Occupational Definitions - OES Occupational Classification System
Professional, Paraprofessional, and Technical Occupations, part 2
Teachers, Educators, Librarians, and Related Occupations
Teachers - College, Junior College, University, Professional School, or Technical Institute
31111 - Lecturers
Responsible solely for preparing and delivering discourses on subjects requiring specialized knowledge. Exclude persons trained as lecturers but currently employed in positions not requiring the use of such training.
31114 - Nursing Instructors, Postsecondary
Demonstrate and teach patient care in classroom and clinical units to nursing students. Instruct students in principles and application of physical, biological, and psychological subjects related to nursing. Conduct and supervise laboratory experiments. Issue assignments, direct seminars, etc. Participate in planning curriculum with medical and nursing personnel and in evaluating and improving teaching and nursing practices. May specialize in specific subjects, such as anatomy or chemistry, or in a type of nursing activity, such as nursing of surgical patients.
31117 - Graduate Assistants, Teaching
Assist department chairperson, faculty members, or other professional staff members in college or university by performing teaching or teaching-related duties, such as teaching lower level courses, developing teaching materials, preparing and giving examinations, and grading examinations or papers. Graduate Assistants who primarily perform non-teaching duties, such as laboratory research, should be reported in the occupational category related to the work performed.
31201 - Agricultural Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses pertaining to agricultural sciences. Include teachers of agronomy, dairy sciences, fisheries management, forestry, horticultural sciences, poultry sciences, range management, and soil conservation.
31202 - Life Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in biological sciences. Include teachers of biochemistry, biophysics, botany, and zoology. Exclude teachers of Agricultural Sciences. Exclude Health Diagnostics and Health Treatment Teachers.
31204 - Chemistry Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in chemistry. Include teachers of analytical, inorganic, and organic chemistry.
31206 - Physics Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in physics.
31209 - All Other Physical Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in the physical sciences, except chemistry and physics. Include teachers of subjects such as astronomy, atmospheric sciences, space sciences, and geology.
31211 - Health Diagnostics Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses required for medical degrees that are necessary to practice as chiropractors, dentists, optometrists, physicians, podiatrists, veterinarians, or similar practitioners.
31212 - Health Assessment and Treatment Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses required for degrees needed by health specialists, technicians, and technologists working as nutritionists, occupational therapists, pharmacists, physical therapists, physician assistants, respiratory therapists, or in similar occupations. Exclude Nursing Instructors.
31213 - Communications Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in communications, such as: organizational communications, public relations, and radio/television broadcasting. Include teachers of journalism.
31214 - English Language and Literature Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in English language and literature. Include teachers of linguistics, and of comparative literature taught in English.
31215 - Foreign Language and Literature Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in foreign (i.e., other than English) languages and literature.
31218 - Art, Drama, and Music Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in visual and performing arts, such as: cinema, dance, drama, music, painting, sculpture, and theater.
31222 - Engineering Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in engineering. Include teachers of engineering specialties such as: aerospace, chemical, civil, electrical, industrial, mechanical, mineral, nuclear, and petroleum engineering.
31223 - Architecture Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in architecture and architectural design, such as: architectural environmental design, interior architecture/design, and landscape architecture.
31224 - Mathematical Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in mathematics, applied mathematics, statistics, and actuarial science.
31226 - Computer Science Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in computer and information science, including computer engineering, computer programming, and information systems theory.
31231 - Anthropology and Sociology Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in anthropology and sociology.
31232 - Area, Ethnic, and Cultural Studies Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses pertaining to the culture and development of an area (e.g., Latin America), an ethnic group, or any other group (e.g., women's studies, urban affairs).
31233 - Economics Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in economics.
31234 - Geography Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in geography.
31235 - History Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in human history and historiography.
31236 - Political Science Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in political science, international affairs, and international relations.
31237 - Psychology Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in psychology, such as: child, clinical, and developmental psychology, and psychological counseling.
31239 - All Other Social Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in social sciences not classified separately above.
31242 - Business Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in business administration and management, such as: accounting, finance, human resources, labor relations, marketing, and operations research.
