Department of Labor Logo United States Department of Labor
Dot gov

The .gov means it's official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you're on a federal government site.

Https

The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Secretaries and Administrative Assistants

Summary

Please enable javascript to play this video.

Video transcript available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zDqK9DaCDg4.
Quick Facts: Secretaries and Administrative Assistants
2020 Median Pay $40,990 per year
$19.71 per hour
Typical Entry-Level Education High school diploma or equivalent
Work Experience in a Related Occupation See How to Become One
On-the-job Training See How to Become One
Number of Jobs, 2020 3,363,900
Job Outlook, 2020-30 -7% (Decline)
Employment Change, 2020-30 -226,200

What Secretaries and Administrative Assistants Do

Secretaries and administrative assistants do routine clerical and organizational tasks.

Work Environment

Although secretaries and administrative assistants work in nearly every industry, about half of all workers in the occupation are employed in healthcare; education; and professional, scientific, and technical services. Most work full time.

How to Become a Secretary or Administrative Assistant

High school graduates who are comfortable using word processing and spreadsheet programs usually qualify for entry-level positions. Although workers typically learn their duties over several weeks on the job, legal and medical secretaries and administrative assistants may need additional training for industry-specific terminology. Executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants typically need several years of related work experience.

Pay

The median annual wage for secretaries and administrative assistants was $40,990 in May 2020.

Job Outlook

Overall employment of secretaries and administrative assistants is projected to decline 7 percent from 2020 to 2030.

Despite declining employment, about 324,300 openings for secretaries and administrative assistants are projected each year, on average, over the decade. All of those openings are expected to result from the need to replace workers who transfer to other occupations or exit the labor force, such as to retire.

State & Area Data

Explore resources for employment and wages by state and area for secretaries and administrative assistants.

Similar Occupations

Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and pay of secretaries and administrative assistants with similar occupations.

More Information, Including Links to O*NET

Learn more about secretaries and administrative assistants by visiting additional resources, including O*NET, a source on key characteristics of workers and occupations.

What Secretaries and Administrative Assistants Do About this section

Secretaries and administrative assistants
Secretaries and administrative assistants maintain databases and filing systems.

Secretaries and administrative assistants do routine clerical and organizational tasks. They arrange files, prepare documents, schedule appointments, and support other staff.

Duties

Secretaries and administrative assistants typically do the following:

  • Answer telephones and take messages or transfer calls
  • Schedule appointments and update event calendars
  • Arrange staff meetings
  • Handle incoming and outgoing mail and faxes
  • Prepare memos, invoices, or reports
  • Edit documents
  • Maintain databases and filing systems
  • Perform basic bookkeeping

Secretaries and administrative assistants help an organization run efficiently. They use computer software to create spreadsheets; manage databases; and prepare presentations, reports, and documents. They also may negotiate with vendors, buy supplies, and manage stockrooms or corporate libraries. Secretaries and administrative assistants also use videoconferencing and other office equipment. Specific job duties vary by experience, job title, and specialty.

The following are examples of types of secretaries and administrative assistants: 

Executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants provide high-level support for an office and for top executives of an organization. They often handle complex responsibilities, such as reviewing incoming documents, conducting research, and preparing reports. Some also supervise clerical staff.

Legal secretaries and administrative assistants must have knowledge of legal terminology and procedures. They prepare summonses, complaints, motions, subpoenas, and other legal documents under the supervision of an attorney or a paralegal. They also review legal journals and help with legal research—for example, by verifying quotes and citations in legal briefs.

Medical secretaries and administrative assistants transcribe dictation and prepare reports or articles for physicians or medical scientists. They also take simple medical histories of patients, arrange for patients to be hospitalized, or process insurance payments. Medical secretaries and administrative assistants need to be familiar with medical terminology and codes, medical records, and hospital or laboratory procedures.

Secretaries and administrative assistants, except legal, medical, and executive form the largest subcategory of secretaries and administrative assistants. They handle administrative activities for offices in almost every sector of the economy, including schools, government, and private corporations. For example, secretaries in schools are often responsible for most of the communications among parents, students, the community, teachers, and school administrators. They schedule appointments, receive visitors, and keep track of student records.

