Occupational Group Profiles

2017

Based on the Occupational Requirements Survey.


Occupational group:

Technical note

Architecture and engineering occupations

Architecture and engineering occupations

This occupational group includes architects, surveyors, cartographers, photogrammetrists, engineers, drafters, engineering technicians, electro-mechanical technicians, and mapping technicians.

Physical requirements

The strength level for architecture and engineering jobs varies, with 23.1 percent of jobs classified as sedentary, another 24.4 percent classified as light, and almost half (45.4 percent) as medium. Most (82.4 percent) architecture and engineering jobs require reaching at or below the shoulder with both hands, and 90.1 percent require gross manipulation with both hands. On average, workers spend 68.6 percent of the workday sitting, and most workers (72.3 percent) are able to choose when they can sit versus stand.

Environmental conditions

Some jobs (20.6 percent) require workers to be in high and exposed places, and 11.2 percent use personal protective equipment to mitigate risk associated with this exposure. Almost one-third (30.3 percent) of workers are in proximity to moving mechanical parts at some point in their workday. The most common noise intensity level is moderate which is experienced by 74.1 percent of workers. Another 18.1 percent of workers experience a quiet noise level, and 7.6 percent a loud noise level.

Selected job requirements for architecture and engineering occupations

Cognitive requirements

The work location for 53.7 percent of jobs does not change. These jobs require work review at least weekly for 34.2 of these workers. Most jobs (71.6 percent) have a varying work pace, where there are faster and slower work periods. Typically, the pace of work is steady (68.7 percent of jobs), and another 26.3 percent of jobs are performed at a rapid pace.

Educational requirements

Most (64.3 percent) jobs require a bachelor’s degree to fulfill a minimum education requirement. Most (77.8 percent) jobs also require prior work experience. On-the-job training is a requirement for 62.5 percent of jobs.

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

This occupational group includes art directors, artists, fashion designers, actors, producers, directors, coaches, dancers, choreographers, musicians, singers, radio announcers, writers, editors, interpreters, sound engineering technicians, photographers, and film editors.

Physical requirements

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media workers spend an average of over half of their workday (59.0 percent) sitting. The decision of when to sit or stand is left up to workers in 56.2 percent of jobs. Gross and fine manipulation with both hands is required in 89.2 percent and 58.0 percent of jobs, respectively. Some workers (30.7 percent) are required to climb ramps or stairs as part of their job.

Environmental conditions

The noise level experienced is moderate for 75.2 percent of jobs, and loud for another 10.3 percent. Exposure to wetness is required for 13.6 percent of these workers. Eleven percent of jobs require workers to be in high and exposed places. Almost all jobs do not require exposure to extreme heat (98.9 percent) or cold (98.2 percent).

Selected job requirements for arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media jobs, 2017

Cognitive requirements

Over a quarter (27.4 percent) of workers have continuous interaction with regular contacts. For 41.3 percent of workers the work location changes more than four times per year, but for almost half (49.8 percent) there is no change in location. The work schedule changes for over half (55.5 percent) of jobs.

Educational requirements

The most common minimum education level for these jobs is a bachelor’s degree (39.7 percent). Another 29.6 percent of jobs require a high school diploma. On-the-job training is required for 66.1 percent of jobs and 66.7 percent require prior work experience.

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

This occupational group includes janitors, maids and housekeeping cleaners, pest control, landscaping, pesticide handlers, tree trimmers, and grounds maintenance workers.

Physical requirements

Crouching is required for 80.8 percent of these jobs, and pushing or pulling with both hands and arms is required for 59.0 percent. These workers lift or carry an average maximum weight of about 42 pounds. Standing and walking is necessary in these jobs, and 90.4 percent do not allow the worker a choice for when they can sit versus stand. Workers in building and grounds cleaning and maintenance jobs stand or walk an average of 89.3 percent of their day.

Environmental conditions

Exposure to wetness is a job requirement in 87.1 percent of jobs. Some (32.5 percent) jobs are exposed to hazardous contaminants, with 28.3 percent of workers using personal protective equipment to mitigate this exposure. A quiet noise intensity level is present in 18.0 percent of jobs, a moderate level in 69.6 percent, and a loud noise level in 11.2 percent.

Selected job requirements for building and grounds cleaning and maintenance jobs, 2017

Cognitive requirements

The work location for most (68.3 percent) jobs never changes. The pace of work is steady in 75.1 percent of jobs and rapid for another 21.2 percent. In most jobs the work tasks change less than monthly (86.0 percent). A small amount of jobs, however, require workers to adapt to changing tasks at least once per month (5.1 percent), at least once a week (4.6 percent), or at least once a day (4.3 percent).

Educational requirements

Most (69.2 percent) jobs do not have a minimum education requirement, although about 29.2 percent required a high school diploma. On-the-job training is a requirement for 83.9 percent of jobs.

Business and financial operations occupations

Business and financial operations occupations

This occupational group includes purchasing agents, compliance officers, human resource workers, logisticians, fundraisers, market research analysts, accountants, auditors, credit counselors, and tax examiners.

Physical requirements

Business and financial operations workers spend an average of 80.6 percent of the day sitting. About half of jobs (49.9 percent) are classified as a sedentary strength level, with another 33.0 percent of jobs classified as a light strength level. Near visual acuity and verbal communication are required in all jobs. Gross and fine manipulation with both hands are required in 77.5 percent and 45.3 percent of jobs, respectively. Almost all jobs (99.8 percent) require the use of a traditional keyboard at some point in the workday, and the use of a 10-key pad is also required in 18.3 percent of jobs.

Environmental conditions

Workers experience a moderate noise intensity level in 70.9 percent of jobs and another 28.2 percent of jobs have a quiet noise intensity level. Most workers are not exposed to various environmental conditions such as heavy vibrations (99.8 percent), high and exposed places (98.6 percent), hazardous contaminants (98.4 percent), extreme heat (98.9 percent) or cold (99.1 percent), or wetness (97.1 percent).

Selected job requirements for business and financial operations jobs, 2017

Cognitive requirements

The type of decision making required for workers is split between decisions that involve a degree of uncertainty or complexity (49.1 percent) or that have no set responses to choose from (44.4 percent). The schedule does not change in 62.5 percent of jobs, and work tasks change less than monthly for 78.2 percent.

Educational requirements

Many of these jobs (68.8 percent) require a minimum education of a bachelor’s degree. On-the-job training is required for 64.3 percent of jobs and 83.2 percent require prior work experience.

Community and social service occupations

Community and social service occupations

This occupational group includes counselors, social workers, health educators, probation officers, correctional treatment specialists, community health workers, clergy, and directors of religious activities.

Physical requirements

Many community and social service workers (71.6 percent) can choose when to sit or stand to perform their work, and they typically spend about 63.4 percent of their workday sitting. About three-quarters of workers (75.7 percent) reach at or below their shoulder with both hands at some point during their workday. Using a traditional keyboard is required in almost all jobs (94.8 percent), with 55.3 percent doing so occasionally, 34.7 percent frequently, and another 4.2 percent constantly.

Environmental conditions

Workers are exposed to wetness in 20.9 percent of jobs, however they are only exposed occasionally (11.8 percent) or seldom (9.2 percent). A moderate noise intensity level is experienced in most jobs (78.3 percent), and another 19.2 percent experience a quiet environment.

Selected job requirements for community and social service jobs, 2017

Cognitive requirements

Workers most commonly interact with regular contacts more than once per hour (46.9 percent), and another 27.7 percent continuously interact with regular contacts. Almost half of jobs (45.5 percent) require work to be reviewed at least weekly, 17.1 percent require review once per day, and another 4.9 percent require more than once a day.

