.23NA

Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

13-15
24.34NANA31.9841.205.32NA

          Textiles and wearing apparel

13-14
24.19NANA33.0340.995.52NA

                    Textiles

13
24.17NANA34.6441.897.60NA

                    Wearing apparel

14
24.09NANA30.8237.514.61NA

Leather and related products

15
26.34NANA28.8243.804.87NA

Wood and paper products and printing

16-18
30.78NA41.4038.1246.779.49NA

          Wood and wood products, except furniture

16
24.67NA37.5632.5538.386.27NA

          Paper and paper products

17
36.99NA53.3345.8253.3013.82NA

          Printing and reproduction of recorded media

18
30.15NA40.3641.2348.088.49NA

Coke and refined petroleum products

19
55.85NANANANA38.31NA

Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

20-21
42.52NANA51.4268.6420.26NA

          Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

20
39.48NANA53.1267.3219.23NA

          Pharmaceutical products

21
48.20NANA49.1471.7923.40NA

Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

22-23
30.24NA52.5339.5849.109.24NA

          Rubber and plastics products

22
29.60NA57.0237.2349.0310.21NA

          Other non-metallic mineral products

23
31.37NA48.4541.6749.098.31NA

Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

24-25
32.25NA50.0541.5249.6212.42NA

          Basic metals

24
37.29NA62.1547.9158.4718.58NA

          Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

25
30.73NA43.5538.2043.699.56NA

Computer, electronic and optical products

26
50.62NANA49.1655.3316.01NA

Electrical equipment

27
36.41NANA45.8549.8714.00NA

Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

28
38.15NANA45.0948.4514.58NA

Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

29-30
45.34NANA46.8157.6318.78NA

          Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

29
37.38NA54.3446.0558.5218.80NA

          Other transport equipment

30
54.35NA47.2850.4553.42NANA

Furniture

31
26.57NANA30.4037.856.05NA

Note:
Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

Table 1b. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, U.S. dollars, 2012
IndustryISIC Rev.4 CodeCzech RepublicDenmarkEstoniaFinlandFranceGermanyGreece

Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

C
11.9548.4710.4142.6039.8145.7919.41

Food products, beverages and tobacco

10-12
NA44.67NANANA31.52NA

          Food and beverages

10-11
NA44.779.83NANANANA

                    Food products

10
NA44.519.20NA30.5529.56NA

                    Beverages

11
NA47.6915.42NANA43.20NA

          Tobacco products

12
NANANANANA62.28NA

Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

13-15
NA43.297.12NA31.5435.09NA

          Textiles and wearing apparel

13-14
NA42.857.09NA31.5434.37NA

                    Textiles

13
NA42.958.16NA30.7333.82NA

                    Wearing apparel

14
NA42.556.44NA32.4735.49NA

Leather and related products

15
NANA7.38NA31.6038.83NA

Wood and paper products and printing

16-18
NA44.5111.17NA34.5137.94NA

          Wood and wood products, except furniture

16
NA40.0010.92NA29.3431.27NA

          Paper and paper products

17
NA47.0911.66NA37.4641.12NA

          Printing and reproduction of recorded media

18
NA48.7912.10NA35.9339.44NA

Coke and refined petroleum products

19
NANANANANA69.38NA

Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

20-21
NA53.73NANA54.2858.18NA

          Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

20
NA53.6313.71NA52.0357.59NA

          Pharmaceutical products

21
NA67.09NANA58.3360.06NA

Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

22-23
NA47.4112.32NA37.4937.71NA

          Rubber and plastics products

22
NA48.5010.84NA36.9437.91NA

          Other non-metallic mineral products

23
NA46.1613.84NA38.0437.31NA

Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

24-25
NA43.93NANA37.7141.63NA

          Basic metals

24
NA43.41NANA44.4948.14NA

          Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

25
NA44.0213.05NA35.4739.12NA

Computer, electronic and optical products

26
NA53.5410.40NA52.1550.11NA

Electrical equipment

27
NA48.7311.85NA41.8349.52NA

Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

28
NA50.0513.50NA42.1949.11NA

Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

29-30
NA45.61NANA45.7758.82NA

          Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

29
NA43.8711.29NA42.3659.04NA

          Other transport equipment

30
NA47.42NANA52.5957.53NA

Furniture

31
NA42.149.11NA29.6734.45NA

Note:
Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

Table 1c. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, U.S. dollars, 2012
IndustryISIC Rev.4 CodeHungaryIrelandIsraelItalyJapanKorea, Republic ofMexico

Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

C
8.9538.1720.1434.1835.3420.726.36

Food products, beverages and tobacco

10-12
7.16NA13.6533.9925.3715.585.52

          Food and beverages

10-11
7.07NANA33.92NA15.395.49

                    Food products

10
6.58NA13.0733.22NA14.955.50

                    Beverages

11
10.81NANA39.12NA21.515.55

          Tobacco products

12
12.13NANA54.95NA31.7911.71

Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

13-15
5.21NA12.9827.45NA14.543.30

          Textiles and wearing apparel

13-14
5.18NA12.8227.5123.6714.603.40

                    Textiles

13
6.12NA14.0730.13NA13.413.87

                    Wearing apparel

14
4.69NA11.7725.43NA15.952.92

Leather and related products

15
5.27NA12.2827.25NA14.063.03

Wood and paper products and printing

16-18
7.68NA14.0331.4229.6416.414.89

          Wood and wood products, except furniture

16
5.67NA13.2827.6126.9715.862.70

          Paper and paper products

17
9.98NA15.8933.0831.2418.085.34

          Printing and reproduction of recorded media

18
7.64NA13.2633.7729.4014.364.73

Coke and refined petroleum products

19
22.98NANA51.21NA63.5614.56

Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

20-21
14.68NANA46.44NA24.1011.01

          Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

20
12.91NANA42.20NA24.259.91

          Pharmaceutical products

21
15.97NA26.7053.05NA23.4713.93

Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

22-23
8.63NA16.2933.4432.3516.315.52

          Rubber and plastics products

22
8.13NA15.7232.7331.1715.084.81

          Other non-metallic mineral products

23
9.57NA17.6234.1234.5719.226.29

Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

24-25
8.06NA15.4632.6934.5819.877.09

          Basic metals

24
11.35NA15.0937.3740.9826.948.39

          Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

25
7.07NA15.5331.1830.4216.645.71

Computer, electronic and optical products

26
9.89NA30.4739.95NA24.305.18

Electrical equipment

27
7.99NA18.7735.75NA18.496.02

Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

28
9.68NA23.3636.70NA18.246.59

Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

29-30
10.91NA25.9537.2641.6525.747.80

          Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

29
10.87NA15.8536.88NA25.877.79

          Other transport equipment

30
11.58NA29.6737.90NA25.507.86

Furniture

31
5.89NA12.1327.5727.7518.733.79

Note:
Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

Table 1d. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, U.S. dollars, 2012
IndustryISIC Rev.4 CodeNetherlandsNew ZealandNorwayPhilippinesPolandPortugalSingapore

Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

C
39.6224.7763.362.108.2512.1024.16

Food products, beverages and tobacco

10-12
NANA56.32NANA12.15NA

          Food and beverages

10-11
NANANANA7.38NANA

                    Food products

10
NA23.49NANA7.09NANA

                    Beverages

11
NANANANA11.64NANA

          Tobacco products

12
NANANANANANANA

Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

13-15
NA21.6551.55NA5.288.81NA

          Textiles and wearing apparel

13-14
NANANANA5.27NANA

                    Textiles

13
NANANANA6.07NANA

                    Wearing apparel

14
NANANANA4.88NANA

Leather and related products

15
NANANANA5.31NANA

Wood and paper products and printing

16-18
NANANANA7.69NANA

          Wood and wood products, except furniture

16
NA21.7349.41NA6.29NANA

          Paper and paper products

17
NANA56.60NA9.15NANA

          Printing and reproduction of recorded media

18
NA23.6560.75NA9.45NANA

Coke and refined petroleum products

19
NANANANA17.19NANA

Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

20-21
NANANANA11.31NANA

          Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

20
NANA71.94NA10.81NANA

          Pharmaceutical products

21
NANA72.67NA12.99NANA

Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

22-23
NANA58.81NA8.36NANA

          Rubber and plastics products

22
NA25.55NANA8.04NANA

          Other non-metallic mineral products

23
NA24.19NANA8.8212.55NA

Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

24-25
NANANANA8.6512.48NA

          Basic metals

24
NA29.8169.90NA10.16NANA

          Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

25
NA24.2759.99NA8.27NANA

Computer, electronic and optical products

26
NANANANA7.94NANA

Electrical equipment

27
NANANANA9.05NANA

Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

28
NANA71.54NA9.24NANA

Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

29-30
NA27.9771.10NA9.53NANA

          Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

29
NANANANA9.49NANA

          Other transport equipment

30
NANANANA9.68NANA

Furniture

31
NANANANA6.39NANA

Note:
Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

Table 1e. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, U.S. dollars, 2012
IndustryISIC Rev.4 CodeSlovakiaSpainSwedenSwitzerlandTaiwanUnited Kingdom

Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

C
11.3026.8349.8057.799.4631.23

Food products, beverages and tobacco

10-12
NA23.0642.58NANA26.96

          Food and beverages

10-11
NA22.69NANANA26.67

                    Food products

10
NA21.63NANANA25.40

                    Beverages

11
NA30.07NANANA37.57

          Tobacco products

12
NA53.50NANANA49.70

Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

13-15
NA19.1442.05NANA24.18

          Textiles and wearing apparel

13-14
NA20.05NANANA24.01

                    Textiles

13
NA20.65NANA7.2924.83

                    Wearing apparel

14
NA19.54NANANA22.05

Leather and related products

15
NA15.94NANANA25.34

Wood and paper products and printing

16-18
NA24.1744.29NANA27.67

          Wood and wood products, except furniture

16
NA20.1139.18NANA22.74

          Paper and paper products

17
NA29.4549.55NA7.4331.47

          Printing and reproduction of recorded media

18
NA23.9341.62NA7.3928.19

Coke and refined petroleum products

19
NA51.5966.31NA20.3848.38

Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

20-21
NA35.7367.91NANA38.87

          Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

20
NA33.65NANANA36.38

          Pharmaceutical products

21
NA39.72NANANA42.52

Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

22-23
NA27.2843.82NA7.9727.78

          Rubber and plastics products

22
NA27.5443.06NA7.9926.53

          Other non-metallic mineral products

23
NA27.1045.01NA7.9530.21

Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

24-25
NA25.8245.29NA8.3128.26

          Basic metals

24
NA31.4552.35NA10.8833.49

          Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

25
NA24.1441.70NA7.4626.56

Computer, electronic and optical products

26
NA31.63NANA11.3137.83

Electrical equipment

27
NA30.68NANANA28.77

Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

28
NA28.92NANANA33.23

Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

29-30
NA33.6351.27NA9.9838.28

          Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

29
NA32.19NANA10.2035.00

          Other transport equipment

30
NA38.92NANA9.7241.37

Furniture

31
NANANANA6.8424.75

Note:
Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

Table 2a. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, as a percent of the manufacturing sector average (ISIC C = 100), 2012
IndustryISIC Rev.4 CodeUnited StatesArgentinaAustraliaAustriaBelgiumBrazilCanada

Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

C
100100100100100100100

Food products, beverages and tobacco

10-12
76NA86788979NA

          Food and beverages

10-11
NANANA778978NA

                    Food products

10
74NA82728675NA

                    Beverages

11
NANANA103106102NA

          Tobacco products

12
NANANANA89145NA

Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

13-15
68NANA777947NA

          Textiles and wearing apparel

13-14
68NANA807949NA

                    Textiles

13
68NANA838068NA

                    Wearing apparel

14
68NANA747241NA

Leather and related products

15
74NANA698444NA

Wood and paper products and printing

16-18
86NA87929085NA

          Wood and wood products, except furniture

16
69NA79787456NA

          Paper and paper products

17
104NA112110102123NA

          Printing and reproduction of recorded media

18
85NA85999276NA

Coke and refined petroleum products

19
157NANANANA342NA

Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

20-21
119NANA124132181NA

          Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

20
111NANA128129172NA

          Pharmaceutical products

21
135NANA118138209NA

Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

22-23
85NA110959482NA

          Rubber and plastics products

22
83NA120909491NA

          Other non-metallic mineral products

23
88NA1021009474NA

Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

24-25
90NA10510095111NA

          Basic metals

24
105NA130115112166NA

          Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

25
86NA91928485NA

Computer, electronic and optical products

26
142NANA118106143NA

Electrical equipment

27
102NANA11096125NA

Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

28
107NANA10993130NA

Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

29-30
127NANA113110168NA

          Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

29
105NA114111112168NA

          Other transport equipment

30
152NA99121102NANA

Furniture

31
75NANA737354NA

Note:
Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

Table 2b. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, as a percent of the manufacturing sector average (ISIC C = 100), 2012
IndustryISIC Rev.4 CodeCzech RepublicDenmarkEstoniaFinlandFranceGermanyGreece

Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

C
100100100100100100100

Food products, beverages and tobacco

10-12
NA92NANANA69NA

          Food and beverages

10-11
NA9294NANANANA

                    Food products

10
NA9288NA7765NA

                    Beverages

11
NA98148NANA94NA

          Tobacco products

12
NANANANANA136NA

Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

13-15
NA8968NA7977NA

          Textiles and wearing apparel

13-14
NA8868NA7975NA

                    Textiles

13
NA8978NA7774NA

                    Wearing apparel

14
NA8862NA8277NA

Leather and related products

15
NANA71NA7985NA

Wood and paper products and printing

16-18
NA92107NA8783NA

          Wood and wood products, except furniture

16
NA83105NA7468NA

          Paper and paper products

17
NA97112NA9490NA

          Printing and reproduction of recorded media

18
NA101116NA9086NA

Coke and refined petroleum products

19
NANANANANA152NA

Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

20-21
NA111NANA136127NA

          Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

20
NA111132NA131126NA

          Pharmaceutical products

21
NA138NANA147131NA

Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

22-23
NA98118NA9482NA

          Rubber and plastics products

22
NA100104NA9383NA

          Other non-metallic mineral products

23
NA95133NA9681NA

Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

24-25
NA91NANA9591NA

          Basic metals

24
NA90NANA112105NA

          Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

25
NA91125NA8985NA

Computer, electronic and optical products

26
NA110100NA131109NA

Electrical equipment

27
NA101114NA105108NA

Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

28
NA103130NA106107NA

Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

29-30
NA94NANA115128NA

          Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

29
NA91108NA106129NA

          Other transport equipment

30
NA98NANA132126NA

Furniture

31
NA8788NA7575NA

Note:
Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

Table 2c. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, as a percent of the manufacturing sector average (ISIC C = 100), 2012
IndustryISIC Rev.4 CodeHungaryIrelandIsraelItalyJapanKorea, Republic ofMexico

Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

C
100100100100100100100

Food products, beverages and tobacco

10-12
80NA6899727587

          Food and beverages

10-11
79NANA99NA7486

                    Food products

10
74NA6597NA7286

                    Beverages

11
121NANA114NA10487

          Tobacco products

12
136NANA161NA153184

Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

13-15
58NA6480NA7052

          Textiles and wearing apparel

13-14
58NA6480677053

                    Textiles

13
68NA7088NA6561

                    Wearing apparel

14
52NA5874NA7746

Leather and related products

15
59NA6180NA6848

Wood and paper products and printing

16-18
86NA7092847977

          Wood and wood products, except furniture

16
63NA6681767742

          Paper and paper products

17
111NA7997888784

          Printing and reproduction of recorded media

18
85NA6699836974

Coke and refined petroleum products

19
257NANA150NA307229

Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

20-21
164NANA136NA116173

          Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

20
144NANA123NA117156

          Pharmaceutical products

21
178NA133155NA113219

Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

22-23
96NA8198927987

          Rubber and plastics products

22
91NA7896887376

          Other non-metallic mineral products

23
107NA87100989399

Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

24-25
90NA77969896111

          Basic metals

24
127NA75109116130132

          Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

25
79NA7791868090

Computer, electronic and optical products

26
110NA151117NA11781

Electrical equipment

27
89NA93105NA8995

Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

28
108NA116107NA88103

Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

29-30
122NA129109118124123

          Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

29
121NA79108NA125122

          Other transport equipment

30
129NA147111NA123123

Furniture

31
66NA6081799060

Note:
Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

Table 2d. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, as a percent of the manufacturing sector average (ISIC C = 100), 2012
IndustryISIC Rev.4 CodeNetherlandsNew ZealandNorwayPhilippinesPolandPortugalSingapore

Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

C
100100100100100100100

Food products, beverages and tobacco

10-12
NANA89NANA100NA

          Food and beverages

10-11
NANANANA89NANA

                    Food products

10
NA95NANA86NANA

                    Beverages

11
NANANANA141NANA

          Tobacco products

12
NANANANANANANA

Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

13-15
NA8781NA6473NA

          Textiles and wearing apparel

13-14
NANANANA64NANA

                    Textiles

13
NANANANA74NANA

                    Wearing apparel

14
NANANANA59NANA

Leather and related products

15
NANANANA64NANA

Wood and paper products and printing

16-18
NANANANA93NANA

          Wood and wood products, except furniture

16
NA8878NA76NANA

          Paper and paper products

17
NANA89NA111NANA

          Printing and reproduction of recorded media

18
NA9596NA115NANA

Coke and refined petroleum products

19
NANANANA208NANA

Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

20-21
NANANANA137NANA

          Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

20
NANA114NA131NANA

          Pharmaceutical products

21
NANA115NA157NANA

Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

22-23
NANA93NA101NANA

          Rubber and plastics products

22
NA103NANA97NANA

          Other non-metallic mineral products

23
NA98NANA107104NA

Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

24-25
NANANANA105103NA

          Basic metals

24
NA120110NA123NANA

          Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

25
NA9895NA100NANA

Computer, electronic and optical products

26
NANANANA96NANA

Electrical equipment

27
NANANANA110NANA

Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

28
NANA113NA112NANA

Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

29-30
NA113112NA116NANA

          Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

29
NANANANA115NANA

          Other transport equipment

30
NANANANA117NANA

Furniture

31
NANANANA77NANA

Note:
Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

Table 2e. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, as a percent of the manufacturing sector average (ISIC C = 100), 2012
IndustryISIC Rev.4 CodeSlovakiaSpainSwedenSwitzerlandTaiwanUnited Kingdom

Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

C
100100100100100100

Food products, beverages and tobacco

10-12
NA8685NANA86

          Food and beverages

10-11
NA85NANANA85

                    Food products

10
NA81NANANA81

                    Beverages

11
NA112NANANA120

          Tobacco products

12
NA199NANANA159

Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

13-15
NA7184NANA77

          Textiles and wearing apparel

13-14
NA75NANANA77

                    Textiles

13
NA77NANA7780

                    Wearing apparel

14
NA73NANANA71

Leather and related products

15
NA59NANANA81

Wood and paper products and printing

16-18
NA9089NANA89

          Wood and wood products, except furniture

16
NA7579NANA73

          Paper and paper products

17
NA11099NA79101

          Printing and reproduction of recorded media

18
NA8984NA7890

Coke and refined petroleum products

19
NA192133NA216155

Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

20-21
NA133136NANA124

          Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

20
NA125NANANA116

          Pharmaceutical products

21
NA148NANANA136

Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

22-23
NA10288NA8489

          Rubber and plastics products

22
NA10386NA8485

          Other non-metallic mineral products

23
NA10190NA8497

Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

24-25
NA9691NA8890

          Basic metals

24
NA117105NA115107

          Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

25
NA9084NA7985

Computer, electronic and optical products

26
NA118NANA120121

Electrical equipment

27
NA114NANANA92

Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

28
NA108NANANA106

Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

29-30
NA125103NA106123

          Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

29
NA120NANA108112

          Other transport equipment

30
NA145NANA103132

Furniture

31
NANANANA7279

Note:
Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

Table 3a. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, as a percent of costs in the United States (U.S. = 100), 2012
IndustryISIC Rev.4 CodeUnited StatesArgentinaAustraliaAustriaBelgiumBrazilCanada

Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

C
1005313411614631103

Food products, beverages and tobacco

10-12
100NA15211917032NA

          Food and beverages

10-11
NANANANANANANA

                    Food products

10
100NA14911517132NA

                    Beverages

11
NANANANANANANA

          Tobacco products

12
NANANANANANANA

Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

13-15
100NANA13116922NA

          Textiles and wearing apparel

13-14
100NANA13716923NA

                    Textiles

13
100NANA14317331NA

                    Wearing apparel

14
100NANA12815619NA

Leather and related products

15
100NANA10916619NA

Wood and paper products and printing

16-18
100NA13512415231NA

          Wood and wood products, except furniture

16
100NA15213215625NA

          Paper and paper products

17
100NA14412414437NA

          Printing and reproduction of recorded media

18
100NA13413715928NA

Coke and refined petroleum products

19
100NANANANA69NA

Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

20-21
100NANA12116148NA

          Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

20
100NANA13517149NA

          Pharmaceutical products

21
100NANA10214949NA

Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

22-23
100NA17413116231NA

          Rubber and plastics products

22
100NA19312616635NA

          Other non-metallic mineral products

23
100NA15413315726NA

Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

24-25
100NA15512915439NA

          Basic metals

24
100NA16712815750NA

          Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

25
100NA14212414231NA

Computer, electronic and optical products

26
100NANA9710932NA

Electrical equipment

27
100NANA12613738NA

Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

28
100NANA11812738NA

Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

29-30
100NANA10312741NA

          Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

29
100NA14512315750NA

          Other transport equipment

30
100NA879398NANA

Furniture

31
100NANA11414223NA

Note:
Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

Table 3b. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, as a percent of costs in the United States (U.S. = 100), 2012
IndustryISIC Rev.4 CodeCzech RepublicDenmarkEstoniaFinlandFranceGermanyGreece

Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

C
341362911911212854

Food products, beverages and tobacco

10-12
NA164NANANA116NA

          Food and beverages

10-11
NANANANANANANA

                    Food products

10
NA17035NA116113NA

                    Beverages

11
NANANANANANANA

          Tobacco products

12
NANANANANANANA

Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

13-15
NA17829NA130144NA

          Textiles and wearing apparel

13-14
NA17729NA130142NA

                    Textiles

13
NA17834NA127140NA

                    Wearing apparel

14
NA17727NA135147NA

Leather and related products

15
NANA28NA120147NA

Wood and paper products and printing

16-18
NA14536NA112123NA

          Wood and wood products, except furniture

16
NA16244NA119127NA

          Paper and paper products

17
NA12732NA101111NA

          Printing and reproduction of recorded media

18
NA16240NA119131NA

Coke and refined petroleum products

19
NANANANANA124NA

Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

20-21
NA126NANA128137NA

          Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

20
NA13635NA132146NA

          Pharmaceutical products

21
NA139NANA121125NA

Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

22-23
NA15741NA124125NA

          Rubber and plastics products

22
NA16437NA125128NA

          Other non-metallic mineral products

23
NA14744NA121119NA

Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

24-25
NA136NANA117129NA

          Basic metals

24
NA116NANA119129NA

          Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

25
NA14342NA115127NA

Computer, electronic and optical products

26
NA10621NA10399NA

Electrical equipment

27
NA13433NA115136NA

Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

28
NA13135NA111129NA

Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

29-30
NA101NANA101130NA

          Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

29
NA11730NA113158NA

          Other transport equipment

30
NA87NANA97106NA

Furniture

31
NA15934NA112130NA

Note:
Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

Table 3c. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, as a percent of costs in the United States (U.S. = 100), 2012
IndustryISIC Rev.4 CodeHungaryIrelandIsraelItalyJapanKorea, Republic ofMexico

Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

C
251075696995818

Food products, beverages and tobacco

10-12
26NA50125935720

          Food and beverages

10-11
NANANANANANANA

                    Food products

10
25NA50127NA5721

                    Beverages

11
NANANANANANANA

          Tobacco products

12
NANANANANANANA

Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

13-15
21NA53113NA6014

          Textiles and wearing apparel

13-14
21NA53114986014

                    Textiles

13
25NA58125NA5516

                    Wearing apparel

14
19NA49106NA6612

Leather and related products

15
20NA47103NA5311

Wood and paper products and printing

16-18
25NA46102965316

          Wood and wood products, except furniture

16
23NA541121096411

          Paper and paper products

17
27NA4389844914

          Printing and reproduction of recorded media

18
25NA44112984816

Coke and refined petroleum products

19
41NANA92NA11426

Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

20-21
35NANA109NA5726

          Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

20
33NANA107NA6125

          Pharmaceutical products

21
33NA55110NA4929

Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

22-23
29NA541111075418

          Rubber and plastics products

22
27NA531111055116

          Other non-metallic mineral products

23
30NA561091106120

Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

24-25
25NA481011076222

          Basic metals

24
30NA401001107222

          Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

25
23NA51101995419

Computer, electronic and optical products

26
20NA6079NA4810

Electrical equipment

27
22NA5298NA5117

Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

28
25NA6196NA4817

Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

29-30
24NA5782925717

          Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

29
29NA4299NA6921

          Other transport equipment

30
21NA5570NA4714

Furniture

31
22NA461041047014

Note:
Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

Table 3d. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, as a percent of costs in the United States (U.S. = 100), 2012
IndustryISIC Rev.4 CodeNetherlandsNew ZealandNorwayPhilippinesPolandPortugalSingapore

Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

C
111691786233468

Food products, beverages and tobacco

10-12
NANA207NANA45NA

          Food and beverages

10-11
NANANANANANANA

                    Food products

10
NA89NANA27NANA

                    Beverages

11
NANANANANANANA

          Tobacco products

12
NANANANANANANA

Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

13-15
NA89212NA2236NA

          Textiles and wearing apparel

13-14
NANANANA22NANA

                    Textiles

13
NANANANA25NANA

                    Wearing apparel

14
NANANANA20NANA

Leather and related products

15
NANANANA20NANA

Wood and paper products and printing

16-18
NANANANA25NANA

          Wood and wood products, except furniture

16
NA88200NA25NANA

          Paper and paper products

17
NANA153NA25NANA

          Printing and reproduction of recorded media

18
NA78201NA31NANA

Coke and refined petroleum products

19
NANANANA31NANA

Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

20-21
NANANANA27NANA

          Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

20
NANA182NA27NANA

          Pharmaceutical products

21
NANA151NA27NANA

Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

22-23
NANA195NA28NANA

          Rubber and plastics products

22
NA86NANA27NANA

          Other non-metallic mineral products

23
NA77NANA2840NA

Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

24-25
NANANANA2739NA

          Basic metals

24
NA80187NA27NANA

          Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

25
NA79195NA27NANA

Computer, electronic and optical products

26
NANANANA16NANA

Electrical equipment

27
NANANANA25NANA

Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

28
NANA188NA24NANA

Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

29-30
NA62157NA21NANA

          Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

29
NANANANA25NANA

          Other transport equipment

30
NANANANA18NANA

Furniture

31
NANANANA24NANA

Note:
Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

Table 3e. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, as a percent of costs in the United States (U.S. = 100), 2012
IndustryISIC Rev.4 CodeSlovakiaSpainSwedenSwitzerlandTaiwanUnited Kingdom

Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

C
32751401622788

Food products, beverages and tobacco

10-12
NA85157NANA99

          Food and beverages

10-11
NANANANANANA

                    Food products

10
NA82NANANA97

                    Beverages

11
NANANANANANA

          Tobacco products

12
NANANANANANA

Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

13-15
NA79173NANA99

          Textiles and wearing apparel

13-14
NA83NANANA99

                    Textiles

13
NA85NANA30103

                    Wearing apparel

14
NA81NANANA92

Leather and related products

15
NA61NANANA96

Wood and paper products and printing

16-18
NA79144NANA90

          Wood and wood products, except furniture

16
NA82159NANA92

          Paper and paper products

17
NA80134NA2085

          Printing and reproduction of recorded media

18
NA79138NA2593

Coke and refined petroleum products

19
NA92119NA3687

Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

20-21
NA84160NANA91

          Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

20
NA85NANANA92

          Pharmaceutical products

21
NA82NANANA88

Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

22-23
NA90145NA2692

          Rubber and plastics products

22
NA93145NA2790

          Other non-metallic mineral products

23
NA86144NA2596

Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

24-25
NA80140NA2688

          Basic metals

24
NA84140NA2990

          Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

25
NA79136NA2486

Computer, electronic and optical products

26
NA62NANA2275

Electrical equipment

27
NA84NANANA79

Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

28
NA76NANANA87

Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

29-30
NA74113NA2284

          Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

29
NA86NANA2794

          Other transport equipment

30
NA72NANA1876

Furniture

31
NANANANA2693

Note:
Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

 

Last Modified Date: August 9, 2013