31244 - Law Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in law.
31246 - Criminal Justice and Law Enforcement Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in criminal justice, corrections, and law enforcement administration.
31247 - Social Work Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in social work.
31252 - Education Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses pertaining to education, such as: counseling, curriculum, guidance, instruction, teacher education, and teaching English as a second language.
31254 - Philosophy and Religion Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in philosophy, religion, and theology.
31256 - Library Science Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in library science.
31258 - Parks, Recreation, Leisure, and Fitness Studies Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses pertaining to recreation, leisure, and fitness studies, including: exercise physiology, facilities management, natural resources conservation, and wildlife/wetlands management.
31262 - Home Economics Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in child care, family relations, finance, nutrition, and related subjects as pertaining to home management.
31299 - All Other Postsecondary Teachers
All other postsecondary teachers not elsewhere classified.
Other Teachers and Instructors
31303 - Teachers, Preschool
Instruct children (normally up to 5 years of age) in activities designed to promote social, physical, and intellectual growth needed for primary school in preschool, day care center, or other child development facility. May be required to hold State certification.
31304 - Teachers, Kindergarten
Teach elemental natural and social science, personal hygiene, music, art, and literature to children from 4 to 6 years old. Promote physical, mental, and social development. May be required to hold State certification.
31305 - Teachers, Elementary School
Teach elementary pupils in public or private schools basic academic, social, and other formative skills. Exclude special education teachers of the handicapped.
31308 - Teachers, Secondary School
Instruct students in public or private schools in one or more subjects, such as English, mathematics, or social studies. May be designated according to subject matter specialty, such as Typing Instructors, Commercial Teachers, or English Teachers. Include vocational high school teachers.
31311 - Teachers, Special Education
Teach elementary and secondary school subjects to educationally and physically handicapped students. Include teachers who specialize and work with audibly and visually handicapped students and those who teach basic academic and life processes skills to the mentally retarded.
31314 - Teachers and Instructors, Vocational Education and Training
Teach or instruct vocational and/or occupational subjects at the postsecondary level (but at less than the baccalaureate) to students who have graduated or left high school. Subjects include business, secretarial science, data processing, trades, and practical nursing. Include correspondence school instructors; industrial, commercial and government training instructors; and adult education teachers and instructors who prepare persons to operate industrial machinery and equipment and transportation and communications equipment. Teaching may take place in public or private schools whose primary business is education or in a school associated with an organization whose primary business is other than education.
31317 - Instructors, Nonvocational Education
Teach or instruct out-of-school youths and adults in courses other than those that normally lead to an occupational objective and are less than the baccalaureate level. Subjects may include self-improvement and nonvocational courses such as Americanization, basic education, art, drama, music, bridge, homemaking, stock market analysis, languages, modeling, flying, dancing, and automobile driving. Teaching may take place in public or private schools or in an organization whose primary business is other than education.
31321 - Instructors and Coaches, Sports and Physical Training
Instruct or coach groups or individuals in the fundamentals of sports. Demonstrate techniques and methods of participation. Observe and inform participants of corrective measures necessary to improve their skills. Those required to hold teaching degrees should be reported in the appropriate teaching category.
31323 - Farm and Home Management Advisors
Advise, instruct, and assist individuals and families engaged in agriculture, agricultural related processes, or home economics activities. Demonstrate procedures and apply research findings to solve problems; instruct and train in product development, sales, and the utilization of machinery and equipment to promote general welfare. Include County Agricultural Agents, Feed and Farm Management Advisers, Home Economists, and Extension Service Advisers.
31399 - All Other Teachers and Instructors
All other teachers and instructors not classified separately above.
Librarians, Archivists, Curators, and Other Education Related Occupations
31502 - Librarians, Professional
Administer libraries and perform related library services. Includes selecting, acquiring, cataloging, classifying, circulating, and maintaining library materials; furnishing reference, bibliographical, and reader's advisory services. May select music, films, or other audio-visual material for programs.
