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Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics
OEWS OEWS Program Links

Occupational Definitions - OES Occupational Classification System

Production, Construction, Operating, Maintenance, and Material Handling Occupations, part 1

First-Line Supervisors and Managers/Supervisors - Production, Construction, Maintenance, and Related Occupations

81002 - First-Line Supervisors and Managers/Supervisors - Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers

Directly supervise and coordinate activities of mechanics, repairers, and installers and their helpers. Managers/Supervisors are generally found in smaller establishments where they perform both supervisory and management functions, such as accounting, marketing, and personnel work, and may also engage in the same repair work as the workers they supervise. Exclude work leaders who spend 20 percent or more of their time at tasks similar to those of employees under their supervision and report them in the occupations which are most closely related to their specific work duties.

81005 - First-Line Supervisors and Managers/Supervisors - Construction Trades and Extractive Workers

Directly supervise and coordinate activities of construction or extractive workers. Managers/Supervisors are generally found in smaller establishments where they perform both supervisory and management functions, such as accounting, marketing, and personnel work, and may also engage in the same construction work as the workers they supervise. Exclude work leaders who spend 20 percent or more of their time at tasks similar to those of employees under their supervision and report them in the occupations which are most closely related to their specific work duties.

81008 - First-Line Supervisors and Managers/Supervisors - Production and Operating Workers

Directly supervise and coordinate activities of production and operating workers, such as testers, precision workers, machine setters and operators, assemblers, fabricators, or plant and system operators. Managers/Supervisors are generally found in smaller establishments where they perform both supervisory and management functions, such as accounting, marketing, and personnel work, and may also engage in the same production work as the workers they supervise. Exclude work leaders who spend 20 percent or more of their time at tasks similar to those of employees under their supervision and report them in the occupations which are most closely related to their specific work duties.

81011 - First-Line Supervisors and Managers/Supervisors - Transportation and Material-Moving Machine and Vehicle Operators

Directly supervise and coordinate activities of transportation and material-moving machine and vehicle operators. May supervise helpers assigned to these workers. Managers/Supervisors are generally found in smaller establishments where they perform both supervisory and management functions, such as accounting, marketing, and personnel work, and may also engage in the same work as the workers they supervise. Exclude work leaders who spend 20 percent or more of their time at tasks similar to those of employees under their supervision and report them in the occupations which are most closely related to their specific work duties.

81017 - First-Line Supervisors and Managers/Supervisors - Helpers, Laborers, and Material Movers, Hand

Directly supervise and coordinate activities of helpers, laborers, and material movers. Managers/Supervisors are generally found in smaller establishments where they perform both supervisory and management functions, such as accounting, marketing, and personnel work, and may also engage in the same hand labor as the workers they supervise. Exclude work leaders who spend 20 percent or more of their time at tasks similar to those of employees under their supervision and report them in the occupations which are most closely related to their specific work duties.

81099 - All Other First-Line Supervisors and Managers/Supervisors - Production, Construction, Maintenance, and Related Workers

All other first-line supervisors in this category not classified separately above.

Inspectors and Related Occupations

83002 - Precision Inspectors, Testers, and Graders

Perform precision inspecting, testing, and grading of parts, products, and equipment for defects, wear, and deviations from specifications. The majority of these workers use precision measuring instruments and complex test equipment and hand tools. May make minor repairs. Exclude workers who combine inspection and testing with major repair work.

83005 - Production Inspectors, Testers, Graders, Sorters, Samplers, and Weighers

Inspect, test, grade, sort, sample, or weigh nonagricultural raw materials or processed, machined, fabricated, or assembled parts or products. Work may be performed before, during, or after processing.

83008 - Transportation Inspectors

Inspect equipment or goods in connection with the safe transport of cargo or people. Include rail transport inspectors, such as freight inspectors, car inspectors, rail inspectors, and other nonprecision inspectors of other types of transportation vehicles. Exclude Precision Inspectors.

83099 - All Other Inspectors, Testers, and Related Workers

All other inspectors, testers, and related workers not classified separately above.

Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers

Machinery and Related Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers

85110 - Machinery Maintenance Mechanics

Repair and maintain the operating condition of industrial production and processing machinery, printing machinery, and refinery and pipeline distribution systems. Duties include repairing machinery and mechanical equipment, such as pumps, conveyor systems, and motors, in accordance with diagrams, operating manuals, or manufacturer's specifications. Exclude Millwrights and Mobile Heavy Equipment Mechanics, such as crane, bulldozer, grader, or conveyor mechanics.

85112 - Machinery Maintenance Mechanics, Textile Machines

Adjust and repair one or a variety of textile machines. Machines may be of one group or type called a section.

85113 - Machinery Maintenance Mechanics, Sewing Machines

Repair, adjust, and maintain sewing machines in sewing departments of industrial establishments, homes, or shops.

85116 - Machinery Maintenance Mechanics, Marine Equipment

Repair mechanical equipment aboard ships and other marine craft and floating structures. Exclude Outboard Motor Mechanics.