Educational requirements

A minimum education requirement of a bachelor’s degree is the most common requirement for 46.3 percent of workers. A high school diploma is required for an additional 19.7 percent of workers. On-the-job training is a requirement for 64.6 percent of jobs.

Computer and mathematical occupations

Computer and mathematical occupations

This occupational group includes computer and information analysts, software developers and programmers, database and systems administrators, computer support specialists, actuaries, mathematicians, statisticians, operations research analysts, and mathematical technicians.

Physical requirements

On average, workers in computer and mathematical occupations spend 83.5 percent of the workday sitting. These jobs require lifting or carrying an average maximum weight of about 17 pounds. Reaching at or below the shoulder with both hands is required in 61.0 percent of jobs. Traditional keyboarding is required in all jobs. Some jobs require crouching (26.8 percent) and kneeling (22.2 percent), while fewer require crawling (8.4 percent).

Environmental conditions

A moderate noise intensity level was the most common (69.1 percent) noise exposure for these jobs, and another 30.5 percent of workers experience a quiet noise intensity level. One hundred percent of these jobs do not expose workers to heavy vibrations or humidity. Most workers are not exposed to various other environmental conditions such as hazardous contaminants (99.3 percent), wetness (99.0 percent), moving mechanical parts (99.2 percent), or extreme heat (99.8 percent).

Selected job requirements for computer and mathematical jobs, 2017

Cognitive requirements

Typically, the work location does not change for 74.7 percent of jobs. For the remainder of jobs the location can change up to four times per year for 9.2 percent and more than that for 16.1 percent. The type of decision making required for most workers (64.7 percent) involves a degree of uncertainty or complexity, with another 32.7 percent having no set responses to choose from when making decisions.

Educational requirements

The minimum education required for 69.6 percent of jobs is a bachelor’s degree. For 88.7 percent of jobs, prior work experience is required with the average amount being about 4 years (1,499 days).

Construction and extraction occupations

Construction and extraction occupations

This occupational group includes carpenters, laborers, equipment operators, electricians, roofers, elevator installers and repairers, earth drillers, mining machine operators, and carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers.

Physical requirements

The most common strength level for construction and extraction jobs is a heavy strength level for 45.3 percent, and another 10.4 percent are considered to have a very heavy level. These jobs require lifting or carrying an average maximum weight of about 65 pounds. Workers spend 83.8 percent of their day standing or walking and most workers (85.8 percent) do not have the choice between sitting or standing and walking. All jobs require gross manipulation, with 10.9 percent requiring it occasionally, 32.9 percent frequently, and 55.6 percent constantly.

Environmental conditions

Seventy-eight percent of jobs require workers to be in high exposed places, 75.3 percent require workers to be in proximity to moving mechanical parts, and 41.3 percent expose workers to heavy vibrations. Fifty percent of jobs are performed in environments with a loud noise intensity level and another 5.6 percent are exposed to a very loud noise level.

Selected job requirements for construction and extraction jobs, 2017

Cognitive requirements

The work location changes more than four times per year for 81.1 percent of jobs. Workers have their work reviewed more than once a day in 48.4 percent of jobs, and once a day in another 32.5 percent.

Educational requirements

Half of jobs (50.0 percent) jobs do not have a minimum education requirement. Of jobs without a minimum education requirement, 40.1 percent require literacy and 9.9 percent do not. A high school diploma is required in 47.0 percent of jobs. Prior work experience is a requirement for 55.3 percent of jobs with an average length of over two and a half years (1,029 days).

Education, training, and library occupations

Education, training, and library occupations

This occupational group includes postsecondary teachers, preschool teachers, primary school teachers, middle school teachers, self-enrichment education teachers, special education school teachers, librarians, curators, archivists, home management advisors, instructional coordinators, and teacher assistants.

Physical requirements

Most (92.0 percent) workers use a traditional keyboard at the workplace. Communicating verbally occurs constantly for 58.7 percent of workers, frequently for 38.9 percent, and occasionally for 1.9 percent of workers. On average workers spend 35.4 percent of the workday sitting and 64.6 percent of the workday standing or walking.

Environmental conditions

Most (89.3 percent) workers experience a moderate noise intensity level, 6.9 percent a quiet intensity level, and 3.8 percent experience a loud intensity level. Exposure to the outdoors is present for 65.9 percent of workers. There are several environmental conditions for which these workers are not exposed to such as hazardous contaminants (97.0 percent), extreme heat (98.5 percent), humidity (99.6 percent), heavy vibrations (99.5 percent), exposed high places (98.5 percent), and proximity to moving mechanical parts (98.2 percent).

Selected job requirements for education, training, and library jobs, 2017

Cognitive requirements

Interaction with regular contacts is performed by coordinating for 39.1 percent of workers, 33.0 percent by persuading, 16.5 percent by influencing, 10.6 percent by exchanging factual information, and 0.8 percent by resolving controversial issues. For most (84.8 percent) workers the work tasks change less than monthly, for 8.5 percent the tasks change at least one a month, and for another 5.0 percent the tasks change at least once a week.

Educational requirements

Most (59.8 percent) workers have a minimum educational requirement of a bachelor’s degree. Prior work experience is required for 23.9 percent of workers with an average of about 2 and a half years (905 days) of prior work experience. On-the-job training is required for 50.4 percent of workers.

Secondary school teachers, except special and career/technical education

Secondary school teachers, except special and career/technical education

Secondary school teachers help prepare students for life after graduation. They teach academic lessons and various skills that students will need to attend college and to enter the job market.

Physical requirements

All secondary school teachers are required to be able to hear one-on-one, hear in a group/conference, have near visual acuity, and perform fine and gross manipulation. These workers also need to be able to communicate verbally, with 35.3 percent required to do so frequently, and another 62.7 percent constantly. Additionally, traditional keyboarding (99.5 percent) and reaching at or below the shoulder (98.9 percent) is required for most secondary school teachers. Secondary school teachers spend an average of 72.8 percent of the workday standing or walking. Most secondary school teachers are required to have far visual acuity (83.0 percent) and peripheral vision (78.7 percent). The average maximum weight lifted/carried by secondary school teachers is about 23 pounds.

Environmental conditions

Almost all (96.8 percent) of secondary school teachers are exposed to moderate noise intensity levels. The majority of secondary school teachers are not exposed to humidity (99.9 percent), extreme cold (99.8 percent), extreme heat (97.9 percent) heavy vibrations (99.7 percent), or high, exposed places (98.6 percent). Over half of secondary school teachers are exposed to outdoors (58.1 percent).

Selected job requirements for secondary school teachers, except special and career/technical education jobs, 2017

Cognitive requirements

Work tasks change less than monthly for 82.1 percent of secondary school teachers, and the work location does not change unless it’s permanent for 74.0 percent of workers. Frequency of contact with other contacts is no more than once per day for 75.8 percent of secondary school teachers.

Educational requirements

The minimum education level required for most (97.6 percent) secondary school teachers is a bachelor’s degree. Prior work experience is not required for 93.7 percent of these workers.

Librarians

Librarians

Librarians work in a variety of settings including educational institutions, museums, corporations, government agencies, law firms, non-profit organizations, healthcare providers and libraries. Librarians’ tasks may include selecting, cataloguing, classifying, and maintaining library materials. They furnish reference, bibliographical, and readers’ advisory services. They may perform in-depth, strategic research, and filter information. They may also set up or work with databases and information systems to catalogue and access information.