31505 - Technical Assistants, Library
Assist librarians by furnishing information on library sciences, facilities, and rules; by assisting readers in the use of card catalogs and indexes to locate books and other materials; and by answering questions that require only brief consultation of standard reference. May catalog books or train and supervise clerical staff.
31508 - Audio-Visual Specialists
Plan and prepare audio-visual teaching aids and methods for use in education.
31511 - Curators, Archivists, Museum Technicians, and Conservators
Curators: Administer affairs of museum and conduct scientific research programs. Direct instructional, research, and public service activities of institution. Archivists: Appraise, edit, and direct safekeeping of permanent records and historically valuable documents. Participate in research activities based on archival materials. Museum Technicians and Conservators: Prepare specimens such as fossils, skeletal parts, lace, and textiles for museum collection and exhibits. May restore documents or install, arrange, and exhibit materials.
31514 - Vocational and Educational Counselors
Counsel individuals and provide group educational and vocational guidance services.
31517 - Instructional Coordinators
Develop instructional material, coordinate educational content, and incorporate current technology in specialized fields that provide guidelines to educators and instructors for developing curricula and conducting courses. Include Educational Consultants and Specialists, Public Health Educators, and Instructional Material Directors.
31521 - Teacher Aides, Paraprofessional
Perform duties that are instructional in nature or deliver direct services to students and/or parents. Serve in a position for which a teacher or another professional has ultimate responsibility for the design and implementation of educational programs and services.
Health Practitioners, Technologists, Technicians, and Related Health Occupations
Health Diagnosing and Treating Practitioners
32102 - Physicians and Surgeons
Doctors of medicine who diagnose and treat mental or physical disorders. May specialize in one field such as surgery, obstetrics, or psychiatry.
32105 - Dentists
Diagnose and treat diseases, injuries, and malformations of teeth, gums, and related oral structures.
32108 - Optometrists
Diagnose, manage, and treat conditions and diseases of the human eye and visual system. Examine eyes to determine visual efficiency and performance by use of instruments and observation. Prescribe corrective procedures.
32111 - Podiatrists
Diagnose and treat diseases and deformities of the human foot.
32113 - Chiropractors
Adjust spinal column and other articulations of the body to prevent disease and correct abnormalities of the human body believed to be caused by interference with the nervous system. Examine patient to determine nature and extent of disorder. Manipulate spine or other involved area. May utilize supplementary measures such as exercise, rest, water, light, heat, and nutritional therapy.
32114 - Veterinarians and Veterinary Inspectors
Diagnose and treat diseases and dysfunctions of animals. May engage in a particular function such as research and development, consultation, administration, technical writing, sale or production of commercial products, or rendering of technical services to commercial firms or other organizations. Include Veterinary Inspectors.
32199 - All Other Health Diagnosing and Treating Practitioners
All other health diagnosing and treating practitioners not classified separately above.
32302 - Respiratory Therapists
Provide assessment, diagnostic evaluation, treatment, and care for patients with breathing disorders. Assume primary responsibility for all respiratory care modalities, including the supervision of respiratory therapy technicians. Initiate and conduct therapeutic procedures; maintain patient records; and select, assemble, check, and operate equipment.
32305 - Occupational Therapists
Plan, organize, and participate in medically-oriented occupational programs in hospital or similar institution to rehabilitate patients who are physically or mentally ill.
32308 - Physical Therapists
Assess, plan, organize, and participate in rehabilitative programs that improve mobility, relieve pain, increase strength, and decrease or prevent deformity of patients suffering from disease or injury.
32311 - Corrective and Manual Arts Therapists
Corrective Therapists: Apply techniques and treatments designed to prevent muscular deconditioning resulting from long convalescence or inactivity due to chronic illness. Manual Arts Therapists: Instruct patients in prescribed manual arts activities to prevent anatomical and physiological deconditioning and to assist in maintaining, improving, or developing work skills.
32314 - Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists
Examine and provide remedial services for persons with speech and hearing disorders. Perform research related to speech and language problems.
32317 - Recreational Therapists
Plan, organize, and direct medically-approved recreation programs for patients in hospitals, nursing homes, or other institutions. Activities include sports, trips, dramatics, social activities, and arts and crafts.