85117 - Underground Mine Machinery Mechanics

Repair, adjust, and maintain underground mining machinery.

85118 - Machinery Maintenance Mechanics, Water or Power Generation Plant

Install, adjust, repair, and maintain machinery in power generating stations and water treatment plants. Duties include the repair and maintenance of: Mechanical elements of generators, waterwheels, piping, and water-inlet controls in generating stations; steam boilers, condensers, pumps, compressors, and similar equipment in gas manufacturing plants; and equipment used to process and distribute water for human consumption and industrial use.

85119 - All Other Machinery Maintenance Mechanics

All other machinery maintenance mechanics not classified separately above.

85123 - Millwrights

Install new machinery and heavy equipment according to layout plans, blueprints, and other drawings. Dismantle and move machinery and heavy equipment when changes in plant layout are required. Use a variety of hand tools, hoists, dollies, and trucks. May construct foundations for machines.

85126 - Refractory Materials Repairers, Except Brickmasons

Build or repair furnaces, kilns, cupolas, boilers, converters, ladles, soaking pits, ovens, etc., using refractory materials. May pack insulation or repair casings and linings. Exclude Refractory Brickmasons.

85128 - Machinery Maintenance Workers

Change parts, lubricate machinery, and perform other routine machinery maintenance. Exclude workers who repair machinery.

85132 - Maintenance Repairers, General Utility

Perform work involving two or more maintenance skills to keep machines, mechanical equipment, or structure of an establishment in repair. Duties may involve pipefitting, boilermaking, insulating, welding, machining, machine and equipment repairing, carpentry, and electrical work. May also include planning and laying out of work relating to repairs; repairing electrical and/or mechanical equipment; installing, aligning, and balancing new equipment; and repairing buildings, floors, or stairs. This occupation is generally found in small establishments where specialization in maintenance work is impractical.

Mobile Equipment Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers

85302 - Automotive Mechanics

Adjust, repair, and overhaul automotive vehicles. May be designated according to specialties, such as Brake Repairers, Transmission Mechanics, or Front-end Mechanics. Exclude Auto Body Repairers, Bus and Truck Mechanics, Diesel Engine Specialists, and Electrical Systems Specialists.

85305 - Automotive Body and Related Repairers

Repair, repaint, and refinish automotive vehicle bodies; straighten vehicle frames; and replace damaged vehicle glass.

85308 - Motorcycle Repairers

Repair and overhaul motorcycles, motor scooters, mopeds, or similar motorized vehicles.

85311 - Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists

Repair and maintain the operating condition of trucks, buses, and all types of diesel engines. Include mechanics working primarily with automobile diesel engines.

85314 - Mobile Heavy Equipment Mechanics, Except Engines

Repair and maintain mobile mechanical, hydraulic, and pneumatic equipment, such as cranes, bulldozers, graders, and conveyors, used in construction, logging, and surface mining. Exclude Rail Car Repairers and Diesel Engine Specialists.

85317 - Rail Car Repairers

Repair and rebuild railroad rolling stock, mine cars, and trolley or subway cars, according to Federal and company regulations and specifications. Exclude Engine Specialists.

85321 - Farm Equipment Mechanics

Maintain, repair, and overhaul farm machinery and vehicles, such as tractors, harvesters, and irrigation systems. Include repairers of dairy equipment. Exclude Engine Specialists.

85323 - Aircraft Mechanics

Repair and maintain the operating condition of aircraft assemblies, such as hydraulic and pneumatic systems, landing gear, propeller assemblies, fuel tanks, and airframe assemblies. Inspect, test, modify, and install equipment according to specifications, using tools such as power shears, acetylene welding equipment, rivet guns, and air or electric drills. Include Helicopter Repairers. Exclude Aircraft Engine Specialists and Aircraft Electricians.

85326 - Aircraft Engine Specialists

Repair and maintain the operating condition of aircraft engines. Include Helicopter Engine Mechanics. Exclude Electrical System Specialists and Aircraft Mechanics whose primary duties do not involve engine repair.

85328 - Small Engine Specialists

Repair and maintain the operating condition of nonautomobile gasoline-powered internal combustion engines and the equipment powered by those engines. Include repairers of outboard motors, snowmobiles, lawn mowers, and chain saws. Exclude Motorcycle Repairers.

Communications Equipment Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers

85502 - Central Office and PBX Installers and Repairers

Test, analyze, and repair telephone or telegraph circuits and equipment at a central office location using test meters and hand tools. Analyze and repair defects in communications equipment on customers' premises using circuit diagrams, polarity probes, meters, and a telephone test set. May install equipment.

85505 - Frame Wirers, Central Office

Connect wires from telephone lines and cables to distributing frames in telephone company central office, using soldering iron and other hand tools.

85508 - Telegraph and Teletype Installers and Maintainers

Install and repair telegraphic transmitting and receiving equipment, following floor plan sketches and wiring diagrams.