Work Environment About this section

Secretaries and administrative assistants
Secretaries and administrative assistants usually work in offices.

Secretaries and administrative assistants held about 3.4 million jobs in 2020. Employment in the detailed occupations that make up secretaries and administrative assistants was distributed as follows:

Secretaries and administrative assistants, except legal, medical, and executive 2,053,500
Medical secretaries and administrative assistants 611,200
Executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants 538,800
Legal secretaries and administrative assistants 160,400

The largest employers of secretaries and administrative assistants were as follows:

Healthcare and social assistance 24%
Educational services; state, local, and private 15
Professional, scientific, and technical services 12
Government 9
Religious, grantmaking, civic, professional, and similar organizations 6

Secretaries and administrative assistants work in nearly every industry.

Most secretaries and administrative assistants work in offices. Some administrative assistants work out of their own homes as virtual assistants.

Work Schedules

Most secretaries and administrative assistants work full time.

How to Become a Secretary or Administrative Assistant About this section

Secretaries and administrative assistants
Secretaries and administrative assistants may seek training in word processing, spreadsheet, and database software.

High school graduates who are comfortable using word processing and spreadsheet programs typically qualify for entry-level positions. Although workers typically learn their duties over several weeks on the job, legal and medical secretaries and administrative assistants may need additional training to learn industry-specific terminology. Executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants typically need several years of related work experience.

Education

Some community colleges and technical schools offer courses or programs in a variety of secretarial and administrative assistance fields. For example, courses or programs in office procedures focus on working in a business setting; those in industry-specific terminology and practices prepare students for jobs as medical and legal secretaries. Temporary placement agencies also may provide training in word processing, spreadsheet, and database software.

A bachelor's degree typically is not required to become a secretary or administrative assistant. However, some of these workers have a degree in a field such as business, education, or communications. Employers may prefer to hire candidates for executive secretary and executive administrative assistant positions who have taken some college courses or have a bachelor’s degree. 

Training

Secretaries and administrative assistants typically learn their skills through on-the-job training that lasts a few weeks. During this time, they learn about administrative procedures, including how to prepare documents. Medical and legal secretaries and administrative assistants may train for several months as they learn industry-specific terminology and practices.

Work Experience in a Related Occupation

Executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants typically need several years of work experience in other administrative positions, such as secretaries and general office clerks.

Important Qualities

Decision-making skills. Secretaries and administrative assistants often prioritize tasks and make decisions on their employers’ behalf, so good judgment is essential.

Interpersonal skills. Secretaries and administrative assistants interact with clients, customers, or staff. They should communicate effectively and be courteous when interacting with others.

Organizational skills. Secretaries and administrative assistants keep files, folders, and schedules in order so that an office runs efficiently.

Writing skills. Secretaries and administrative assistants write memos and emails when communicating with managers, employees, and customers. Therefore, they must have good grammar, ensure accuracy, and maintain a professional tone.

Pay About this section

Secretaries and Administrative Assistants

Median annual wages, May 2020

Total, all occupations

$41,950

Secretaries and administrative assistants

$40,990

Office and administrative support occupations

$38,720

 

The median annual wage for secretaries and administrative assistants was $40,990 in May 2020. The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $26,880, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $67,510.

Median annual wages for secretaries and administrative assistants in May 2020 were as follows:

Executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants $63,110
Legal secretaries and administrative assistants 48,980
Secretaries and administrative assistants, except legal, medical, and executive 38,850
Medical secretaries and administrative assistants 37,350

In May 2020, the median annual wages for secretaries and administrative assistants in the top industries in which they worked were as follows:

Professional, scientific, and technical services $46,990
Government 45,320
Religious, grantmaking, civic, professional, and similar organizations 42,160
Educational services; state, local, and private 41,110
Healthcare and social assistance 38,060

Most secretaries and administrative assistants work full time.