Physical requirements

Most librarians have jobs with a strength level classified as light or medium, with 41.3 percent classified as light and another 56.5 percent as medium. All librarians are required to perform gross and fine manipulation, with 73.6 percent performing gross manipulation occasionally and another 17.2 percent frequently. Almost all (94.2 percent) require reaching overhead, however reaching overhead occurs seldom (34.1 percent) or occasionally (60.1 percent). On average, librarians sit for 56.8 percent of the workday and stand or walk for 43.2 percent of the day. Most of them (77.7 percent) can choose when they sit or stand.

Environmental conditions

One-hundred percent of librarians are not exposed to extreme cold or heat, humidity, or heavy vibrations on the job. Working in high and exposed places is not a requirement for most librarians (93.4 percent). Some librarians are exposed to the outdoors (39.2 percent) but for 31.1 percent exposure occurs seldom.

Selected job requirements for librarians, 2017

Cognitive requirements

For most librarians the pace of work is steady (84.8 percent). For 57.6 percent of workers the work location does not change and the work tasks for about three-quarters of librarians change less than monthly (75.2 percent).

Educational requirements

Nearly half (48.9 percent) of librarians are required to have a bachelor’s degree, and another 42.4 percent a master’s degree. About half (52.6 percent) also require prior work experience of nearly three years (1,047 days), on average.

Library technicians

Libary technicians

Library technicians assist patrons, organize library materials and information, and perform clerical and administrative tasks. Some of their duties include shelving, cataloguing and maintaining library materials. They may also register new patrons and issue library cards, answer routine reference questions, teach patrons how to use library resources, perform routine clerical tasks such as answering phones and organizing files. They may help plan and participate in special programs, such as used-book sales, story times, or outreach programs.

Physical requirements

Most library technicians (92.9 percent) are required to perform gross manipulation with both hands at some point during their workday. For 81.1 percent of workers, kneeling is required and 74.2 percent are required to crouch. All library technicians are required to use a traditional keyboard at some point during the workday.

Environmental conditions

Library technicians are generally not exposed to environmental conditions and there is no exposure to extreme heat or cold, wetness, heavy vibrations, or proximity to moving parts.

Selected job requirements for library technicians, 2017

Cognitive requirements

Seventy-six percent of library technicians interact with regular contacts more than once per hour, and 43.2 percent interact with other contacts with the same frequency. Over half of library technicians (61.5 percent) make decisions with no set responses to choose from.

Educational requirements

A high school diploma is required for 41.6 percent of library technicians. On-the-job training is required for a little over half of these workers (51.8 percent). For those jobs that require prior work experience, about two and a half years of prior work experience is required (936 days).

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

This occupational group includes agricultural inspectors, animal breeders, graders and sorters for agricultural products, and other miscellaneous agricultural workers like farmworkers or laborers and agricultural equipment operators. This group also includes fishing workers, hunters and trappers, forest and conservation workers, and logging workers.

Physical requirements

Over half of jobs (57.0 percent) require a medium strength level. Gross manipulation is required in all of these jobs at some point in the workday, with 44.3 percent constantly performing gross manipulation. Workers are typically standing or walking for over three-quarters (77.0 percent) of their workday. Almost half (48.2 percent) of these jobs also require some climbing of ladders, ropes, or scaffolds, although most of it is only done seldom (31.5 percent).

Environmental conditions

Fifty-nine percent of workers are exposed to the outdoors, with 42.6 constantly working outdoors. These workers most commonly experience a moderate noise level (70.0 percent of workers). Workers are required to be in proximity to moving mechanical parts in 46.6 of jobs, and in 56.9 percent of jobs they are exposed to wetness during their workday. Some jobs (39.5 percent) are exposed to hazardous contaminants.

Selected job requirements for farming, fishing, and forestry jobs, 2017

Cognitive requirements

These jobs are mostly exchanging factual information with regular contacts (64.7 percent) and another 32.8 percent are coordinating with regular contacts. The pace of work is typically steady in 81.6 percent of jobs, and work tasks change less than monthly for almost all (94.0 percent) or these jobs.

Educational requirements

Most of these jobs (77.8 percent) do not require a minimum education level, however, 59.3 percent are required to read and write. Prior work experience is required for about half (52.7 percent) of these jobs.

Food preparation and serving related occupations

Food preparation and serving related occupations

This occupational group includes chefs, cooks, bartenders, dishwashers, waiters, waitresses, food servers, hosts, and hostesses.

Physical requirements

On average workers stand or walk 95.9 percent of the workday and almost all (97.1 percent) workers are not able to choose when to sit versus stand or walk. For most (68.1) workers, the job is considered to have a medium strength level while for 22.7 percent the job is considered a light strength level.

Environmental conditions

About 45.5 percent of workers experience exposure to extreme cold and 35.5 percent experience exposure to extreme heat. Wetness is present in jobs for 98.4 percent of workers. For 83.1 percent of workers experience a moderate noise intensity level.

Selected job requirements for food preparation and serving related jobs, 2017

Cognitive requirements

The work tasks change less than monthly for 84.1 percent of workers. The tasks change at least once a month for 5.7 percent of workers, for 5.2 percent the tasks change at least once a day, and for 5.0 percent the tasks change at least once a week. Decision making is generally limited to predetermined actions for 77.5 percent of workers, while 21.2 percent make decisions where there are no set responses, and 1.3 percent make decisions that involve a degree of uncertainty or complexity.

Educational requirements

For 80.5 percent of workers there is no job requirement for obtaining an educational degree or diploma. However, literacy is required for 74.2 percent of workers and literacy is not required for 6.3 percent for those jobs with no minimum education requirement. Prior work experience is required for 23.6 percent of workers and on average the length is over a year (about 466 days). The preparation time necessary to satisfactorily perform the job is between a short demonstration (4 hours) and up to one month for 69.2 percent of workers. On-the-job training is a requirement for 92.1 percent of workers.

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

This occupational group includes chiropractors, dentists, pharmacists, physicians, surgeons, health diagnosing and treating practitioners, therapists, veterinarians, registered nurses, health technologists and technicians, and occupational health and safety specialists.

Physical requirements

On average workers sit 35.6 percent of the workday and 64.4 percent of the day standing or walking. Any type of keyboarding is required for 97.7 percent of workers. The average maximum weight lifted or carried by workers is about 46 pounds.

Environmental conditions

Exposure to wetness is experienced by 84.9 percent of workers and 26.5 percent have outdoor exposure. Most workers (82.7 percent) experience a moderate noise intensity level, 14.4 percent experience a quiet intensity level, and another a 2.9 percent a loud intensity level. Personal protective equipment to mitigate noise is not provided for 98.2 percent of workers.

Selected job requirements for healthcare practitioners and technical jobs, 2017

Cognitive requirements

Interaction with regular contacts occurs more than once per hour for 44.1 percent of workers. Most (55.1 percent) workers interacted with regular contacts by coordinating, 27.0 percent by persuading, 9.6 percent by exchanging factual information, and another 7.1 percent by influencing regular contacts. About half (48.7 percent) of jobs the pace of work is rapid, for 48.3 percent it is steady, and for another 3.0 percent it is unhurried.

Educational requirements

The preparation time necessary to perform the job is between 2 and 4 years for 41.6 percent of workers while for 25.2 percent more than 4 years and up to 10 years is required. The minimum education level required is a bachelor’s degree for 27.6 percent of workers, 21.8 percent a high school diploma, 14.3 percent an associate’s degree, 6.5 percent a master’s degree, 6.0 percent a professional degree, and another 2.1 percent a doctorate.

Registered nurses

Registered nurses

Registered nurses assess patient health problems and needs, develop and implement nursing care plans, and maintain medical records. They administer nursing care to ill, injured, convalescent, or disabled patients and may advise patients on health maintenance and disease prevention or provide case management.