85511 - Signal or Track Switch Maintainers

Install, inspect, test, and repair electric gate crossings, signals, signal equipment, track switches, section lines, and intercommunication systems within a railroad system, following blueprints and work orders.

85514 - Radio Mechanics

Test and repair stationary, mobile, and portable radio transmitting and receiving equipment and two-way radio communications systems, used in ship-to-shore communications and found in service and emergency vehicles, in accordance with diagrams and manufacturer's specifications. Examine equipment for damaged components and loose or broken connections and wires; replace defective components and parts. Involves use of hand tools and electrical measuring instruments. May repair intercommunication telephone systems. Occupation may require Federal Communications Commission Radiotelephone Operator's License, depending on the nature of repairs performed.

85599 - All Other Communications Equipment Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers

All other communications equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers not classified separately above.

Other Electrical and Electronic Equipment Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers

85702 - Telephone and Cable Television Line Installers and Repairers

String and repair telephone and television cable and other equipment for transmitting messages or TV programming. Duties include locating and repairing defects in existing systems; placing, rearranging, and removing underground or aerial cables; installing supports, insulation, or guy wire systems; and other auxiliary tasks necessary to maintain lines and cables.

85705 - Data Processing Equipment Repairers

Repair, maintain, and install electronic computers (mainframes, minis, and micros), peripheral equipment, and word processing systems.

85708 - Electronic Home Entertainment Equipment Repairers

Adjust and repair radios, televisions, stereo systems, recorders, video systems, or other electronic home entertainment equipment.

85711 - Electric Home Appliance and Power Tool Repairers

Repair, adjust, and install all types of electric household appliances, such as refrigerators, washing machines, dishwashers, vacuum cleaners, room air conditioners, and small appliances, including toasters, mixers, and food processors. Include repairers of electrical hand and bench tools, such as lathes, drills, saws, grinders, and polishers.

85714 - Electric Motor, Transformer, and Related Repairers

Install, repair, and maintain electric motors, batteries, transformers, wiring, and switches, using hand and power tools, gauges, and test instruments.

85717 - Electronics Repairers, Commercial and Industrial Equipment

Repair electronic equipment such as industrial controls, telemetering and missile control systems, radar systems, transmitters, and antennae, using hand tools and testing instruments. Exclude repairers of data processing equipment and home entertainment equipment.

85721 - Powerhouse, Substation, and Relay Electricians

Inspect, test, repair, and maintain electrical equipment in generating stations or powerhouses; substation equipment, such as oil circuit breakers and transformers; and in-service relays, to prevent and remedy abnormal behavior of transmission and distribution lines and equipment.

85723 - Electrical Power-Line Installers and Repairers

Install and repair cables or wires used in electrical power or distribution systems. Install insulators, erect wooden poles and light or heavy duty transmission towers. Include Cable Splicers and Trouble Shooters. Exclude repairers of transformers and substation equipment, and telephone and telegraph communications workers.

85726 - Station Installers and Repairers, Telephone

Install and repair telephone station equipment, such as telephones, coin collectors, telephone booths, and switching-key equipment.

85728 - Electrical Installers and Repairers, Transportation Equipment

Install, adjust, and maintain electrical systems and wiring switches and fixtures on motor vehicles, trains, or aircraft.

85799 - All Other Electrical and Electronic Equipment Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers

All other electrical and electronic equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers not classified separately above.

Other Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers

85902 - Heating, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Mechanics and Installers

Install and repair heating, air conditioning, and refrigerating systems. Duties include installation and repair of oil burners, hot-air furnaces, heating stoves, and similar equipment in homes and commercial establishments, using hand and pipe threading tools. Includes the installation and repair of cooling and central air conditioning systems.

85905 - Precision Instrument Repairers

Install, test, repair, maintain, and adjust indicating, recording, telemetering, and controlling instruments used to measure and control variables such as pressure, flow, temperature, motion, force, and chemical composition. Include instrument repairers who repair, calibrate, and test instruments such as voltmeters, ammeters, and galvanometers.

85908 - Electromedical and Biomedical Equipment Repairers

Test, adjust, and repair electromedical equipment using hand tools and meters.

85911 - Electric Meter Installers and Repairers

Install electric meters on customers' premises or on pole. Test meters and perform necessary repairs. Turn current on/off by connecting/disconnecting service drop.

85914 - Camera and Photographic Equipment Repairers

Repair and adjust cameras and photographic equipment, including motion picture cameras and equipment, using specialized tools and testing devices.

85917 - Watchmakers

Repair, clean, and adjust mechanisms of instruments such as watches, time clocks, and timing switches, using hand tools and measuring instruments. Exclude workers who perform a specialized operation.

85921 - Musical Instrument Repairers and Tuners

Repair percussion, stringed, and wind instruments. May specialize in tuning one type of instrument, such as a Piano Tuner. Exclude Electric Organ Repairers.