Job Outlook About this section

Secretaries and Administrative Assistants

Percent change in employment, projected 2020-30

Total, all occupations

8%

Office and administrative support occupations

-3%

Secretaries and administrative assistants

-7%

 

Overall employment of secretaries and administrative assistants is projected to decline 7 percent from 2020 to 2030.

Despite declining employment, about 324,300 openings for secretaries and administrative assistants are projected each year, on average, over the decade. All of those openings are expected to result from the need to replace workers who transfer to other occupations or exit the labor force, such as to retire.

Employment

Technology enables staff in many organizations to prepare their own documents without the help of secretaries. Additionally, many executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants support more than one manager in an organization, and many managers now do tasks that were previously done by these workers. In legal firms, paralegals and legal assistants use technology that enables them to perform tasks, such as preparing and filing documents, that were previously done by legal secretaries.

Employment growth is projected for medical secretaries, primarily due to the growth of the healthcare industry. For example, baby boomers will require more medical services as they age. Medical secretaries will be needed to handle administrative tasks related to billing and insurance processing of Medicare and other claims.

Employment projections data for secretaries and administrative assistants, 2020-30
Occupational Title SOC Code Employment, 2020 Projected Employment, 2030 Change, 2020-30 Employment by Industry
Percent Numeric

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program

Secretaries and administrative assistants

43-6000 3,363,900 3,137,700 -7 -226,200 Get data

Executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants

43-6011 538,800 438,200 -19 -100,600 Get data

Legal secretaries and administrative assistants

43-6012 160,400 126,700 -21 -33,600 Get data

Medical secretaries and administrative assistants

43-6013 611,200 676,100 11 64,900 Get data

Secretaries and administrative assistants, except legal, medical, and executive

43-6014 2,053,500 1,896,700 -8 -156,900 Get data

State & Area Data About this section

Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics (OEWS)

The Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics (OEWS) program produces employment and wage estimates annually for over 800 occupations. These estimates are available for the nation as a whole, for individual states, and for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas. The link(s) below go to OEWS data maps for employment and wages by state and area.

Projections Central

Occupational employment projections are developed for all states by Labor Market Information (LMI) or individual state Employment Projections offices. All state projections data are available at www.projectionscentral.com. Information on this site allows projected employment growth for an occupation to be compared among states or to be compared within one state. In addition, states may produce projections for areas; there are links to each state’s websites where these data may be retrieved.

CareerOneStop

CareerOneStop includes hundreds of occupational profiles with data available by state and metro area. There are links in the left-hand side menu to compare occupational employment by state and occupational wages by local area or metro area. There is also a salary info tool to search for wages by zip code.

Similar Occupations About this section

This table shows a list of occupations with job duties that are similar to those of secretaries and administrative assistants.

Occupation Job Duties ENTRY-LEVEL EDUCATION Help on Entry-Level Education 2020 MEDIAN PAY Help on Median Pay
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks

Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks produce financial records for organizations and check financial records for accuracy.

Some college, no degree $42,410
Court reporters Court Reporters and Simultaneous Captioners

Court reporters create word-for-word transcriptions at trials, depositions, and other legal proceedings. Simultaneous captioners provide similar transcriptions for television or for presentations in other settings, such as press conferences and business meetings, for people who are deaf or hard of hearing.

Postsecondary nondegree award $61,660
General office clerks General Office Clerks

General office clerks perform a variety of clerical tasks, including answering telephones, typing documents, and filing records.

High school diploma or equivalent $35,330
Information clerks Information Clerks

Information clerks perform routine clerical duties, maintain records, collect data, and provide information to customers.

See How to Become One $36,920
Medical records and health information technicians Medical Records and Health Information Specialists

Medical records and health information specialists organize, manage, and code health information data.

Postsecondary nondegree award $45,240
Medical transcriptionists Medical Transcriptionists

Medical transcriptionists listen to voice recordings that physicians and other healthcare workers make and convert them into written reports.