Physical requirements

All registered nurses are required to communicate verbally and hear one-on-one. Using both hands to perform gross manipulation and to reach overhead is necessary at some point in the work day for most of these workers (97.9 percent and 78.1 percent, respectively). On average, they stand or walk for almost two-thirds of the workday (70.4 percent), and for 80.8 percent of these workers they cannot choose when they are able to sit or stand. Most of these workers are required to stoop (97.7 percent), crouch (77.6 percent), or kneel (69.5 percent) at some point during their workday.

Environmental conditions

Almost all of registered nurses are exposed to wetness (96.2 percent). Some are also exposed to hazardous contaminants (30.5 percent), and only 4.6 percent are in proximity to moving mechanical parts. Almost all of these workers are not exposed to heavy vibrations, (99.9 percent), extreme cold (99.8 percent), or humidity (99.2 percent). The noise intensity level for their work environment is moderate for 88.1 percent and quiet for another 11.2 percent.

Selected job requirements for registered nurses, 2017

Cognitive requirements

In over half of these jobs workers have to adapt to schedule changes (65.4 percent), but for 82.0 percent the work location does not change unless it is permanent. The pace of work is rapid for 59.4 percent of registered nurses. They interact with other contacts, for example the public, more than once per hour in 33.7 percent of these jobs, and continuously for another 26.4 percent.

Educational requirements

The most common minimum education level required is a bachelor’s degree (45.9 percent). Another 32.3 percent are required to have an associate’s vocational degree, and 18.0 percent of these jobs require an associate’s degree. Pre-employment training is required for 84.1 percent of jobs.

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

Licensed practical nurses (LPNs) and licensed vocational nurses (LVNs) provide basic nursing care, caring for ill, injured, or convalescing patients or persons with disabilities. They work in hospitals, nursing homes, clinics, private homes, group homes, and other similar institutions. They may work under the supervision of a registered nurse.

Physical requirements

Most LPNs and LVNs work at jobs that require a strength level classified as medium or heavy, with 56.6 percent classified as medium and another 26.0 percent as heavy. Workers in this occupation are expected to lift or carry an average maximum weight of about 54 pounds. Most of their workday (70.4 percent on average) is spent standing or walking, and the majority of LPNs and LVNs (82.6 percent) cannot choose when to stand or sit during their workday. Other physical requirements include reaching with one or both hands at or below the shoulder level (99.0 percent), overhead (78.0 percent), and pushing or pulling with arms and hands (68.6 percent) at some point in the workday.

Environmental conditions

Almost all LPNs and LVNs (94.4 percent) are exposed to wetness at some point during the workday and 27.9 percent are exposed to hazardous contaminants. Exposure to loud noise is almost non-existent: 82.9 percent of workers experience a moderate noise intensity level in their work environment, and for another 16.5 percent the work environment is quiet.

Selected job requirements for licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses, 2017

Cognitive requirements

LPNs and LVNs enjoy a certain degree of predictability in their work. For 79.4 percent work tasks change less than monthly, and for 75.0 percent the work location does not change. Coordinating is a requirement for workers in these occupations, both in interaction with regular contacts (62.8 percent) and with other contacts (44.4 percent).

Educational requirements

Specific vocational preparation (SVP) of 1-2 years is required for 49.4 percent of LPNs and LVNs, and another 38.4 percent are required to have 2-4 years. Pre-employment training is required for 90.9 percent of LPNs and LVNs. Prior work experience is required for 37.5 percent, with average experience of a little over 15 months (471 days).

Healthcare support occupations

Healthcare support occupations

This occupational group includes nursing, psychiatric, home health aides, occupational therapy and physical therapist assistants and aides, dental, medical, and veterinary assistants, phlebotomists, and medial transcriptionists.

Physical requirements

On average, workers spend 73.1 percent of the workday standing or walking and 26.9 percent of the workday sitting. These workers are required to lift or carry an average maximum weight of about 46 pounds. A medium strength level is present for 47.8 percent of workers, for 23.1 percent a light strength level, for 21.6 percent a heavy strength level, and for 4.2 percent a very heavy strength level. Constant verbal communication is a requirement for 48.3 percent of workers.

Environmental conditions

Most (83.4 percent) workers are not exposed to hazardous contaminants. For those that are, 16.5 percent of workers are provided with personal protective equipment, and for 4.2 percent of workers their exposure is fully mitigated by use of this personal protective equipment. Several environmental conditions are not present for workers such as heavy vibrations (99.7 percent), extreme cold (99.5 percent), extreme heat (99.4 percent), high exposed places (99.3 percent), and humidity (98.6 percent).

Selected job requirements for healthcare support jobs, 2017

Cognitive requirements

Interaction with regular contacts to exchange factual information occurs for 29.0 percent of workers, for 57.5 percent by coordinating, 12.2 percent by persuading, and another 0.9 by influencing. For 51.5 percent of workers the work schedule changes while the work location does not change for 71.6 percent. For 23.1 percent of workers the work location changes by more than four times per year, and for 5.4 percent it changes up to four times per year. For 59.1 percent of workers the pace of work is steady, for 35.5 percent it is rapid, and for another 5.5 percent it is unhurried.

Educational requirements

The minimum education required for 73.9 percent of workers is a high school diploma. On-the-job training is a requirement for 81.0 percent of workers.

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

This occupational group includes computer, automated teller and office machine repairers, avionics technicians, security and fire alarm systems installers, aircraft mechanics and technicians, bus and truck mechanics, diesel engine specialists, small engine mechanics, bicycle repairers, home appliance repairers, millwrights, watch repairers, wind turbine service technicians, and riggers.

Physical requirements

Workers spend, on average, 20.8 percent of the workday sitting and 79.2 percent of the workday standing or walking. Fine manipulation with both hands is a requirement for 83.7 percent of workers and for 99.7 percent gross manipulation with both hands is required. The average maximum amount of weight lifted or carried by workers is about 63 pounds.

Environmental conditions

About 8.8 percent of workers experience exposure to extreme cold and 18.0 percent experience exposure to extreme heat. Exposure to hazardous contaminants occurs in 45.2 percent of these jobs and heavy vibrations in 20.0 percent. A majority (89.6 percent) of jobs expose workers to the outdoors. Most workers (64.2 percent) experience a moderate noise intensity level, 32.0 percent experience a loud level, and 2.2 percent experience a very loud intensity level.

Selected job requirements for installation, maintenance, and repair jobs, 2017

Cognitive requirements

Most (77.9 percent) workers perform the same work tasks where the tasks change less than monthly. For 54.9 percent of workers the work schedule changes while the work location does not change for 50.4 percent of workers. A steady pace of work was experienced by 67.3 percent of workers, 31.4 percent experienced a rapid pace, and 1.2 percent an unhurried pace.

Educational requirements

For most (65.1 percent) workers a high school diploma is the minimum education requirement and another 23.0 percent have no minimum education requirement. Prior work experience is required for most (67.9 percent) workers and the median amount is about 2 years (730 days). The preparation time required is more than 2 years through 4 years for 27.7 percent of workers, more than 4 years through 10 years for 20.3 percent, and more than 1 year through 2 years for 17.7 percent of workers.

Aircraft mechanics and service technicians

Aircraft mechanics

Aircraft mechanics and service technicians diagnose, adjust, repair, or overhaul aircraft engines and assemblies, such as hydraulic and pneumatic systems. This occupation includes helicopter and aircraft engine specialists; however avionics technicians are excluded.

Physical requirements

All aircraft mechanics and service technicians are required to reach overhead with both hands, reach at or below the shoulder with both hands, and perform gross and fine manipulation. In addition, communicating verbally, near visual acuity, hearing one-on-one, and hearing in group or conference is required of all workers. Most workers are required to kneel (87.8 percent) and stoop (99.3 percent) on the job as well.