85923 - Locksmiths and Safe Repairers

Repair and open locks; make keys; change locks and safe combinations; and install and repair safes.

85926 - Office Machine and Cash Register Servicers

Repair and service office machines, such as adding, accounting, calculating, duplicating, and typewriting machines. Include the repair of manual, electrical, and electronic office machines. Exclude the repair of computerized systems and word processing systems.

85928 - Mechanical Control and Valve Installers and Repairers

Install, repair, and maintain mechanical regulating and controlling devices, such as gas regulators, thermostats, safety and flow valves, and other mechanical governors.

85932 - Elevator Installers and Repairers

Assemble, install, repair, and maintain electric and hydraulic freight and passenger elevators, escalators, and dumbwaiters.

85935 - Riggers

Set up or repair rigging for ships and shipyards, manufacturing plants, logging yards, construction projects, and for the entertainment industry. Select cables, ropes, pulleys, winches, blocks, and sheaves according to weight and size of load to be moved. Coordinate and direct other workers and the movement of equipment to accomplish the task.

85938 - Installers and Repairers, Manufactured Buildings, Mobile Homes, and Travel Trailers

Install, repair, and maintain units and systems in mobile homes, prefabricated buildings, or travel trailers, using hand tools or power tools.

85944 - Gas Appliance Repairers

Repair and install gas appliances and equipment, such as ovens, dryers, and hot water heaters.

85947 - Coin and Vending Machine Servicers and Repairers

Install, service, adjust, and repair coin or vending machines placed in establishments on a concessional basis, using hand or power tools. Exclude repairers of electronic video games and other specialized electronic vending machines.

85951 - Bicycle Repairers

Repair and service bicycles using hand tools.

85953 - Tire Repairers and Changers

Repair and replace tires, tubes, treads, and related products on automobiles, buses, trucks, and other vehicles. Duties include mounting tires on wheels, balancing tires and wheels, and testing and repairing damaged tires and inner tubes.

85956 - Menders, Garments, Linens, and Related

Repair defects such as tears and holes in garments, linens, curtains, and draperies. Rebind cleaned blankets by hand or by operating a sewing machine.

85999 - All Other Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers

Include all mechanics, installers, and repairers not classified separately above.

Construction Trades and Extractive Occupations, Except Material-Moving

Carpentry and Related Occupations

87102 - Carpenters

Construct, erect, install and repair structures, fixtures, and equipment of wood, plywood, and wallboard, using carpentry tools and woodworking machines.

87105 - Ceiling Tile Installers and Acoustical Carpenters

Apply or mount acoustical tiles or blocks, strips, or sheets of shock-absorbing materials to ceilings and walls of buildings to reduce or reflect sound. Materials may be of decorative quality. Exclude carpet, wood, or hard tile installers.

87108 - Drywall Installers

Apply plasterboard or other wallboard to ceilings and interior walls of buildings.

87111 - Tapers

Seal joints between plasterboard or other wallboard to prepare wall surface for painting or papering.

87114 - Lathers

Fasten wooden, metal, or rockboard lath to walls, ceilings, and partitions of buildings to provide supporting base for plaster, fire-proofing, or acoustical material.

87121 - Brattice Builders

Build doors or brattices (ventilation walls or partitions) in underground passageways to control the proper circulation of air through the passageways and to the working places.

Electrical and Related Occupations

87202 - Electricians

Install, maintain, and repair electrical wiring, equipment, and fixtures. Insure that work is in accordance with relevant codes. May read blueprints. Include Protective Signal Installers and Repairers and Street Light Servicers.

Masonry and Related Occupations

87302 - Brickmasons

Lay building materials, such as brick, structural tile, concrete, cinder, glass, gypsum, and terra cotta block (except stone), to construct or repair walls, partitions, arches, sewers, and other structures. Include Refractory Brickmasons.

87305 - Stonemasons

Build stone structures, such as piers, walls, and abutments. Lay walks, curbstones, or special types of masonry for vats, tanks, and floors.

87308 - Hard Tile Setters

Apply hard tile to walls, floors, ceilings, and other areas following design specifications.

87311 - Concrete and Terrazzo Finishers

Apply cement, sand, pigment, or marble chips to floors, stairways, and cabinet fixtures to finish and attain durable and decorative surfaces, according to specifications and drawings. Finish surfaces to remove imperfections from freshly poured concrete walls, roads, walkways, and ornamental stone facings of concrete structural products. Include Concrete Rubbers.

87314 - Reinforcing Metal Workers

Position and secure metal bars in concrete forms to reinforce concrete. Determine number, size, shape, and location of reinforcing rods from blueprints, sketches, or oral instructions.

87317 - Plasterers and Stucco Masons

Apply coats of plaster onto interior or exterior walls, ceilings, or partitions of buildings to produce finished surface according to blueprints, architect's drawings, or oral instructions.

