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International Labor Comparisons

International Comparisons of Hourly Compensation Costs in Manufacturing Industries, 2012

REPORT (PDF)
Technical Notes (PDF)
Country Notes and Data Sources (PDF)

   
Elimination of ILC
  • BLS has eliminated the International Labor Comparisons (ILC) program. This is the last BLS release of international comparisons of hourly compensation costs.
  • BLS is aware of other organizations that have obtained the methodology and intend to produce ILC indicators similar to those done previously by BLS. Please see the announcement at www.bls.gov/ilc.

     

     

Related Links:

Charts and Analysis

Hourly compensation costs, or the hourly cost to the manufacturer of employing labor, is one of the most important indicators of international competitiveness in manufacturing. Average measures of compensation costs for the manufacturing sector as a whole, however, often mask important cost differences and competitiveness among sub-manufacturing industries. Under an international comparative lens, this report highlights the differences in compensation costs across both countries and industries.

Chart 1 Highlights

Within each country, industry compensation costs can vary greatly from average compensation in total manufacturing (see Chart 1). The overall spread of compensation costs across industries can be compared across countries by looking at the relative—and not the absolute—distance of costs between the highest and lowest compensated industries. In 2012, for example, the highest paid industry was more than double the lowest paid industry in 13 of 23 countries compared. The greatest variation in compensation across industries occurred primarily in Brazil and Mexico and countries in Eastern Europe and Asia. Historically, the highest and lowest compensated industries have tended to be similar across countries. In 2012, coke and petroleum products and pharmaceuticals were among the highly paid industries, while the lower paid industries included apparel and wood products manufacturing.

Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing, 2012

Chart 2 Highlights

In Chart 2, bold diamonds represent the average compensation cost in manufacturing for each country, and each notch along a country line represents average costs in a particular sub-manufacturing industry. The spread, or dispersion, of compensation within countries is shown against the horizontal axis (each country's manufacturing average is set equal to 100), while a country's position relative to the United States is shown against the vertical axis (average U.S. manufacturing compensation is set equal to 100).

The overall spread of manufacturing compensation is determined not only by the industries at the upper and lower ends of the compensation spectrum, but also by how closely together or far apart industries fall between the two extremes (see Chart 2). The dispersion of manufacturing compensation is high and driven largely by variations in the top (red) end of the compensation spectrum in Latin America, Asia, and eastern Europe. On the other hand, the dispersion of compensation costs is lower in northern Europe primarily because industry compensation is more tightly clustered around the manufacturing average in these countries.

. Industry compensation costs as a percent of average costs in manufacturing, by region, 2012

Chart 3 Highlights

Because compensation costs can differ so much from one industry within manufacturing to another, Chart 3 focuses the analysis at the industry level and provides a snapshot of U.S. competitiveness for the industries shown. In the charts, compensation costs for the industry in each country are compared to the country's average manufacturing compensation along the horizontal axis and to U.S. compensation for that industry along the vertical axis.

Industries for which most countries lie in the left (red) portion of the chart (apparel and fabricated metals) are industries that are generally lower compensated than the manufacturing average in each country, while industries for which most countries lie in the right (green) portion of the chart (pharmaceuticals, computers, motor vehicles, and other transport) are generally higher compensated industries.

Similar to the pattern seen at the sector level, industry compensation costs in western and northern Europe are generally higher than in the United States, while costs in Asia, Latin America, and eastern Europe are generally lower. Based on 2012 compensation levels for the industries shown, the United States was relatively more competitive in the manufacture of fabricated metal and paper products and relatively less competitive in computer, electronic, and optical products and other transport equipment (also see Table 3).

Industry compensation costs as a percent of average costs in manufacturing, and as a percent of average U.S. industry costs, by industry, 2012

(Continued) Industry compensation costs as a percent of average costs in manufacturing, and as a percent of average U.S. industry costs, by industry, 2012

Report Tables

Table 1a. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, U.S. dollars, 2012
Industry ISIC Rev.4 Code United States Argentina Australia Austria Belgium Brazil Canada

Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

C
35.67 18.87 47.68 41.53 52.19 11.20 36.59

Food products, beverages and tobacco

10-12
27.20 NA 41.21 32.46 46.24 8.81 NA

          Food and beverages

10-11
NA NA NA 31.88 46.22 8.70 NA

                    Food products

10
26.25 NA 39.15 30.10 44.84 8.44 NA

                    Beverages

11
NA NA NA 42.84 55.14 11.47 NA

          Tobacco products

12
NA NA NA NA 46.41 16.23 NA

Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

13-15
24.34 NA NA 31.98 41.20 5.32 NA

          Textiles and wearing apparel

13-14
24.19 NA NA 33.03 40.99 5.52 NA

                    Textiles

13
24.17 NA NA 34.64 41.89 7.60 NA

                    Wearing apparel

14
24.09 NA NA 30.82 37.51 4.61 NA

Leather and related products

15
26.34 NA NA 28.82 43.80 4.87 NA

Wood and paper products and printing

16-18
30.78 NA 41.40 38.12 46.77 9.49 NA

          Wood and wood products, except furniture

16
24.67 NA 37.56 32.55 38.38 6.27 NA

          Paper and paper products

17
36.99 NA 53.33 45.82 53.30 13.82 NA

          Printing and reproduction of recorded media

18
30.15 NA 40.36 41.23 48.08 8.49 NA

Coke and refined petroleum products

19
55.85 NA NA NA NA 38.31 NA

Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

20-21
42.52 NA NA 51.42 68.64 20.26 NA

          Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

20
39.48 NA NA 53.12 67.32 19.23 NA

          Pharmaceutical products

21
48.20 NA NA 49.14 71.79 23.40 NA

Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

22-23
30.24 NA 52.53 39.58 49.10 9.24 NA

          Rubber and plastics products

22
29.60 NA 57.02 37.23 49.03 10.21 NA

          Other non-metallic mineral products

23
31.37 NA 48.45 41.67 49.09 8.31 NA

Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

24-25
32.25 NA 50.05 41.52 49.62 12.42 NA

          Basic metals

24
37.29 NA 62.15 47.91 58.47 18.58 NA

          Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

25
30.73 NA 43.55 38.20 43.69 9.56 NA

Computer, electronic and optical products

26
50.62 NA NA 49.16 55.33 16.01 NA

Electrical equipment

27
36.41 NA NA 45.85 49.87 14.00 NA

Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

28
38.15 NA NA 45.09 48.45 14.58 NA

Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

29-30
45.34 NA NA 46.81 57.63 18.78 NA

          Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

29
37.38 NA 54.34 46.05 58.52 18.80 NA

          Other transport equipment

30
54.35 NA 47.28 50.45 53.42 NA NA

Furniture

31
26.57 NA NA 30.40 37.85 6.05 NA

Note:
Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

Table 1b. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, U.S. dollars, 2012
Industry ISIC Rev.4 Code Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece

Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

C
11.95 48.47 10.41 42.60 39.81 45.79 19.41

Food products, beverages and tobacco

10-12
NA 44.67 NA NA NA 31.52 NA

          Food and beverages

10-11
NA 44.77 9.83 NA NA NA NA

                    Food products

10
NA 44.51 9.20 NA 30.55 29.56 NA

                    Beverages

11
NA 47.69 15.42 NA NA 43.20 NA

          Tobacco products

12
NA NA NA NA NA 62.28 NA

Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

13-15
NA 43.29 7.12 NA 31.54 35.09 NA

          Textiles and wearing apparel

13-14
NA 42.85 7.09 NA 31.54 34.37 NA

                    Textiles

13
NA 42.95 8.16 NA 30.73 33.82 NA

                    Wearing apparel

14
NA 42.55 6.44 NA 32.47 35.49 NA

Leather and related products

15
NA NA 7.38 NA 31.60 38.83 NA

Wood and paper products and printing

16-18
NA 44.51 11.17 NA 34.51 37.94 NA

          Wood and wood products, except furniture

16
NA 40.00 10.92 NA 29.34 31.27 NA

          Paper and paper products

17
NA 47.09 11.66 NA 37.46 41.12 NA

          Printing and reproduction of recorded media

18
NA 48.79 12.10 NA 35.93 39.44 NA

Coke and refined petroleum products

19
NA NA NA NA NA 69.38 NA

Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

20-21
NA 53.73 NA NA 54.28 58.18 NA

          Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

20
NA 53.63 13.71 NA 52.03 57.59 NA

          Pharmaceutical products

21
NA 67.09 NA NA 58.33 60.06 NA

Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

22-23
NA 47.41 12.32 NA 37.49 37.71 NA

          Rubber and plastics products

22
NA 48.50 10.84 NA 36.94 37.91 NA

          Other non-metallic mineral products

23
NA 46.16 13.84 NA 38.04 37.31 NA

Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

24-25
NA 43.93 NA NA 37.71 41.63 NA

          Basic metals

24
NA 43.41 NA NA 44.49 48.14 NA

          Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

25
NA 44.02 13.05 NA 35.47 39.12 NA

Computer, electronic and optical products

26
NA 53.54 10.40 NA 52.15 50.11 NA

Electrical equipment

27
NA 48.73 11.85 NA 41.83 49.52 NA

Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

28
NA 50.05 13.50 NA 42.19 49.11 NA

Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

29-30
NA 45.61 NA NA 45.77 58.82 NA

          Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

29
NA 43.87 11.29 NA 42.36 59.04 NA

          Other transport equipment

30
NA 47.42 NA NA 52.59 57.53 NA

Furniture

31
NA 42.14 9.11 NA 29.67 34.45 NA

Note:
Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

Table 1c. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, U.S. dollars, 2012
Industry ISIC Rev.4 Code Hungary Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea, Republic of Mexico

Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

C
8.95 38.17 20.14 34.18 35.34 20.72 6.36

Food products, beverages and tobacco

10-12
7.16 NA 13.65 33.99 25.37 15.58 5.52

          Food and beverages

10-11
7.07 NA NA 33.92 NA 15.39 5.49

                    Food products

10
6.58 NA 13.07 33.22 NA 14.95 5.50

                    Beverages

11
10.81 NA NA 39.12 NA 21.51 5.55

          Tobacco products

12
12.13 NA NA 54.95 NA 31.79 11.71

Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

13-15
5.21 NA 12.98 27.45 NA 14.54 3.30

          Textiles and wearing apparel

13-14
5.18 NA 12.82 27.51 23.67 14.60 3.40

                    Textiles

13
6.12 NA 14.07 30.13 NA 13.41 3.87

                    Wearing apparel

14
4.69 NA 11.77 25.43 NA 15.95 2.92

Leather and related products

15
5.27 NA 12.28 27.25 NA 14.06 3.03

Wood and paper products and printing

16-18
7.68 NA 14.03 31.42 29.64 16.41 4.89

          Wood and wood products, except furniture

16
5.67 NA 13.28 27.61 26.97 15.86 2.70

          Paper and paper products

17
9.98 NA 15.89 33.08 31.24 18.08 5.34

          Printing and reproduction of recorded media

18
7.64 NA 13.26 33.77 29.40 14.36 4.73

Coke and refined petroleum products

19
22.98 NA NA 51.21 NA 63.56 14.56

Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

20-21
14.68 NA NA 46.44 NA 24.10 11.01

          Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

20
12.91 NA NA 42.20 NA 24.25 9.91

          Pharmaceutical products

21
15.97 NA 26.70 53.05 NA 23.47 13.93

Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

22-23
8.63 NA 16.29 33.44 32.35 16.31 5.52

          Rubber and plastics products

22
8.13 NA 15.72 32.73 31.17 15.08 4.81

          Other non-metallic mineral products

23
9.57 NA 17.62 34.12 34.57 19.22 6.29

Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

24-25
8.06 NA 15.46 32.69 34.58 19.87 7.09

          Basic metals

24
11.35 NA 15.09 37.37 40.98 26.94 8.39

          Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

25
7.07 NA 15.53 31.18 30.42 16.64 5.71

Computer, electronic and optical products

26
9.89 NA 30.47 39.95 NA 24.30 5.18

Electrical equipment

27
7.99 NA 18.77 35.75 NA 18.49 6.02

Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

28
9.68 NA 23.36 36.70 NA 18.24 6.59

Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

29-30
10.91 NA 25.95 37.26 41.65 25.74 7.80

          Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

29
10.87 NA 15.85 36.88 NA 25.87 7.79

          Other transport equipment

30
11.58 NA 29.67 37.90 NA 25.50 7.86

Furniture

31
5.89 NA 12.13 27.57 27.75 18.73 3.79

Note:
Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

Table 1d. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, U.S. dollars, 2012
Industry ISIC Rev.4 Code Netherlands New Zealand Norway Philippines Poland Portugal Singapore

Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

C
39.62 24.77 63.36 2.10 8.25 12.10 24.16

Food products, beverages and tobacco

10-12
NA NA 56.32 NA NA 12.15 NA

          Food and beverages

10-11
NA NA NA NA 7.38 NA NA

                    Food products

10
NA 23.49 NA NA 7.09 NA NA

                    Beverages

11
NA NA NA NA 11.64 NA NA

          Tobacco products

12
NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

13-15
NA 21.65 51.55 NA 5.28 8.81 NA

          Textiles and wearing apparel

13-14
NA NA NA NA 5.27 NA NA

                    Textiles

13
NA NA NA NA 6.07 NA NA

                    Wearing apparel

14
NA NA NA NA 4.88 NA NA

Leather and related products

15
NA NA NA NA 5.31 NA NA

Wood and paper products and printing

16-18
NA NA NA NA 7.69 NA NA

          Wood and wood products, except furniture

16
NA 21.73 49.41 NA 6.29 NA NA

          Paper and paper products

17
NA NA 56.60 NA 9.15 NA NA

          Printing and reproduction of recorded media

18
NA 23.65 60.75 NA 9.45 NA NA

Coke and refined petroleum products

19
NA NA NA NA 17.19 NA NA

Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

20-21
NA NA NA NA 11.31 NA NA

          Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

20
NA NA 71.94 NA 10.81 NA NA

          Pharmaceutical products

21
NA NA 72.67 NA 12.99 NA NA

Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

22-23
NA NA 58.81 NA 8.36 NA NA

          Rubber and plastics products

22
NA 25.55 NA NA 8.04 NA NA

          Other non-metallic mineral products

23
NA 24.19 NA NA 8.82 12.55 NA

Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

24-25
NA NA NA NA 8.65 12.48 NA

          Basic metals

24
NA 29.81 69.90 NA 10.16 NA NA

          Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

25
NA 24.27 59.99 NA 8.27 NA NA

Computer, electronic and optical products

26
NA NA NA NA 7.94 NA NA

Electrical equipment

27
NA NA NA NA 9.05 NA NA

Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

28
NA NA 71.54 NA 9.24 NA NA

Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

29-30
NA 27.97 71.10 NA 9.53 NA NA

          Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

29
NA NA NA NA 9.49 NA NA

          Other transport equipment

30
NA NA NA NA 9.68 NA NA

Furniture

31
NA NA NA NA 6.39 NA NA

Note:
Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

Table 1e. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, U.S. dollars, 2012
Industry ISIC Rev.4 Code Slovakia Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan United Kingdom

Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

C
11.30 26.83 49.80 57.79 9.46 31.23

Food products, beverages and tobacco

10-12
NA 23.06 42.58 NA NA 26.96

          Food and beverages

10-11
NA 22.69 NA NA NA 26.67

                    Food products

10
NA 21.63 NA NA NA 25.40

                    Beverages

11
NA 30.07 NA NA NA 37.57

          Tobacco products

12
NA 53.50 NA NA NA 49.70

Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

13-15
NA 19.14 42.05 NA NA 24.18

          Textiles and wearing apparel

13-14
NA 20.05 NA NA NA 24.01

                    Textiles

13
NA 20.65 NA NA 7.29 24.83

                    Wearing apparel

14
NA 19.54 NA NA NA 22.05

Leather and related products

15
NA 15.94 NA NA NA 25.34

Wood and paper products and printing

16-18
NA 24.17 44.29 NA NA 27.67

          Wood and wood products, except furniture

16
NA 20.11 39.18 NA NA 22.74

          Paper and paper products

17
NA 29.45 49.55 NA 7.43 31.47

          Printing and reproduction of recorded media

18
NA 23.93 41.62 NA 7.39 28.19

Coke and refined petroleum products

19
NA 51.59 66.31 NA 20.38 48.38

Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

20-21
NA 35.73 67.91 NA NA 38.87

          Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

20
NA 33.65 NA NA NA 36.38

          Pharmaceutical products

21
NA 39.72 NA NA NA 42.52

Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

22-23
NA 27.28 43.82 NA 7.97 27.78

          Rubber and plastics products

22
NA 27.54 43.06 NA 7.99 26.53

          Other non-metallic mineral products

23
NA 27.10 45.01 NA 7.95 30.21

Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

24-25
NA 25.82 45.29 NA 8.31 28.26

          Basic metals

24
NA 31.45 52.35 NA 10.88 33.49

          Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

25
NA 24.14 41.70 NA 7.46 26.56

Computer, electronic and optical products

26
NA 31.63 NA NA 11.31 37.83

Electrical equipment

27
NA 30.68 NA NA NA 28.77

Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

28
NA 28.92 NA NA NA 33.23

Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

29-30
NA 33.63 51.27 NA 9.98 38.28

          Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

29
NA 32.19 NA NA 10.20 35.00

          Other transport equipment

30
NA 38.92 NA NA 9.72 41.37

Furniture

31
NA NA NA NA 6.84 24.75

Note:
Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

Table 2a. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, as a percent of the manufacturing sector average (ISIC C = 100), 2012
Industry ISIC Rev.4 Code United States Argentina Australia Austria Belgium Brazil Canada

Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

C
100 100 100 100 100 100 100

Food products, beverages and tobacco

10-12
76 NA 86 78 89 79 NA

          Food and beverages

10-11
NA NA NA 77 89 78 NA

                    Food products

10
74 NA 82 72 86 75 NA

                    Beverages

11
NA NA NA 103 106 102 NA

          Tobacco products

12
NA NA NA NA 89 145 NA

Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

13-15
68 NA NA 77 79 47 NA

          Textiles and wearing apparel

13-14
68 NA NA 80 79 49 NA

                    Textiles

13
68 NA NA 83 80 68 NA

                    Wearing apparel

14
68 NA NA 74 72 41 NA

Leather and related products

15
74 NA NA 69 84 44 NA

Wood and paper products and printing

16-18
86 NA 87 92 90 85 NA

          Wood and wood products, except furniture

16
69 NA 79 78 74 56 NA

          Paper and paper products

17
104 NA 112 110 102 123 NA

          Printing and reproduction of recorded media

18
85 NA 85 99 92 76 NA

Coke and refined petroleum products

19
157 NA NA NA NA 342 NA

Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

20-21
119 NA NA 124 132 181 NA

          Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

20
111 NA NA 128 129 172 NA

          Pharmaceutical products

21
135 NA NA 118 138 209 NA

Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

22-23
85 NA 110 95 94 82 NA

          Rubber and plastics products

22
83 NA 120 90 94 91 NA

          Other non-metallic mineral products

23
88 NA 102 100 94 74 NA

Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

24-25
90 NA 105 100 95 111 NA

          Basic metals

24
105 NA 130 115 112 166 NA

          Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

25
86 NA 91 92 84 85 NA

Computer, electronic and optical products

26
142 NA NA 118 106 143 NA

Electrical equipment

27
102 NA NA 110 96 125 NA

Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

28
107 NA NA 109 93 130 NA

Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

29-30
127 NA NA 113 110 168 NA

          Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

29
105 NA 114 111 112 168 NA

          Other transport equipment

30
152 NA 99 121 102 NA NA

Furniture

31
75 NA NA 73 73 54 NA

Note:
Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

Table 2b. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, as a percent of the manufacturing sector average (ISIC C = 100), 2012
Industry ISIC Rev.4 Code Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece

Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

C
100 100 100 100 100 100 100

Food products, beverages and tobacco

10-12
NA 92 NA NA NA 69 NA

          Food and beverages

10-11
NA 92 94 NA NA NA NA

                    Food products

10
NA 92 88 NA 77 65 NA

                    Beverages

11
NA 98 148 NA NA 94 NA

          Tobacco products

12
NA NA NA NA NA 136 NA

Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

13-15
NA 89 68 NA 79 77 NA

          Textiles and wearing apparel

13-14
NA 88 68 NA 79 75 NA

                    Textiles

13
NA 89 78 NA 77 74 NA

                    Wearing apparel

14
NA 88 62 NA 82 77 NA

Leather and related products

15
NA NA 71 NA 79 85 NA

Wood and paper products and printing

16-18
NA 92 107 NA 87 83 NA

          Wood and wood products, except furniture

16
NA 83 105 NA 74 68 NA

          Paper and paper products

17
NA 97 112 NA 94 90 NA

          Printing and reproduction of recorded media

18
NA 101 116 NA 90 86 NA

Coke and refined petroleum products

19
NA NA NA NA NA 152 NA

Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

20-21
NA 111 NA NA 136 127 NA

          Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

20
NA 111 132 NA 131 126 NA

          Pharmaceutical products

21
NA 138 NA NA 147 131 NA

Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

22-23
NA 98 118 NA 94 82 NA

          Rubber and plastics products

22
NA 100 104 NA 93 83 NA

          Other non-metallic mineral products

23
NA 95 133 NA 96 81 NA

Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

24-25
NA 91 NA NA 95 91 NA

          Basic metals

24
NA 90 NA NA 112 105 NA

          Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

25
NA 91 125 NA 89 85 NA

Computer, electronic and optical products

26
NA 110 100 NA 131 109 NA

Electrical equipment

27
NA 101 114 NA 105 108 NA

Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

28
NA 103 130 NA 106 107 NA

Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

29-30
NA 94 NA NA 115 128 NA

          Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

29
NA 91 108 NA 106 129 NA

          Other transport equipment

30
NA 98 NA NA 132 126 NA

Furniture

31
NA 87 88 NA 75 75 NA

Note:
Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

Table 2c. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, as a percent of the manufacturing sector average (ISIC C = 100), 2012
Industry ISIC Rev.4 Code Hungary Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea, Republic of Mexico

Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

C
100 100 100 100 100 100 100

Food products, beverages and tobacco

10-12
80 NA 68 99 72 75 87

          Food and beverages

10-11
79 NA NA 99 NA 74 86

                    Food products

10
74 NA 65 97 NA 72 86

                    Beverages

11
121 NA NA 114 NA 104 87

          Tobacco products

12
136 NA NA 161 NA 153 184

Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

13-15
58 NA 64 80 NA 70 52

          Textiles and wearing apparel

13-14
58 NA 64 80 67 70 53

                    Textiles

13
68 NA 70 88 NA 65 61

                    Wearing apparel

14
52 NA 58 74 NA 77 46

Leather and related products

15
59 NA 61 80 NA 68 48

Wood and paper products and printing

16-18
86 NA 70 92 84 79 77

          Wood and wood products, except furniture

16
63 NA 66 81 76 77 42

          Paper and paper products

17
111 NA 79 97 88 87 84

          Printing and reproduction of recorded media

18
85 NA 66 99 83 69 74

Coke and refined petroleum products

19
257 NA NA 150 NA 307 229

Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

20-21
164 NA NA 136 NA 116 173

          Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

20
144 NA NA 123 NA 117 156

          Pharmaceutical products

21
178 NA 133 155 NA 113 219

Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

22-23
96 NA 81 98 92 79 87

          Rubber and plastics products

22
91 NA 78 96 88 73 76

          Other non-metallic mineral products

23
107 NA 87 100 98 93 99

Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

24-25
90 NA 77 96 98 96 111

          Basic metals

24
127 NA 75 109 116 130 132

          Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

25
79 NA 77 91 86 80 90

Computer, electronic and optical products

26
110 NA 151 117 NA 117 81

Electrical equipment

27
89 NA 93 105 NA 89 95

Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

28
108 NA 116 107 NA 88 103

Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

29-30
122 NA 129 109 118 124 123

          Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

29
121 NA 79 108 NA 125 122

          Other transport equipment

30
129 NA 147 111 NA 123 123

Furniture

31
66 NA 60 81 79 90 60

Note:
Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

Table 2d. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, as a percent of the manufacturing sector average (ISIC C = 100), 2012
Industry ISIC Rev.4 Code Netherlands New Zealand Norway Philippines Poland Portugal Singapore

Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

C
100 100 100 100 100 100 100

Food products, beverages and tobacco

10-12
NA NA 89 NA NA 100 NA

          Food and beverages

10-11
NA NA NA NA 89 NA NA

                    Food products

10
NA 95 NA NA 86 NA NA

                    Beverages

11
NA NA NA NA 141 NA NA

          Tobacco products

12
NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

13-15
NA 87 81 NA 64 73 NA

          Textiles and wearing apparel

13-14
NA NA NA NA 64 NA NA

                    Textiles

13
NA NA NA NA 74 NA NA

                    Wearing apparel

14
NA NA NA NA 59 NA NA

Leather and related products

15
NA NA NA NA 64 NA NA

Wood and paper products and printing

16-18
NA NA NA NA 93 NA NA

          Wood and wood products, except furniture

16
NA 88 78 NA 76 NA NA

          Paper and paper products

17
NA NA 89 NA 111 NA NA

          Printing and reproduction of recorded media

18
NA 95 96 NA 115 NA NA

Coke and refined petroleum products

19
NA NA NA NA 208 NA NA

Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

20-21
NA NA NA NA 137 NA NA

          Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

20
NA NA 114 NA 131 NA NA

          Pharmaceutical products

21
NA NA 115 NA 157 NA NA

Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

22-23
NA NA 93 NA 101 NA NA

          Rubber and plastics products

22
NA 103 NA NA 97 NA NA

          Other non-metallic mineral products

23
NA 98 NA NA 107 104 NA

Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

24-25
NA NA NA NA 105 103 NA

          Basic metals

24
NA 120 110 NA 123 NA NA

          Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

25
NA 98 95 NA 100 NA NA

Computer, electronic and optical products

26
NA NA NA NA 96 NA NA

Electrical equipment

27
NA NA NA NA 110 NA NA

Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

28
NA NA 113 NA 112 NA NA

Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

29-30
NA 113 112 NA 116 NA NA

          Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

29
NA NA NA NA 115 NA NA

          Other transport equipment

30
NA NA NA NA 117 NA NA

Furniture

31
NA NA NA NA 77 NA NA

Note:
Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

Table 2e. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, as a percent of the manufacturing sector average (ISIC C = 100), 2012
Industry ISIC Rev.4 Code Slovakia Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan United Kingdom

Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

C
100 100 100 100 100 100

Food products, beverages and tobacco

10-12
NA 86 85 NA NA 86

          Food and beverages

10-11
NA 85 NA NA NA 85

                    Food products

10
NA 81 NA NA NA 81

                    Beverages

11
NA 112 NA NA NA 120

          Tobacco products

12
NA 199 NA NA NA 159

Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

13-15
NA 71 84 NA NA 77

          Textiles and wearing apparel

13-14
NA 75 NA NA NA 77

                    Textiles

13
NA 77 NA NA 77 80

                    Wearing apparel

14
NA 73 NA NA NA 71

Leather and related products

15
NA 59 NA NA NA 81

Wood and paper products and printing

16-18
NA 90 89 NA NA 89

          Wood and wood products, except furniture

16
NA 75 79 NA NA 73

          Paper and paper products

17
NA 110 99 NA 79 101

          Printing and reproduction of recorded media

18
NA 89 84 NA 78 90

Coke and refined petroleum products

19
NA 192 133 NA 216 155

Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

20-21
NA 133 136 NA NA 124

          Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

20
NA 125 NA NA NA 116

          Pharmaceutical products

21
NA 148 NA NA NA 136

Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

22-23
NA 102 88 NA 84 89

          Rubber and plastics products

22
NA 103 86 NA 84 85

          Other non-metallic mineral products

23
NA 101 90 NA 84 97

Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

24-25
NA 96 91 NA 88 90

          Basic metals

24
NA 117 105 NA 115 107

          Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

25
NA 90 84 NA 79 85

Computer, electronic and optical products

26
NA 118 NA NA 120 121

Electrical equipment

27
NA 114 NA NA NA 92

Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

28
NA 108 NA NA NA 106

Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

29-30
NA 125 103 NA 106 123

          Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

29
NA 120 NA NA 108 112

          Other transport equipment

30
NA 145 NA NA 103 132

Furniture

31
NA NA NA NA 72 79

Note:
Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

Table 3a. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, as a percent of costs in the United States (U.S. = 100), 2012
Industry ISIC Rev.4 Code United States Argentina Australia Austria Belgium Brazil Canada

Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

C
100 53 134 116 146 31 103

Food products, beverages and tobacco

10-12
100 NA 152 119 170 32 NA

          Food and beverages

10-11
NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

                    Food products

10
100 NA 149 115 171 32 NA

                    Beverages

11
NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

          Tobacco products

12
NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

13-15
100 NA NA 131 169 22 NA

          Textiles and wearing apparel

13-14
100 NA NA 137 169 23 NA

                    Textiles

13
100 NA NA 143 173 31 NA

                    Wearing apparel

14
100 NA NA 128 156 19 NA

Leather and related products

15
100 NA NA 109 166 19 NA

Wood and paper products and printing

16-18
100 NA 135 124 152 31 NA

          Wood and wood products, except furniture

16
100 NA 152 132 156 25 NA

          Paper and paper products

17
100 NA 144 124 144 37 NA

          Printing and reproduction of recorded media

18
100 NA 134 137 159 28 NA

Coke and refined petroleum products

19
100 NA NA NA NA 69 NA

Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

20-21
100 NA NA 121 161 48 NA

          Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

20
100 NA NA 135 171 49 NA

          Pharmaceutical products

21
100 NA NA 102 149 49 NA

Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

22-23
100 NA 174 131 162 31 NA

          Rubber and plastics products

22
100 NA 193 126 166 35 NA

          Other non-metallic mineral products

23
100 NA 154 133 157 26 NA

Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

24-25
100 NA 155 129 154 39 NA

          Basic metals

24
100 NA 167 128 157 50 NA

          Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

25
100 NA 142 124 142 31 NA

Computer, electronic and optical products

26
100 NA NA 97 109 32 NA

Electrical equipment

27
100 NA NA 126 137 38 NA

Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

28
100 NA NA 118 127 38 NA

Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

29-30
100 NA NA 103 127 41 NA

          Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

29
100 NA 145 123 157 50 NA

          Other transport equipment

30
100 NA 87 93 98 NA NA

Furniture

31
100 NA NA 114 142 23 NA

Note:
Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

Table 3b. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, as a percent of costs in the United States (U.S. = 100), 2012
Industry ISIC Rev.4 Code Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece

Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

C
34 136 29 119 112 128 54

Food products, beverages and tobacco

10-12
NA 164 NA NA NA 116 NA

          Food and beverages

10-11
NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

                    Food products

10
NA 170 35 NA 116 113 NA

                    Beverages

11
NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

          Tobacco products

12
NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

13-15
NA 178 29 NA 130 144 NA

          Textiles and wearing apparel

13-14
NA 177 29 NA 130 142 NA

                    Textiles

13
NA 178 34 NA 127 140 NA

                    Wearing apparel

14
NA 177 27 NA 135 147 NA

Leather and related products

15
NA NA 28 NA 120 147 NA

Wood and paper products and printing

16-18
NA 145 36 NA 112 123 NA

          Wood and wood products, except furniture

16
NA 162 44 NA 119 127 NA

          Paper and paper products

17
NA 127 32 NA 101 111 NA

          Printing and reproduction of recorded media

18
NA 162 40 NA 119 131 NA

Coke and refined petroleum products

19
NA NA NA NA NA 124 NA

Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

20-21
NA 126 NA NA 128 137 NA

          Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

20
NA 136 35 NA 132 146 NA

          Pharmaceutical products

21
NA 139 NA NA 121 125 NA

Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

22-23
NA 157 41 NA 124 125 NA

          Rubber and plastics products

22
NA 164 37 NA 125 128 NA

          Other non-metallic mineral products

23
NA 147 44 NA 121 119 NA

Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

24-25
NA 136 NA NA 117 129 NA

          Basic metals

24
NA 116 NA NA 119 129 NA

          Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

25
NA 143 42 NA 115 127 NA

Computer, electronic and optical products

26
NA 106 21 NA 103 99 NA

Electrical equipment

27
NA 134 33 NA 115 136 NA

Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

28
NA 131 35 NA 111 129 NA

Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

29-30
NA 101 NA NA 101 130 NA

          Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

29
NA 117 30 NA 113 158 NA

          Other transport equipment

30
NA 87 NA NA 97 106 NA

Furniture

31
NA 159 34 NA 112 130 NA

Note:
Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

Table 3c. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, as a percent of costs in the United States (U.S. = 100), 2012
Industry ISIC Rev.4 Code Hungary Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea, Republic of Mexico

Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

C
25 107 56 96 99 58 18

Food products, beverages and tobacco

10-12
26 NA 50 125 93 57 20

          Food and beverages

10-11
NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

                    Food products

10
25 NA 50 127 NA 57 21

                    Beverages

11
NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

          Tobacco products

12
NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

13-15
21 NA 53 113 NA 60 14

          Textiles and wearing apparel

13-14
21 NA 53 114 98 60 14

                    Textiles

13
25 NA 58 125 NA 55 16

                    Wearing apparel

14
19 NA 49 106 NA 66 12

Leather and related products

15
20 NA 47 103 NA 53 11

Wood and paper products and printing

16-18
25 NA 46 102 96 53 16

          Wood and wood products, except furniture

16
23 NA 54 112 109 64 11

          Paper and paper products

17
27 NA 43 89 84 49 14

          Printing and reproduction of recorded media

18
25 NA 44 112 98 48 16

Coke and refined petroleum products

19
41 NA NA 92 NA 114 26

Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

20-21
35 NA NA 109 NA 57 26

          Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

20
33 NA NA 107 NA 61 25

          Pharmaceutical products

21
33 NA 55 110 NA 49 29

Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

22-23
29 NA 54 111 107 54 18

          Rubber and plastics products

22
27 NA 53 111 105 51 16

          Other non-metallic mineral products

23
30 NA 56 109 110 61 20

Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

24-25
25 NA 48 101 107 62 22

          Basic metals

24
30 NA 40 100 110 72 22

          Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

25
23 NA 51 101 99 54 19

Computer, electronic and optical products

26
20 NA 60 79 NA 48 10

Electrical equipment

27
22 NA 52 98 NA 51 17

Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

28
25 NA 61 96 NA 48 17

Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

29-30
24 NA 57 82 92 57 17

          Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

29
29 NA 42 99 NA 69 21

          Other transport equipment

30
21 NA 55 70 NA 47 14

Furniture

31
22 NA 46 104 104 70 14

Note:
Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

Table 3d. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, as a percent of costs in the United States (U.S. = 100), 2012
Industry ISIC Rev.4 Code Netherlands New Zealand Norway Philippines Poland Portugal Singapore

Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

C
111 69 178 6 23 34 68

Food products, beverages and tobacco

10-12
NA NA 207 NA NA 45 NA

          Food and beverages

10-11
NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

                    Food products

10
NA 89 NA NA 27 NA NA

                    Beverages

11
NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

          Tobacco products

12
NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

13-15
NA 89 212 NA 22 36 NA

          Textiles and wearing apparel

13-14
NA NA NA NA 22 NA NA

                    Textiles

13
NA NA NA NA 25 NA NA

                    Wearing apparel

14
NA NA NA NA 20 NA NA

Leather and related products

15
NA NA NA NA 20 NA NA

Wood and paper products and printing

16-18
NA NA NA NA 25 NA NA

          Wood and wood products, except furniture

16
NA 88 200 NA 25 NA NA

          Paper and paper products

17
NA NA 153 NA 25 NA NA

          Printing and reproduction of recorded media

18
NA 78 201 NA 31 NA NA

Coke and refined petroleum products

19
NA NA NA NA 31 NA NA

Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

20-21
NA NA NA NA 27 NA NA

          Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

20
NA NA 182 NA 27 NA NA

          Pharmaceutical products

21
NA NA 151 NA 27 NA NA

Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

22-23
NA NA 195 NA 28 NA NA

          Rubber and plastics products

22
NA 86 NA NA 27 NA NA

          Other non-metallic mineral products

23
NA 77 NA NA 28 40 NA

Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

24-25
NA NA NA NA 27 39 NA

          Basic metals

24
NA 80 187 NA 27 NA NA

          Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

25
NA 79 195 NA 27 NA NA

Computer, electronic and optical products

26
NA NA NA NA 16 NA NA

Electrical equipment

27
NA NA NA NA 25 NA NA

Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

28
NA NA 188 NA 24 NA NA

Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

29-30
NA 62 157 NA 21 NA NA

          Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

29
NA NA NA NA 25 NA NA

          Other transport equipment

30
NA NA NA NA 18 NA NA

Furniture

31
NA NA NA NA 24 NA NA

Note:
Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

Table 3e. Average hourly compensation costs in manufacturing industries, as a percent of costs in the United States (U.S. = 100), 2012
Industry ISIC Rev.4 Code Slovakia Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan United Kingdom

Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33)

C
32 75 140 162 27 88

Food products, beverages and tobacco

10-12
NA 85 157 NA NA 99

          Food and beverages

10-11
NA NA NA NA NA NA

                    Food products

10
NA 82 NA NA NA 97

                    Beverages

11
NA NA NA NA NA NA

          Tobacco products

12
NA NA NA NA NA NA

Textiles, wearing apparel and leather

13-15
NA 79 173 NA NA 99

          Textiles and wearing apparel

13-14
NA 83 NA NA NA 99

                    Textiles

13
NA 85 NA NA 30 103

                    Wearing apparel

14
NA 81 NA NA NA 92

Leather and related products

15
NA 61 NA NA NA 96

Wood and paper products and printing

16-18
NA 79 144 NA NA 90

          Wood and wood products, except furniture

16
NA 82 159 NA NA 92

          Paper and paper products

17
NA 80 134 NA 20 85

          Printing and reproduction of recorded media

18
NA 79 138 NA 25 93

Coke and refined petroleum products

19
NA 92 119 NA 36 87

Chemicals and pharmaceutical products

20-21
NA 84 160 NA NA 91

          Chemicals and chemical products, except pharmaceuticals

20
NA 85 NA NA NA 92

          Pharmaceutical products

21
NA 82 NA NA NA 88

Rubber, plastics and other non-metallic mineral products

22-23
NA 90 145 NA 26 92

          Rubber and plastics products

22
NA 93 145 NA 27 90

          Other non-metallic mineral products

23
NA 86 144 NA 25 96

Primary and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

24-25
NA 80 140 NA 26 88

          Basic metals

24
NA 84 140 NA 29 90

          Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment

25
NA 79 136 NA 24 86

Computer, electronic and optical products

26
NA 62 NA NA 22 75

Electrical equipment

27
NA 84 NA NA NA 79

Machinery and equipment n.e.c.

28
NA 76 NA NA NA 87

Motor vehicles and other transport equipment

29-30
NA 74 113 NA 22 84

          Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers

29
NA 86 NA NA 27 94

          Other transport equipment

30
NA 72 NA NA 18 76

Furniture

31
NA NA NA NA 26 93

Note:
Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.
Except for Argentina, Japan, Philippines, and Taiwan, data relate to manufacturing as defined by the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Revision 4.
For complete information on definitions, industrial classifications, and data sources, see the technical notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichcctn.pdf and country notes at www.bls.gov/ilc/ichccsources.pdf.
'NA' means data not available.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, International Labor Comparisons, August 2013

 

Last Modified Date: August 9, 2013