Environmental conditions

Nearly all (96.8 percent) aircraft mechanics and service technicians are not exposed to humidity. Most workers (98.6 percent) work in proximity to moving mechanical parts. Over half (57.9 percent) of workers utilize protective personal equipment when working in proximity to moving mechanical parts, while another 40.6 percent do not utilize protective personal equipment when in proximity to moving mechanical parts.

Selected job requirements for aircraft mechanics and service technicians, 2017

Cognitive requirements

Coordinating with regular contacts is necessary for most (83.4 percent) aircraft mechanics and service technicians. For 44.9 percent of workers it is required to exchange factual information with other contacts while 43.2 percent of workers interact by coordinating with others.

Educational requirements

The minimum education level required for most (64.3 percent) aircraft mechanics and technicians is a high school diploma and an educational certificate is not required for 75.7 percent of workers. The average time of prior work experience for the position is over 3 and a half years (1315 days).

Legal Occupations

Legal Occupations

This occupational group includes lawyers, judicial law clerks, judges, arbitrators, mediators, conciliators, paralegals, legal assistants, court reporters, title examiners, abstractors, and searchers.

Physical requirements

On average, workers spend 78.1 percent of the workday sitting and 21.9 percent of the workday standing or walking. Most jobs (60.5 percent) require frequent verbal communication. Crawling, crouching, and kneeling are not often required of these workers, as these physical requirements are not present in 99.3, 79.0, and 87.4 percent of jobs, respectively.

Environmental conditions

Most workers (65.9 percent) experience a moderate noise intensity level. Another 34.1 percent of workers experience a quiet noise intensity level. Workers are not required to be exposed to humidity, heavy vibrations, or a proximity to moving mechanical parts in 100.0 percent of legal jobs.

Selected job requirements for legal jobs, 2017

Cognitive requirements

Work location changes more than four times per year for 44.6 percent of jobs and never changes for another 45.3 percent. Interaction with regular contacts occurs continuously for 28.8 percent of jobs and more than once per hour for 46.6 percent. Interactions with regular contacts occur by coordinating for 31.0 percent of workers, by persuading for 20.7 percent, by influencing for 22.6 percent, and by resolving controversial issues for 19.5 percent of workers.

Educational requirements

The most common (53.3 percent) educational requirement for legal occupations is a professional degree. Pre-employment training is required in 63.0 percent of jobs. Prior work experience is required for 58.5 percent of jobs with an average of about 4 years (1,373 days).

Life, physical, and social science occupations

Life, physical, and social science occupations

This occupational group includes agricultural scientists, food scientists, biological scientists, medical scientists, astronomers, physicists, chemists, hydrologists, economists, survey researchers, psychologists, sociologists, urban planners, anthropologists, archeologists, geographers, historians, political scientists, and nuclear technicians.

Physical requirements

Most (63.2 percent) workers are able to choose when to sit or stand. Fine manipulation with both hands is required in 61.9 percent of these jobs. Crouching is required in 56.7 percent and pushing or pulling with hands and arms occurs in 23.7 percent of these jobs.

Environmental conditions

Many (50.3 percent) workers are exposed to hazardous contaminants. For 10.6 percent of workers, exposure to hazardous contaminants is fully mitigated with the use of personal protective equipment. Exposure to wetness occurs in 55.0 percent of these jobs. A proximity to moving mechanical parts occurs in 19.5 percent of jobs. Most jobs do not expose workers to extreme cold (91.5 percent) or extreme heat (88.6 percent).

Selected job requirements for life, physical, and social science jobs, 2017

Cognitive requirements

A steady pace of work is required for most jobs (72.0 percent). Work location never changes in 58.2 percent of jobs. The type of decision making required in this job most often (51.3 percent) is when there is a degree of uncertainty or complexity. For 35.3 percent of workers interaction with other contacts occurs by coordinating, 24.3 percent by exchanging factual information, 20.0 percent by persuading, and 12.1 percent by influencing.

Educational requirements

The most common (47.6 percent) requirement for a minimum education in these jobs is a bachelor’s degree. Another 16.9 percent of jobs have a master’s degree as a minimum requirement. Of these jobs, 69.8 percent require prior work experience with a median length of about 3 years (1095 days).

Management occupations

Management occupations

This occupational group includes chief executives, general and operations managers, advertising and promotions managers, construction, administrative services managers, financial managers, industrial production managers, transportation managers, storage managers, distribution managers, compensation and benefits managers, human resources managers, training managers, development managers, and education administrators.

Physical requirements

The percentage of management jobs classified as a sedentary strength level is 29.8 percent, a light strength level is required for 35.0 percent, and a medium strength level is required for 31.3 percent.

Environmental conditions

Most (73.2 percent) workers experience a moderate noise intensity level and 20.9 percent a quiet noise intensity level. Most workers are not exposed to extreme cold (96.9 percent) or extreme heat (96.3 percent). Only 9.6 percent of these jobs require work in proximity to moving mechanical parts and only 13.9 percent require some exposure to wetness.

Selected job requirements for management jobs, 2017

Cognitive requirements

Most management jobs (76.8) require a degree of uncertainty or complexity in the level of decision making. The speed of work is steady for 64.5 percent of jobs and rapid for another 30.8 percent. Interaction with regular contacts involves coordinating in 31.0 percent of jobs, persuading in 30.2 percent of jobs, influencing in 26.5 percent of jobs, and resolving controversial issues in 10.2 percent.

Educational requirements

Most (58.8 percent) management jobs have a bachelor’s degree as the minimum education requirement and 10.2 percent require a master’s degree. Prior work experience is required for 94.4 percent of jobs, and the length of prior work experience required is on average greater than 5 years (1915 days).

Architectural and engineering managers

Architectural and engineering managers

Architectural and engineering managers plan, direct, and coordinate activities in architectural and engineering companies.

Physical requirements

Near visual acuity, being able to hear one-on-one, in a group/conference, over the telephone, and communicating verbally is required for all architectural and engineering managers. Traditional keyboarding and fine and gross manipulation is also required of all workers in this occupation. Architectural and engineering managers spend 72 percent of his or her day sitting and 28 percent standing or walking, on average. The maximum average weight lifted by workers in this occupation is about 25 pounds. Finally, reaching at or below the shoulder is required for almost all (99.7 percent) architectural and engineering managers.

Environmental conditions

The majority of architectural and engineering managers are not exposed to extreme heat (96.8 percent), wetness (91.8 percent) or humidity (99.0 percent). Additionally, the majority of workers in this occupation group are not exposed to hazardous contaminants (94.6 percent). Lastly, no architectural and engineering managers are exposed to heavy vibrations and over half (67.7 percent) of workers in this occupation are exposed to the outdoors.

Selected job requirements for architectural and engineering managers, 2017

Cognitive requirements

The majority (93.2 percent) of workers in this occupation make decisions that involved a degree of uncertainty or complexity. Frequency of contact with regular contacts is more than once per hour for 70.3 percent of architectural and engineering managers. Interaction with regular contacts is done by persuading for 40.5 percent of workers in this occupation.

Educational requirements

Prior work experience is required for all architectural and engineering managers. The average amount of prior work experience for workers in the group is about 8.5 years (3,112 days). The minimum education level required for most (78.9 percent) architectural and engineering managers is a bachelor’s degree.

Office and administrative support occupations

Office and administrative support occupations

This occupational group includes communications equipment and computer operators, bill collectors, gaming cage workers, tellers, information and record clerks, customer service representatives, eligibility interviewers, secretaries and administrative assistants, couriers, dispatchers, data entry and information processing workers, and desktop publishers.