Painting and Related Occupations

87402 - Painters and Paperhangers, Construction and Maintenance

Painters: Paint walls, equipment, buildings, bridges, and other structural surfaces, using brushes, rollers, and spray guns. May mix colors or oils to obtain desired color or consistency. Paperhangers: Cover interior walls and ceilings of rooms with decorative wallpaper or fabric, or attach advertising posters on surfaces such as walls and billboards. Duties include removing old materials from surface to be papered.

Plumbing and Related Occupations

87502 - Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters

Assemble, install, alter, and repair pipe systems (metal, plastic, ceramic, composition, etc.) that carry water, steam, air, or other liquids or gases.

87505 - Pipelaying Fitters

Align pipeline section in preparation of welding. Signal tractor driver for placement of pipeline sections in proper alignment. Insert steel spacer.

87508 - Pipelayers

Lay glazed or unglazed clay, concrete, plastic, or cast-iron pipe for storm or sanitation sewers, drains, water mains, and oil or gas lines. Perform any combination of the following tasks: Grade trenches or culverts, position pipe, or seal joints.

87511 - Septic Tank Servicers and Sewer Pipe Cleaners

Clean and repair septic tanks, sewer lines, or drains. May patch walls and partitions of tank, replace damaged drain tile, or repair breaks in underground piping.

Floor Related Occupations, Except Carpenters

87602 - Carpet Installers

Lay carpets or rugs in homes or buildings. Exclude workers who lay linoleum.

87605 - Floor Layers, Except Carpet, Wood, and Hard Tiles

Apply blocks, strips, or sheets of shock-absorbing, sound-deadening, or decorative coverings to floors and cabinets. Include soft tile setters. Exclude Acoustical Carpenters and installers of carpets, wood, or hard tile.

87608 - Floor Sanding Machine Operators

Scrape and sand wooden floors to smooth surfaces using floor scraper and floor sanding machine.

Road, Rail, and Related Construction and Maintenance Occupations, Except Masonry

87702 - Air Hammer Operators

Use air hammer to: Break asphalt, concrete, stone, or other pavement; loosen earth, dig clay, or break rock, to trim bottom or sides of trenches or other excavations; drill holes in concrete; reduce size of large stones; or tamp earth in backfills.

87705 - Pile-Driver Operators

Operate pile drivers mounted on skids, barges, crawler treads, or locomotive cranes to drive pilings for foundations of structures, such as buildings, bridges, and piers.

87708 - Paving, Surfacing, and Tamping Equipment Operators

Operate equipment used for applying concrete, asphalt, or other materials to road beds, parking lots, or airport runways and taxiways, or equipment used for tamping gravel, dirt, or other materials. Include Concrete and Asphalt Paving Machine Operators, Form Tampers, Tamping Machine Operators, and Stone Spreader Operators.

87711 - Highway Maintenance Workers

Maintain highways, municipal and rural roads, airport runways, and rights-of-way in safe condition. Duties include patching broken or eroded pavement, and erecting and repairing guard rails, highway markers, and snow fences using a posthole digger, shovel, axe, saw, hammer and nails, or power tools. May also clear brush or plant trees along rights-of-way.

87714 - Rail-Track Laying and Maintenance Equipment Operators

Lay, repair, and maintain track for standard or narrow-gauge railroad equipment used in regular railroad service or in plant yards, quarries, sand and gravel pits, and mines. Include Ballast Cleaning Machine Operators and Road Bed Tamping Machine Operators.

Other Construction Trades Occupations

87802 - Insulation Workers

Cover and line structures with insulation using saws, knives, rasps, trowels, and other tools and implements. May also specialize in providing blown-in insulation.

87803 - Hazardous Materials Removal Workers

Remove, pack, transport, and/or dispose of hazardous materials, including asbestos, waste fuel, contaminated soil, etc. Specialized training and certification in hazardous materials handling and/or a confined entry permit are generally required.

87805 - Sheet Metal Duct Installers

Install prefabricated sheet metal ducts used for heating, air conditioning, or other purposes in buildings and similar structures.

87808 - Roofers

Cover roofs of structures with slate, asphalt, aluminum, wood, and related materials using brushes, knives, punches, hammers, and other tools. May spray roofs, sidings, and walls with material to bind, seal, insulate, or soundproof sections of structures.

87811 - Glaziers

Install glass in windows, skylights, store fronts, and display cases, or on surfaces such as building fronts, interior walls, ceilings, and tabletops. Exclude Glaziers who work primarily on production lines.

87814 - Structural Metal Workers

Raise, place, and unite girders, columns, and other structural steel members to form completed structures or structural frameworks. Include workers who erect metal storage tanks and assemble prefabricated metal buildings. Exclude reinforcing metal workers.

87817 - Fence Erectors

Erect and repair metal and wooden fences and fence gates around highways, industrial establishments, residences, or farms, using hand and power tools.

87899 - All Other Construction Trades Workers

All other construction trades workers not classified separately above.