32399 - All Other Therapists
All other therapists not classified separately above.
Health Care Maintenance and Treating Occupations
32502 - Registered Nurses
Administer nursing care to ill or injured persons. Licensing or registration required. Include administrative, public health, industrial, private duty, and surgical nurses.
32505 - Licensed Practical Nurses
Care for ill, injured, convalescent, and handicapped persons in hospitals, clinics, private homes, sanitariums, and similar institutions.
32508 - Emergency Medical Technicians
Administer first aid treatment and transport sick or injured persons to medical facility, working as a member of an emergency medical team.
32511 - Physician Assistants
Provide patient services under direct supervision and responsibility of doctor of medicine or osteopathy. Elicit detailed patient histories and make complete physical examinations. Reach tentative diagnosis and order appropriate laboratory tests. Require substantial educational preparation, usually at junior or 4-year colleges. Most physician assistants complete 2 years of formal training, but training may vary from 1 to 5 years depending on the nature of the training and previous education and experience. May require certification. Exclude Ambulance Attendants, whose training is limited to the application of first aid, and Nurses.
32514 - Opticians, Dispensing and Measuring
Design, measure, fit, and adapt lenses and frames for client according to written optical prescription or specification. Assist client with selecting frames. Measure customer for size of eyeglasses and coordinate frames with facial and eye measurements and optical prescription. Prepare work order for optical laboratory containing instructions for grinding and mounting lenses in frames. Verify exactness of finished lens spectacles. Adjust frame and lens position to fit client. May shape or reshape frames. Include Contact Lens Opticians.
32517 - Pharmacists
Compound and dispense medications following prescriptions issued by physicians, dentists, or other authorized medical practitioners.
32521 - Dietitians and Nutritionists
Organize, plan, and conduct food service or nutritional programs to assist in promotion of health and control of disease. May administer activities of department providing quantity food service. May plan, organize, and conduct programs in nutritional research.
32523 - Dietetic Technicians
Under direct supervision of Dietitians, or following established nutritional guidelines, advise on food or nutrition.
Other Health Professionals, Paraprofessionals, and Technicians
32902 - Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists
Perform a wide range of complex procedures in the general area of the clinical laboratory or perform specialized procedures in such areas as cytology, histology, and microbiology. Duties may include supervising and coordinating activities of workers engaged in laboratory testing. Include workers who teach medical technology when teaching is not their primary activity.
32905 - Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technicians
Perform routine tests in medical laboratory for use in treatment and diagnosis of disease. Prepare vaccines, biologicals, and serums for prevention of disease. Prepare tissue samples for Pathologists, take blood samples, and execute such laboratory tests as urinalysis and blood counts. May work under the general supervision of a Medical Laboratory Technologist.
32908 - Dental Hygienists
Perform dental prophylactic treatments and instruct groups and individuals in the care of the teeth and mouth.
32911 - Medical Records Technicians
Compile and maintain medical records of hospital and clinic patients.
32913 - Radiation Therapists
Provide radiation therapy to patients as prescribed by a radiologist according to established practices and standards. Duties may include reviewing prescription and diagnosis; acting as liaison with physician and supportive care personnel; preparing equipment, such as immobilization, treatment, and protection devices; and maintaining records, reports, and files. May assist in dosimetry procedures and tumor localization.
32914 - Nuclear Medicine Technologists
Prepare, administer, and measure radioactive isotopes in therapeutic, diagnostic, and tracer studies utilizing a variety of radioisotope equipment. Prepare stock solutions of radioactive materials and calculate doses to be administered by Radiologists. Subject patients to radiation. Execute blood volume, red cell survival, and fat absorption studies following standard laboratory techniques.
32919 - Radiologic Technologists
Take X-rays and CAT scans or administer nonradioactive materials into patient's blood stream for diagnostic purposes. Include technologists who specialize in other modalities such as computed tomography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance. Include workers whose primary duties are to demonstrate portions of the human body on X-ray film or fluoroscopic screen.