Physical requirements

On average office and administrative support jobs spend 65.6 percent of the workday sitting. Deciding when to sit or stand is left up to workers in 61.2 percent of jobs. Fine manipulation is required with at least one hand in 98.1 percent of jobs and with both hands in 52.4 percent of jobs.

Environmental conditions

Exposure to hazardous contaminants is a requirement in 1.4 percent of jobs. A small percentage (2.8 percent) of jobs require work in high and exposed places. In 5.4 percent of jobs, work is performed with workers in proximity to moving mechanical parts. A moderate noise intensity level is present in 77.8 percent of jobs.

Selected job requirements for office and administrative support jobs, 2017

Cognitive requirements

Most office and administration jobs (78.9 percent) require a pace of work with faster and slower periods. The speed is steady in 66.7 percent of jobs and rapid in another 30.1 percent of jobs. The pace is unhurried in just 3.3 percent of jobs. Interaction with other contacts occurs continuously in 20.5 percent of jobs, more than once per hour in 27.2 percent of jobs, more than once per day in 23.3 percent of jobs, and no more than once per day in 29.0 percent of jobs.

Educational requirements

Most (71.8 percent) office and administrative support jobs have a minimum education requirement of a high school diploma. Almost all (93.8 percent) of these jobs do not require pre-employment training; although, 80.9 percent require on-the-job training. On average, 54.2 percent of jobs require an average of almost 2 years (about 663 days) of prior work experience.

Library assistants, clerical

Library assistants, clerical

Clerical library assistants compile records, sort, shelve, issue, and receive library materials such as books, electronic media, pictures, cards, slides, and microfilm. They also locate library materials for loan and replace material in shelving area, stacks, or files according to identification number and title. They assist in registering patrons to permit them to borrow books, periodicals, and other library materials.

Physical requirements

All clerical library assistants are required to communicate verbally, hear one-on-one, and see with near visual acuity at some point during their workday. Kneeling and crouching is commonly required for library assistants, with 85.0 percent, and 78.0 percent required to do so during their workday, respectively. The strength level is classified as medium for 71.2 percent of library assistants, and on average the maximum weight they every lift or carry is just over 33 pounds.

Environmental conditions

Clerical library assistants are generally not exposed to environmental conditions, where there is no exposure to extreme heat or cold, hazardous contaminants, heavy vibrations, or proximity to moving parts. The noise intensity level for 67.9 percent of library assistants is quiet.

Selected job requirements for library assistants, clerical, 2017

Cognitive requirements

For most library assistants, the work location does not change (78.5 percent) and their tasks change less than monthly (76.6 percent). The pace of work is steady for 64.5 percent of these workers, and interaction with regular contacts is either through coordinating (32.2 percent) or factual information exchange (59.2 percent).

Educational requirements

These workers are most commonly required to have a high school diploma (79.6 percent) and 51.7 percent are required to have some prior work experience. For 48.3 percent of workers prior work experience is not required.

Executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants

Executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants

Executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants provide high-level administrative support by conducting research, preparing statistical reports, handling information requests, and performing clerical functions such as preparing correspondence, receiving visitors, arranging conference calls, and scheduling meetings. They may also train and supervise lower-level clerical staff.

Physical requirements

On average, executive secretaries and administrative assistants sit for 80.5 percent of the workday, and most of them (86.4 percent) can choose when they sit or stand. All of these workers are required to hear one-on-one and over the telephone, as well as perform traditional keyboarding at some point in their workday. Over fifty percent of these workers are required to stoop at some point in their workday (64.3 percent). Crouching (20.9 percent) and kneeling (15.1 percent) are also required for some of these workers.

Environmental conditions

One-hundred percent of these workers are not exposed to extreme cold or heat, humidity, or heavy vibrations on the job. The noise intensity level for their work environment is quiet for 28.9 percent and moderate for another 70.5 percent.

Selected job requirements for executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants, 2017

Cognitive requirements

In most of these jobs the pace of work is steady (77.3 percent). In 80.1 percent of jobs the work location does not change, but does change up to four times per year for another 9.1 percent.

Educational requirements

The most common minimum education level required is a high school diploma (57.6 percent). Another 13.3 percent are required to have an associate’s degree, and 23.8 percent a bachelor’s degree. Prior work experience is required for 89.4 percent of these jobs, with an average of over three and a half years (1334 days).

Medical secretaries

Medical secretaries

Medical secretaries and administrative assistants complete administrative tasks using specific knowledge of medical terminology and hospital, clinic, or laboratory procedures in the offices of physicians, hospitals, and other healthcare facilities. Their duties vary with the location, specialty, and size of the practice and may include scheduling appointments, billing patients, compiling and recording medical charts, reports, and correspondence.

Physical requirements

Most medical secretaries have jobs requiring strength levels classified from sedentary to medium, with 33.2 percent classified as sedentary, 44.8 percent as light, and 21.0 percent as medium, respectively. All medical secretaries are also required to hear, both one-on-one and on the telephone. They are also required to communicate verbally, and 55.2 percent are required to do so constantly, 36.9 percent frequently, and 7.9 percent occasionally.

Environmental conditions

Medical secretaries are not exposed to extreme cold or heat, humidity, or heavy vibrations. They are also not expected to work in high exposed places. Exposure to loud noises is almost never a requirement for medical secretaries; 24.9 percent experience a quiet noise level, and 74.2 to noise of moderate intensity. Exposure to wetness is rare, with only 19.4 percent of medical secretaries exposed to it in the course of their usual work.

Selected job requirements for medical secretaries, 2017

Cognitive requirements

For the majority of medical secretaries (65.4 percent) the pace of work is steady. For 90.2 percent of medical secretaries the work location does not change, and for 89.4 percent of workers in this occupation the work tasks change less than monthly.

Educational requirements

Most medical secretaries (83.4 percent) are required to have a high school diploma. Over half of jobs (58.3 percent) require prior work experience, with a median requirement of one year (365 days). On-the-job training is a common requirement; 88.7 percent of medical secretaries were required to undergo such training.

Secretaries and administrative assistants (Except legal, medical and executive)

Secretaries and administrative assistants (except legal, medical and executive)

Secretaries and administrative assistants (excluding legal, medical and executive) perform routine clerical and administrative functions such as drafting correspondence, scheduling appointments, organizing and maintaining paper and electronic files, or providing information to callers.

Physical requirements

All secretaries and administrative assistants are required to communicate verbally, hear one-on-one and perform traditional keyboarding at some point in their workday. About a quarter (28.7 percent) of these workers are keyboarding constantly, and another 53.5 percent are keyboarding frequently. On average they spend 82.3 percent of the day sitting, and 40.2 percent of these workers are in jobs that are classified as a sedentary strength level. Another 35.4 percent of jobs are classified as a light strength level, and 24.3 as a medium strength level.

Environmental conditions

One-hundred percent of these workers are not exposed to heavy vibrations or hazardous contaminants on the job. Some of these jobs require exposure to the outdoors (25.4 percent). Most secretaries and administrative assistants work in environments with a moderate noise intensity level (74.1 percent), and another 25.3 percent work in a quiet environment.

Selected job requirements for executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants, 2017

Cognitive requirements

For most secretaries and administrative assistants the pace of work is steady (79.3 percent), although 15.8 percent work at a rapid pace, and 5.0 percent are in jobs with an unhurried pace. Their work is reviewed more than once a day in 19.3 percent of jobs, once per day in 29.7 percent, and weekly in 32.8 percent.

Educational requirements

Most secretaries and administrative assistants (80.7 percent) are required to have a high school diploma. Prior work experience is required by 67.8 percent of these jobs, and on the job training is required by 71.2 percent of jobs.