Extractive and Related Occupations, Including Blasters

87902 - Earth Drillers, Except Oil and Gas

Operate a variety of drills to tap sub-surface water and salt deposits, to remove core samples during mineral exploration or soil testing, and to facilitate the use of explosives in mining or construction. Include Core, Well, and Foundation Drill Operators and Horizontal and Earth Boring Machine Operators. Exclude Oil Well Drillers.

87905 - Blasters and Explosives Workers

Place explosives in holes or other spots and detonate the explosives to demolish structures or to loosen, remove, or displace earth, rock, or other materials. Include Tier-Detonator Blasters, Perforator Operators, and Seismograph Shooters.

87908 - Rock Splitters, Quarry

Separate blocks of rough dimension stone from quarry mass using jackhammer, wedges, and feathers.

87911 - Rotary Drill Operators, Oil and Gas Extraction

Set up or operate a variety of drills to remove petroleum products from the earth and to remove core samples for testing during oil and gas exploration. Include Core and Rotary Drillers and Well and Prospecting Drillers.

87914 - Derrick Operators, Oil and Gas Extraction

Rig derrick equipment and operate pumps to circulate mud through drill hole.

87917 - Service Unit Operators

Operate equipment to increase oil flow from producing wells or to remove stuck pipe, casing, tools, or other obstructions from drilling wells. Include Fishing-Tool Technicians.

87921 - Roustabouts

Perform a variety of assigned tasks in or around an oil field such as assembling or repairing equipment, digging drainage trenches, and loading/unloading trucks.

87923 - Roof Bolters

Operate self-propelled machine to install roof support bolts in underground mine.

87941 - Continuous Mining Machine Operators

Operate self-propelled mining machines that rip coal, metal and nonmetal ores, rock, stone, or sand from the face and load it onto conveyors or into shuttle cars in a continuous operation.

87943 - Mine Cutting and Channeling Machine Operators

Operate machines that cut or channel along the face or seams of coal mines, stone quarries, or other mining surfaces to facilitate blasting, separating, or removing minerals or materials from mines or from the earth's surface. Include Shale Planers.

87949 - All Other Mining Machine Operators

All other mining machine operators not classified separately above.

87989 - All Other Extractive Workers, Except Helpers

All other extractive workers, except helpers, not classified separately above.

87999 - All Other Construction and Extractive Workers, Except Helpers

All other construction and extractive workers, except helpers, not classified separately above.

Precision Production Occupations

Precision Metal Occupations

89102 - Tool and Die Makers

Analyze specifications, lay out metal stock, set up and operate machine tools, and fit and assemble parts to make and repair dies, cutting tools, jigs, fixtures, gauges, and machinist's hand tools. Include Paper Die Maker and Die Sinker. Exclude Die Setters.

89105 - Precision Instrument Makers

Fabricate, modify, or repair mechanical instruments or mechanical assemblies of electrical or electronic instruments, such as chronometric timing devices, thermostats, seismographs, and servomechanisms. Set up and operate machine tools to remodel electrical and electronic instruments used in electrical logging, sub-surface surveying, and other oil, gas, or borehole prospecting, testing, and servicing operations.

89108 - Machinists

Set up and operate variety of machine tools. Fit and assemble parts to make or repair machine tools and maintain industrial machines, applying knowledge of mechanics, shop mathematics, metal properties, layout, and machining procedures. Study specifications, such as blueprints, sketch, or description of part to be replaced, and plan sequence of operations.

89111 - Tool Grinders, Filers, Sharpeners, and Other Precision Grinders

Perform such operations as precision smoothing, sharpening, polishing, and grinding of metal objects by the wearing action of abrasive materials or machine files. Include Tool, Cylinder, and Card Grinders and Grinder Operators, Saw Filers, and Filer-Finishers.

89114 - Pattern and Model Makers, Metal

Patternmakers, Metal: Lay out, machine, fit, and assemble castings and parts to metal foundry patterns, core boxes, and match plates using hand and machine tools. Analyze specifications according to knowledge of patternmaking methods. Include Plastic Patternmakers. Model Makers: Set up and operate machines such as model maker's lathe, milling and engraving machines, and jig borers to make working models of metal or plastic objects. Include Template Makers. Exclude Jewelry Pattern and Model Makers. Exclude workers who do not work primarily with metal and plastic but work with other material or a combination of materials.

89117 - Precision Lay-Out Workers, Metal

Lay out reference points and dimensions on metal stock or workpieces, such as sheets, plates, tubes, structural shapes, castings, or machine parts, for further processing, such as machining, fabricating, welding, and assembling.

89121 - Shipfitters

Lay out and fabricate metal structural parts, such as plates, bulkheads, and frames. Brace them in position within hull of ship for riveting or welding. May prepare molds and templates for fabrication of nonstandard parts.

89123 - Jewelers and Silversmiths

Jewelers: Fabricate, adjust, or repair jewelry. Silversmiths: Design, assemble, decorate, or repair silver articles. May specialize in one or more areas of the jewelry field, such as repairing, selling, or appraising. Exclude workers who perform a specialized operation such as fancy wire drawing.