32923 - Electroneurodiagnostic Technologists
Record electrical activity of the brain and other nervous system functions using a variety of techniques and equipment. May prepare patients for tests, obtain medical histories, calculate results, and maintain equipment.
32925 - Cardiology Technologists
Conduct tests on pulmonary and/or cardiovascular systems of patients for diagnostic purposes. May conduct or assist in electrocardiograms, cardiac catheterizations, and pulmonary-function, lung capacity and similar tests.
32926 - Electrocardiograph Technicians
Record electromotive variations in heart muscle using electrocardiograph, to provide data for diagnosis of heart ailments.
32928 - Surgical Technologists and Technicians
Perform any combination of the following tasks either before, during, or after an operation: Prepare patient by washing, shaving, etc.; place equipment and supplies in operating room according to surgeon's instruction; arrange instruments under direction of nurse; maintain specified supply of fluids for use during operation; adjust lights and equipment as directed; hand instruments and supplies to surgeon, hold retractors, and cut sutures as directed; count sponges, needles, and instruments used during operation; and clean operating room.
32931 - Psychiatric Technicians
Provide nursing care to mentally ill, emotionally disturbed, or mentally retarded patients. Participate in rehabilitation and treatment programs. Help with personal hygiene. Administer oral medications and hypodermic injections, following physician's prescriptions and hospital procedures. Monitor patient's physical and emotional well-being and report to medical staff.
32951 - Veterinary Technicians and Technologists
Perform medical tests in a laboratory environment for use in the treatment and diagnosis of diseases in animals. Prepare vaccines and serums for prevention of diseases. Prepare tissue samples, take blood samples, and execute laboratory tests such as urinalysis and blood counts. Clean and sterilize instruments and materials and maintain equipment and machines.
32999 - All Other Health Professionals, Paraprofessionals, and Technicians
All other health professionals, paraprofessionals, and technicians not classified separately above.
Writers, Artists, Entertainers, Athletes, and Related Occupations
34002 - Writers and Editors
Writers: Originate and prepare written material such as scripts, stories, news items, advertisements, and other material. Editors: Coordinate, edit, and analyze prepared written material. Include Managing Editors. Exclude Publicity Writers, Public Relations Specialists, Technical Writers, and Technical Editors.
34005 - Technical Writers and Editors
Write or edit technical materials, such as equipment manuals, appendices, and operating and maintenance instructions. May oversee preparation of illustrations, photographs, diagrams, and charts; and assist in layout work.
34008 - Public Relations Specialists and Publicity Writers
Engage in promoting or creating good will for individuals, groups, or organizations by writing or selecting favorable publicity material and releasing it through various communications media. Prepare and arrange displays, make speeches, and perform related publicity efforts.
34011 - Reporters and Correspondents
Collect and analyze facts about newsworthy events by interview, investigation, or observation. Report and write stories for newspaper, news magazine, radio, or television. Exclude correspondents who broadcast news for radio and television.
34014 - Broadcast News Analysts
Analyze, interpret, and broadcast news received from various sources.
34017 - Announcers, Radio and Television
Introduce various types of radio or television programs, interview or question guests, or act as master of ceremonies. Read news flashes and identify station by giving call letters.
34021 - Announcers, Except Radio and Television
Announce information to patrons of sporting and other entertainment events using public address system.
34023 - Photographers
Photograph persons, subjects, merchandise, or other commercial products. May develop negatives and produce finished prints. Include Scientific Photographers, Aerial Photographers, and Photojournalists.
34026 - Camera Operators, Television and Motion Picture
Operate television or motion picture camera to photograph scenes for TV broadcasts, advertising, or motion pictures.
34028 - Broadcast Technicians
Set up, operate, and maintain the electronic equipment used to transmit radio and television programs. Control audio equipment to regulate volume level and quality of sound during radio and television broadcasts. Operate radio transmitter to broadcast radio and television programs. An FCC first class operator's license is usually required for this occupation. A few typical broadcast technician workers include: Audio Operators, Video Operators, Control Room Technicians, Transmitter Operators, Master-Control Engineers, Telecine Operators.
