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Handbook of Methods Business Employment Dynamics History

Business Employment Dynamics: History

Business Employment Dynamics are based on data collected in the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. The conceptual basis for the BED dataset comes out of academic discussions that look at calculating new measures from existing data.⁠1 Such calculation requires that the cross-sectional QCEW be linked longitudinally across time in order to capture and link noneconomic changes. The linkage methodology avoids overstating establishment openings and closings and thus overstating job turnover in the economy. The BED data series was first published in September 2003, covering the period from September 1992 to December 2002. BLS has continued to publish gross job gains and gross job losses, quarterly and annually, on the basis of employment levels in the third month of each quarter. These data are published approximately 7 months after the reference quarter. The BED program develops and releases new data products frequently. In September 2003, the program began publishing gross job flows. Since then, it has expanded, with greater industry, size, and geographic detail. Following is a time line of the month and year the various BED data series were released for publication:


Hover over the red dot to see historical information

Major Milestones

  • September 2003: BED data are first released; dataset consists of data on national total private businesses.
  • May 2004: National NAICS sector BED data are first released.
  • December 2005: National firm size BED data are first released.
  • August 2007: State total private BED data are first released.
  • September 2008: BED national data on the size of employment change are first released.
  • May 2009: Annual national and state BED data are first released.
  • May 2009: National and state BED data on births and deaths of establishments are first released.
  • August 2010: Three-digit NAICS sector BED data are first released.
  • August 2010: BED data on establishment age and survival are first released.
  • February 2012: Two-digit state NAICS Sector BED data are first released.



⁠1 Steven J. Davis, John C. Haltiwanger, and Scott Schuh, Job creation and destruction (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996).


Last Modified Date: October 04, 2018