Personal care and service occupations

Personal care and service occupations

This occupational group includes animal care and service workers, entertainment attendants, funeral service workers, personal appearance workers, baggage portages, bellhops, and concierges, tour and travel guides, childcare workers, personal care aides, recreation and fitness workers, and residential advisors.

Physical requirements

Most (50.7 percent) personal care and service jobs are classified as a medium strength level, 27.5 percent as a light strength level, and 16.9 percent as a heavy strength level. Workers may be required to lift or carry an average maximum weight of about 41 pounds.

Environmental conditions

A moderate noise intensity level is present in 71.2 percent of jobs, a quiet noise level is present in 12.4 percent of jobs, and a loud noise intensity level is present in 16.4 percent of jobs.

Selected job requirements for personal care and service jobs, 2017

Cognitive requirements

Interaction with regular contacts is most often (49.1 percent) performed by coordinating, with another 27.5 percent by factual information exchange, and 20.2 percent by persuading. Work location does not change in 61.6 percent of jobs. Work schedule changes in 56.1 percent of jobs and does not change in the remaining 43.9 percent.

Educational requirements

The most common (60.1 percent) minimum required education for personal care and service jobs is a high school diploma. Minimum education is not a requirement for 34.8 percent of workers; although literacy is required for 32.4 percent of workers. On-the-job training is required for 85.3 percent of jobs and 33.0 percent require prior work experience.

Production occupations

Production occupation

This occupational group includes engine assemblers, structural metal fabricators and fitters, bakers, butchers and meat cutters, meat packers, computer-controlled machine tool operators, forging machine setters, machinists, pourers and casters, tool and die makers, printing press operators, upholsters, furniture finishers, model maters, gas plant operators, tire builders, etchers, and engravers.

Physical requirements

On average, workers in production jobs spend 81.8 percent of the workday standing or walking and 18.2 percent of the workday sitting. Workers are required to lift or carry an average maximum weight of about 44 pounds. Approximately 13.2 percent of jobs are classified with a light strength level, 60.1 percent as a medium strength level, and 19.1 percent as heavy.

Environmental conditions

About 8.7 percent of workers experience exposure to extreme cold and 23.5 percent experience exposure to extreme heat. Conditions requiring high, exposed places occurs in 14.0 percent of these jobs and heavy vibrations in 7.9 percent. Over half (58.2 percent) of workers experience a moderate noise intensity level, 38.3 percent experience a loud level, and 1.4 percent experience a very loud intensity level.

Selected job requirements for production jobs, 2017

Cognitive requirements

Most (84.7 percent) workers perform the same work tasks where the tasks change less than monthly. For 44.9 percent of workers the work schedule changes while the work location does not change for 89.7 percent of workers. A steady pace of work was experienced by 67.0 percent of workers, 31.3 percent experienced a rapid pace, and 1.7 percent an unhurried pace.

Educational requirements

The minimum education requirement is a high school diploma in 55.9 percent of jobs. Most jobs (89.5 percent) do not require pre-employment training. In 42.1 percent of jobs prior work experience is required and is on average over 2 years (about 767 days). On-the-job training is required for 85.5 percent of jobs.

Protective service occupations

Protective service occupations

This occupational group includes workers engaged in firefighting and fire prevention, law enforcement, and animal control, as well as private detectives and investigators, security guards, lifeguards, transportation security screeners, and crossing guards.

Physical requirements

These jobs require lifting or carrying an average maximum weight of approximately 71 pounds. Climbing work related ramps or stairs is required in 70.5 percent of jobs. In most (84.5 percent) jobs the worker is not able to choose when they can sit versus stand.

Environmental conditions

Exposure to extreme cold is a requirement for 8.9 percent of protective service jobs, while 19.3 percent of these jobs require exposure to extreme heat. Exposure to hazardous contaminants is a requirement for 32.6 percent of jobs.

Selected job requirements for protective service jobs, 2017

Cognitive requirements

Most (65.5 percent) workers perform the same work tasks where the tasks change less than monthly. For 45.6 percent of workers the work location changes more than four times per year while the work schedule does not change for 70.3 percent of workers. A rapid pace of work is required by 56.5 percent of workers, 37.5 percent require a steady pace, and 6.1 percent an unhurried pace.

Educational requirements

A high school diploma was the most common (75.7 percent) minimum education requirement for protective service jobs. Over half of jobs (59.2 percent) require pre-employment training and 37.4 percent require prior work experience. Of those that require it, on average about two and a half years (890 days) of prior work experience are required. Protective service jobs require on-the-job training for 74.3 percent of workers.

Sales and related occupations

Sales and related occupations

This occupational group includes cashiers, rental clerks, retail salespersons, advertising sales agents, travel agents, wholesale and manufacturing sales representatives, models, demonstrators, product promoters, sales engineers, real estate brokers, street vendors, and telemarketers.

Physical requirements

Most (57.6 percent) of sales and related jobs are classified as a medium strength level. Workers in these jobs stand or walk for 72.9 percent of the workday. Driving a passenger vehicle is required for 22.5 percent of workers.

Environmental conditions

Workers in these jobs typically experience a moderate noise intensity level (89.2 percent). A quiet noise intensity level is experienced by 8.1 percent of workers. Most workers are not exposed to heavy vibrations (99.1 percent), high and exposed places (94.6 percent), or hazardous contaminants (93.9 percent).

Selected job requirements for sales and related jobs, 2017

Cognitive requirements

The frequency of interaction with regular contacts occurs more than one per hour for 52.1 percent of workers. Most (81.1 percent) workers perform the same work tasks where the tasks change less than monthly. For 57.1 percent of workers the work schedule changes while the work location does not change for 76.9 percent of workers. A steady pace of work is required by half of jobs (50.0 percent), 46.7 percent require a rapid pace, and 3.3 percent require an unhurried pace.

Educational requirements

Minimum education requirements for these jobs are mostly split between no requirement (46.7 percent) and a high school diploma (43.5 percent). Although some workers are not required to a have minimum education requirement, 46.3 percent of jobs do require worker literacy. Most (88.8 percent) jobs require on-the-job training, and prior work experience is required in 37.4 percent of jobs.

Transportation and material moving occupations

Transportation and material moving occupations

This occupational group includes airline pilots, flight attendants, bus drivers, taxi drivers, chauffeurs, locomotive engineers, railroad conducts, ship engineers, parking lot attendants, crane operators, recyclable material collectors, mine shuttle car operators, and ship loaders.

Physical requirements

On average, these jobs require lifting or carrying an average maximum weight of about 52 pounds. These workers spend 57.6 percent of the workday standing or walking and 42.4 percent of the workday sitting. Climbing ladders, ropes, or scaffolds is present for 33.9 percent of workers. Driving is present for 72.5 percent of workers, where 25.0 percent drive a passenger vehicle and 47.5 drive another type of vehicle.

Environmental conditions

Exposure to hazardous contaminants is experienced by 19.4 percent of workers. Personal protective equipment to mitigate risks associated with hazardous contaminants are provided to 12.8 percent of workers. The exposure to hazardous contaminants is fully mitigated by use of personal protective equipment for 4.1 percent of workers. Twenty-three percent of workers are required to be in high and exposed places. Proximity to moving mechanical parts is present for 40.8 percent of workers. A moderate noise intensity level is experienced by 67.8 percent of workers. Exposure to extreme cold is not experienced by 89.6 percent of workers.

Selected job requirements for transportation and material moving jobs, 2017

Cognitive requirements

Most (86.1 percent) workers perform the same work tasks where the tasks change less than monthly. For 53.2 percent of workers the work location does not change. A steady pace of work was experienced by 64.7 percent of workers, 33.6 percent experienced a rapid pace, and 1.8 percent an unhurried pace.