Postsecondary nondegree award $35,270
Paralegals and legal assistants Paralegals and Legal Assistants

Paralegals and legal assistants perform a variety of tasks to support lawyers

Associate's degree $52,920
Receptionists Receptionists

Receptionists do tasks such as answering phones, receiving visitors, and providing information about their organization to the public.

High school diploma or equivalent $31,110
Financial clerks Financial Clerks

Financial clerks do administrative work, help customers, and carry out transactions that involve money.

High school diploma or equivalent $41,520
Travel agents Travel Agents

Travel agents sell transportation, lodging, and entertainment activities to individuals and groups planning trips.

High school diploma or equivalent $42,350
Suggested citation:

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, Secretaries and Administrative Assistants,
at https://www.bls.gov/ooh/office-and-administrative-support/secretaries-and-administrative-assistants.htm (visited November 30, 2021).

Last Modified Date: Monday, November 1, 2021

What They Do

The What They Do tab describes the typical duties and responsibilities of workers in the occupation, including what tools and equipment they use and how closely they are supervised. This tab also covers different types of occupational specialties.

Work Environment

The Work Environment tab includes the number of jobs held in the occupation and describes the workplace, the level of physical activity expected, and typical hours worked. It may also discuss the major industries that employed the occupation. This tab may also describe opportunities for part-time work, the amount and type of travel required, any safety equipment that is used, and the risk of injury that workers may face.

How to Become One

The How to Become One tab describes how to prepare for a job in the occupation. This tab can include information on education, training, work experience, licensing and certification, and important qualities that are required or helpful for entering or working in the occupation.

Pay

The Pay tab describes typical earnings and how workers in the occupation are compensated—annual salaries, hourly wages, commissions, tips, or bonuses. Within every occupation, earnings vary by experience, responsibility, performance, tenure, and geographic area. For most profiles, this tab has a table with wages in the major industries employing the occupation. It does not include pay for self-employed workers, agriculture workers, or workers in private households because these data are not collected by the Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics (OEWS) survey, the source of BLS wage data in the OOH.

State & Area Data

The State and Area Data tab provides links to state and area occupational data from the Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics (OEWS) program, state projections data from Projections Central, and occupational information from the Department of Labor's CareerOneStop.

Job Outlook

The Job Outlook tab describes the factors that affect employment growth or decline in the occupation, and in some instances, describes the relationship between the number of job seekers and the number of job openings.

Similar Occupations

The Similar Occupations tab describes occupations that share similar duties, skills, interests, education, or training with the occupation covered in the profile.

Contacts for More Information

The More Information tab provides the Internet addresses of associations, government agencies, unions, and other organizations that can provide additional information on the occupation. This tab also includes links to relevant occupational information from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET).

2020 Median Pay

The wage at which half of the workers in the occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. Median wage data are from the BLS Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics survey. In May 2020, the median annual wage for all workers was $41,950.

On-the-job Training

Additional training needed (postemployment) to attain competency in the skills needed in this occupation.

Entry-level Education

Typical level of education that most workers need to enter this occupation.

Work experience in a related occupation

Work experience that is commonly considered necessary by employers, or is a commonly accepted substitute for more formal types of training or education.

Number of Jobs, 2020

The employment, or size, of this occupation in 2020, which is the base year of the 2020-30 employment projections.

Job Outlook, 2020-30

The projected percent change in employment from 2020 to 2030. The average growth rate for all occupations is 8 percent.

Employment Change, 2020-30

The projected numeric change in employment from 2020 to 2030.

Entry-level Education

Typical level of education that most workers need to enter this occupation.

On-the-job Training

Additional training needed (postemployment) to attain competency in the skills needed in this occupation.

Employment Change, projected 2020-30

The projected numeric change in employment from 2020 to 2030.

Growth Rate (Projected)

The percent change of employment for each occupation from 2020 to 2030.

Projected Number of New Jobs

The projected numeric change in employment from 2020 to 2030.

Projected Growth Rate

The projected percent change in employment from 2020 to 2030.

2020 Median Pay

The wage at which half of the workers in the occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. Median wage data are from the BLS Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics survey. In May 2020, the median annual wage for all workers was $41,950.