89126 - Precision Hand Workers, Jewelry and Related Products

Perform such operations as precision casting and modeling of molds, casting metal in molds, and setting precious and semi-precious stones for jewelry, silverware, plateware, ornamental figurines, trophies, and plaques. May make gold or silver chains and cut designs or lines in jewelry. Workers in these categories usually use hand tools or small cutting machines. Include Pearl Restorers, Jewelry Bench Hands, and Solderers.

89128 - Precision Etchers and Engravers, Hand or Machine

Engrave or etch flat or curved metal, wood, rubber, or other materials by hand or machine for printing, identification, or decorative purposes. Include Etchers and Engravers of both hard and soft metals or materials, and Jewelry and Seal Engravers. Exclude Photoengravers, Pantographers, and Glass Etchers and Engravers.

89132 - Sheet Metal Workers

Fabricate, assemble, install, and repair sheet metal products and equipment, such as control boxes, drainpipes, and furnace casings. Work may involve any of the following: Set up and operate fabricating machines to cut, bend, and straighten sheet metal; shape metal over anvils, blocks, or forms using hammer; operate soldering and welding equipment to join sheet metal parts; inspect, assemble, and smooth seams and joints of burred surfaces.

89135 - Boilermakers

Construct, assemble, maintain, and repair stationary steam boilers and boiler house auxiliaries. Align structures or plate sections to assemble boiler frame tanks or vats, following blueprints. Work involves use of hand and power tools, plumb bobs, levels, wedges, dogs, or turnbuckles. Assist in testing assembled vessels. Direct cleaning of boilers and boiler furnaces. Inspect and repair boiler fittings, such as safety valves, regulators, automatic-control mechanisms, water columns, and auxiliary machines.

89199 - All Other Precision Metal Workers

All other precision metal workers not classified separately above.

Precision Woodworkers

89302 - Pattern and Model Makers, Wood

Patternmakers, Wood: Plan, lay out, and construct wooden unit or sectional patterns used in forming sand molds for castings, according to blueprint specifications. Work involves use of hand and power tools. Model Makers, Wood: Construct full-size and scale wooden precision models of products such as boats, automobiles, household appliances, aircraft, and machinery, using hand tools, measuring instruments, and woodworking machines. Include Wood Jig Builders and Loft Workers.

89305 - Pattern Markers, Wood

Lay out outline of frames and furniture parts on wood stock to guide machine operators working from blueprints, job orders, or models.

89308 - Wood Machinists

Set up and operate a variety of woodworking machines to surface, cut, and shape lumber, and to fabricate parts for wood products, such as door and window frames, furniture, and sashes, according to specifications. Exclude workers primarily concerned with one or a limited number of machine phases and report them according to their specialty.

89311 - Cabinetmakers and Bench Carpenters

Cut, shape, and assemble wooden articles, such as store fixtures, office equipment, cabinets, and high grade furniture. Set up and operate variety of machines, such as power saws, jointers, mortisers, tenoners, molders, and shapers, to cut and shape parts from wood stock. Exclude workers primarily concerned with one or a limited number of machine phases and report them according to their specialty.

89314 - Furniture Finishers

Shape, finish, and refinish damaged, worn, or used furniture or new high-grade furniture to specified color or finish, utilizing knowledge of wood properties, finishes, and furniture style.

89399 - All Other Precision Woodworkers

All other precision woodworkers not classified separately above.

Precision Textile, Apparel, and Furnishings Occupations

89502 - Fabric and Apparel Patternmakers and Lay-Out Workers

Draw and construct sets of precision master patterns or layouts. Mark and cut fabrics and apparel according to blueprints or specifications.

89505 - Custom Tailors and Sewers

Design and make tailored garments, applying knowledge of garment design, construction, styling, and fabric. Alter, repair, or fit made-to-measure or ready-to-wear garments, sewing by hand or machine.

89508 - Upholsterers

Make, repair, and replace upholstery for household furniture or transportation vehicles, using knowledge of fabrics and methods of upholstery. Include workers in both manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries. Exclude workers who perform a specialized operation such as Sewing Machine Operators, Assemblers, and Hand Cutters and Trimmers.

89511 - Shoe and Leather Workers and Repairers, Precision

Construct, decorate, or repair precision leather products, such as luggage, shoes, and saddles, using machines and hand tools. Include workers who work with leather-like materials when process is similar.

89514 - Spotters, Dry-Cleaning

Identify stains in wool, synthetic, and silk garments and household fabrics and apply chemical solutions to remove stain. Determine spotting procedures on basis of type of fabric and nature of stain.

89517 - Pressers, Delicate Fabrics

Press dry-cleaned and wet-cleaned silk and synthetic fiber garments by hand or machine, applying knowledge of fabrics and heat to produce high quality finish. Finish pleated or fancy garments, normally by hand.