34032 - Film Editors
Edit motion picture film, video tape, and sound tracks.
34035 - Artists and Related Occupations
Design and execute artwork to illustrate subject matter; promote public consumption of materials, products, or services; or to influence others in their opinions of individuals or organizations. Include Graphic Designers, Commercial Artists, Artistic Painters, Art Directors, and Painting Restorers.
34038 - Designers, Except Interior Designers
Design or arrange objects and materials to achieve artistic or decorative effects for apparel or other commercial items. May also create, mark out, or draw designs for items such as furniture and machinery (product design). Designers are generally categorized according to articles or products designed, such as Clothes Designers, Industrial Designers, or according to type of design work, such as Embroidery Designers. Include Layout Artists.
34041 - Interior Designers
Plan, design, and furnish interiors of residential, commercial, or industrial buildings. Formulate design which is practical, aesthetic and conducive to intended purposes, such as raising productivity, selling merchandise, or improving life style. May specialize in a particular field, style, or phase of interior design. Exclude Merchandise Display Designers.
34044 - Merchandise Displayers and Window Trimmers
Plan and erect commercial displays, such as those in windows and interiors of retail stores and at trade exhibitions.
34047 - Music Directors, Singers, Composers, and Related Occupations
Conduct, direct, plan, and lead instrumental or vocal performances by musical groups, such as orchestras, choirs, and glee clubs. Include workers who entertain by singing songs on stage, radio, television, or in motion pictures. Include Arrangers, Composers, and Orchestrators.
34051 - Musicians, Instrumental
Play one or more musical instruments in recital, in accompaniment, or as members of an orchestra, band, or other musical group.
34053 - Dancers and Choreographers
Dancers: Perform dances solo, with partners, or in groups to entertain audience. May also sing or act. Choreographers: Create and teach original dance for ballet, musical, or review. May direct and stage presentations.
34056 - Producers, Directors, Actors, and other Entertainers
Produce, direct, or play parts in stage, television, radio, or motion picture productions for entertainment, information, or instruction.
34058 - Athletes, Coaches, Umpires, and Related Occupations
Participate in competitive professional athletic events as a player, coach, manager, umpire, or judge. Include Athletic Trainers, Scouts, Official Scorers, and Timekeepers.
Other Professional, Paraprofessional, and Technical Occupations
39002 - Airplane Dispatchers and Air Traffic Controllers
Control air traffic on and within vicinity of airport and movement of air traffic between altitude sectors and control centers according to established procedures and policies. Authorize, regulate, and control commercial airline flights according to government or company regulations to expedite and insure flight safety.
39005 - Traffic Technicians
Conduct field studies to determine traffic volume, speed, effectiveness of signals, adequacy of lighting, and other factors influencing traffic conditions, under direction of traffic engineer.
39008 - Radio Operators
Receive and transmit communications using radiotelegraph or radiotelephone equipment in accordance with government regulations. May repair equipment.
39011 - Funeral Directors and Morticians
Perform various tasks to arrange and direct funeral services, such as coordinating transportation of body to mortuary for embalming, interviewing family or other authorized person to arrange details, selecting pallbearers, procuring official for religious rites, and providing transportation for mourners. Exclude top and middle managers whose duties are primarily policy making, planning, and administrative in nature and report them as General Managers or in another appropriate managerial occupation.
39014 - Embalmers
Prepare bodies for interment in conformity with legal requirements.
39999 - All Other Professional, Paraprofessional, and Technical Occupations
All other professional, paraprofessional, and technical workers not classified separately above.
32519 - Pharmacy Technicians and Aides
Fill orders for unit doses and prepackaged pharmaceuticals and perform other related duties under the supervision and direction of a pharmacy supervisor or staff pharmacist. Duties include keeping records of drugs delivered to the pharmacy, storing incoming merchandise in proper locations, and informing the supervisor of stock needs and shortages. May clean equipment used in the performance of duties and assist in the care and maintenance of equipment and supplies. May operate cash register and accept prescriptions for filling.
Last modified: October 16, 2001