Educational requirements

Most (55.5 percent) workers have jobs where there is no minimum education requirement nor a pre-employment training requirement (57.7 percent). About 33.8 percent of these jobs require prior work experience, and most jobs (83.7 percent) require on-the-job training.

Flight attendants

Flight attendants

Flight attendants provide personal services to ensure the safety, security, and comfort of airline passengers during flight. They greet passengers, verify tickets, explain use of safety equipment, and serve food or beverages.

Physical requirements

All flight attendants are required to reach overhead with both hands, reach at or below the shoulder with both hands, and perform gross and fine manipulation. In addition, communicating verbally, near and far visual acuity, hearing one-on-one, hearing in group or conference, and hearing other sounds is required of all workers. Flight attendants lift or carry an average maximum weight of about 52 pounds. Pushing and pulling with two feet or legs is required for 97.3 percent of workers, whereas pulling with two hands or arms is required for all workers.

Environmental conditions

Exposure to wetness is an environmental condition for 68.4 percent of workers. However, flight attendants are not exposed to extreme heat, extreme cold, high exposed places, or hazardous contaminants. The noise intensity level is loud for over 44.3 percent of flight attendants and over half (53.4 percent) of workers are not exposed to heavy vibrations.

Selected job requirements for flight attendants, 2017

Cognitive requirements

For nearly all (97.5 percent) flight attendants the type of interaction with regular contacts is coordinating. However, for almost two-thirds (62.4 percent) of workers coordinating with other contacts is required and another 33.3 percent factual information exchange with other contacts is required.

Educational requirements

The minimum education level required for most (97.3 percent) flight attendants is a high school diploma. Prior work experience is not required for 64.9 percent of these workers.

Technical Note

Data in this release are from the Occupational Requirements Survey (ORS), conducted by the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). The ORS is an establishment-based survey and provides job-related information about the physical demands, environmental conditions, education and training, and mental requirements of jobs in the U.S. economy. Excluded are the federal government, the military, agricultural workers, private household workers, and the self-employed.

Additional estimates for detailed occupations and occupational groups are available at www.bls.gov/ors/#data.

Sample size

The 2017 estimates are from two samples of data collected from the Occupational Requirements Survey. The ORS is an establishment-based survey and uses a national sample design. To maximize the amount of publishable information, the BLS is combining data across three annual ORS samples to produce the 2018 estimates. The number of publishable occupations and the level of occupational detail is expected to increase with the addition of each subsequent year’s sample until the full ORS sample size of 26,500 sampled establishments is reached in 2018.

Data for the 2017 reference period were collected from 2 samples consisting of 14,000 private industry and 2,000 state and local government establishments. The ORS estimates represent 138,400,000 civilian workers in the United States.

Measures of reliability

To assist users in ascertaining the reliability of ORS estimates, standard errors are available for each estimate. For more information on standard errors see: www.bls.gov/ors/se.htm.

Occupational classification

BLS uses the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system. The ORS classifies occupations by eight-digit codes used by O*NET’s detailed occupational taxonomy referred to as “O*NET-SOC 2010 Occupations.” Military specific occupations (55-0000.00) are out of scope for the ORS. The occupational groups in this publication reflect the 2-digit aggregation of occupations as defined using the 2010 SOC, see www.bls.gov/soc/2010/2010_major_groups.htm.

Definitions of major terms

The complete list of terms is available within the ORS collection manual and ORS Handbook of Methods. The glossary below contains some major terms used in these occupational group profiles.

General terms

  • Job – group of workers in an establishment that have the same position. The term job refers to a single position within an establishment, whereas occupation refers to a profession or trade. Example: “waiters at Smith’s Restaurant” is a job, whereas “waiters” is an occupation.
  • Civilian workers – includes private industry and state and local government workers. Excluded are the federal government, the military, agricultural workers, private household workers, and the self-employed.
  • Work as generally performed – ORS data for 2017 were collected under this concept which refers to the way in which most workers normally complete the duties, tasks, and responsibilities as assigned.
  • Duration levels:
    • Seldom – up to 2 percent of the day
    • Occasionally – from 2 percent up to 1/3 of the day
    • Frequently – from 1/3 up to 2/3 of the day
    • Constantly – from 2/3 or more of the day

Physical requirements

  • Fine manipulation – touching, picking, pinching, or otherwise working primarily with fingers rather than with the whole hand or arm.
  • Gross manipulation – seizing, holding, grasping, turning, or otherwise working with the hands; and also often present when lifting involves the hands.
  • Strength level – A job is classified into strength five levels: sedentary, light, medium, heavy, and very heavy. The strength level is determined by how much weight a worker is required to lift or carry, how often they have to lift or carry that weight, as well as standing and walking in some special cases. Pushing or pulling – Pushing or pulling can be done with the hands and arms, feet and legs, or feet only.

Environmental conditions

  • Extreme cold – 40 degrees or below when exposed 2/3 or more of the time or 32 degrees or below when exposed up to 2/3 of the time.
  • Extreme heat – above 90 degrees in a dry environment or above 85 degrees in a humid environment.
  • Hazardous contaminants – exposure that negatively affects the respiratory system, eyes, skin, or other living tissue via inhalation, ingestion, or contact.
  • Noise intensity level – amount of noise that a worker experiences while working. Examples of noise level:
    • Quiet – settings such as a private office or art museum;
    • Moderate – business office, department store, fast food restaurant;
    • Loud – large earth moving equipment or can manufacturing department;
    • Very loud – rock concert or jackhammer work.
  • Outdoors – is considered present when two conditions exist, (1) a worker performs typical job duties outdoors or a worker moves between different work sites during the workday and (2) a worker is unprotected and exposed to the elements.
  • Personal protective equipment (PPE) – gear used or worn to minimize exposure to serious workplace injuries and illnesses.
  • Proximity to moving mechanical parts – refers to moving materials, mechanical parts, settings, or any moving objects that could cause bodily injury.
  • High and exposed places – when a worker is at risk of falling five feet or more from the worker’s center of gravity.

Cognitive requirements

  • Other contacts – include the public and those with whom the worker has no working relationship.
  • Regular contacts – those people with whom a worker has an established working relationship.
  • Frequency of contact – the highest frequency of work-related verbal contact that a worker has with regular and other contacts.
  • Change in work location – a change to a new worksite or from a discontinued work site.
  • Change in work task – the worker must remember new instructions, procedures, or similar information. This includes new work assignments, tasks that occur infrequently throughout the year, and irregular/variable tasks.
  • Decision making – The type and scope of decisions a worker is expected to make ranges from:
    • Using independent judgment to select from a limited number of predetermined actions;
    • Using independent judgment to determine the most appropriate course of action in situations that do not have set responses;
    • Using independent judgment to make decisions by choosing from a large number of possibilities in situations where a high degree of uncertainty or complexity may exist.

Education, training, and experience requirements

  • Preparation time – the amount of time required by a typical worker to learn the techniques, acquire the information, and develop the facility needed for average performance in a specific job/worker situation. This is also referred to as specific vocational preparation (SVP) and is measure in nine levels from a “short demonstration” to “over 10 years”. For more information see the Calculation section of the Handbook of Methods.
  • Minimum education – the lowest level of formal coursework required in a job and excludes general education, see the Education Requirements fact sheet for more information.
  • Pre-employment training – the amount of time needed to complete required training as a condition for hiring which may include certifications, licenses, and educational certificates.
  • On-the-job training – the amount of training time that occurs after an employee has been hired.
  • Prior work experience – the amount of prior relevant work activity. This excludes any non-vocationally specific requirements.

 

Last Modified Date: October 2, 2018