89521 - Precision Dyers

Change or restore the color of articles, such as garments, drapes, and slipcovers, by means of dyes. Work requires knowledge of the composition of the textiles being dyed or restored; the chemical properties of bleaches and dyes; and their effects upon such textiles. Include Rug Dyers.

89599 - All Other Precision Textile, Apparel, and Furnishings Workers

All other precision textile, apparel, and furnishings workers not classified separately above.

Precision Printing Occupations

89702 - Hand Compositors and Typesetters

Set up and arrange type by hand. Assemble and lock setup of type, cuts, and headings. Pull proofs. Exclude Phototypesetters or other workers concerned with typesetting by electronic or word processing methods.

89705 - Job Printers

Set type according to copy. Operate cylinder or automatic platen press to print job order. Read proof for errors and clarity of impression, and correct imperfections. Job printers are often found in small establishments where work combines several job skills, such as typesetting, printing, reading, and selecting of materials to reproduce copy.

89706 - Paste-Up Workers

Arrange and mount typeset material and illustrations into paste-up for printing reproduction, based on artist's or editor's layout.

89707 - Electronic Pagination System Operators

Using a computer screen, call up type and art elements from computer memory and position them into a completed page, using knowledge of type styles and size and composition patterns. The composited page is then transmitted for production into film or directly into plates.

89712 - Photoengravers

Photograph copy, develop negatives, and prepare photosensitized metal plates for use in letterpress and gravure printing. Include photoengraving specialists such as Printers, Etchers, Finishers, and Proofers.

89713 - Camera Operators

Operate process, line, halftone, or color separation cameras and related darkroom equipment to photograph and develop negatives of material to be printed.

89715 - Scanner Operators

Operate electronic or computerized scanning equipment to produce and screen film separations of photographs or art for use in producing lithographic printing plates. Evaluate and correct for deficiencies in the film.

89717 - Strippers

Cut and arrange film into flats (layout sheets resembling a film negative of text in its final form) which are used to make plates. Prepare separate flat for each color.

89718 - Platemakers

Produce printing plates by exposing sensitized metal sheets to special light through a photographic negative. May operate machines that process plates automatically.

89719 - All Other Lithography and Photoengraving Workers

All other lithography and photoengraving workers not classified separately above.

89721 - Bookbinders

Cut, saw, and glue component parts to bind new books. Perform other finishing operations, such as grooving, decorating, and lettering. Primarily use hand tools but may also employ other precision processing methods or new technology. This occupation normally requires an apprenticeship program (usually 2 years or more) or equivalent training and more extensive experience than that of bindery workers. Exclude Book Repairers.

89799 - All Other Precision Printing Workers

All other precision printing workers not classified separately above.

Precision Food Occupations

89802 - Slaughterers and Butchers

Work in a slaughtering or meat packing establishment to prepare meat for sale by performing precision tasks such as stunning, skinning and trimming; cutting standard cuts of meat for marketing; cleaning and salting hides; making sausage; preparing meats for salting; and wrapping meats.

89805 - Bakers, Manufacturing

Mix and bake ingredients according to recipes to produce breads, pastries, and other baked goods. Goods are produced in large quantities for sale through establishments such as grocery stores. Generally, high volume production equipment is used.

89808 - Food Batchmakers

Set up and operate equipment that mixes, blends, or cooks ingredients used in the manufacturing of food products, according to formulas or recipes. May modify or reformulate recipes to produce products of specific flavor, texture, and color. This occupation requires at least 1 year (and often more) of training or experience. Include Candy Makers, Almond Paste Mixers, Cheese Makers, Flavorings Compounders, and Honey Graders and Blenders.

89899 - All Other Precision Food and Tobacco Workers

All other precision food and tobacco workers not classified separately above.

Other Precision Occupations

89902 - Precision Foundry Mold and Coremakers

Make and form wax or sand cores and molds used in the production of metal castings in foundries. Work involves using hand and power tools and applying knowledge of variables such as metal characteristics, molding sand, contour of patterns, reinforcing, and pouring procedures.

89905 - Precision Molders, Shapers, Casters, and Carvers, Except Jewelry and Foundry

Mold, shape, cast, or carve products consisting of clay, glass, plaster, concrete, and stone, or combinations of materials into semi-finished or finished products.

89908 - Precision Patternmakers, Model Makers, Lay-Out Workers, and Cutters

Construct patterns and models for use in forming products composed of single materials (except metal, plastic, wood, or textiles) or a combination of materials. Exclude workers who work with metal, plastic, wood, or textiles only.

89911 - Precision Detail Design Decorators and Painters

Design or decorate articles such as jewelry, furniture, glassware, pottery, or toys with paints, lacquers, enamels, shellac, or gilt. Types of processes include painting, carving, printing, drawing, artistic lettering, decorative screen making, advertising layout, and detail design of forms. Include Screen or Stencil Printers and Setters, Layout Formers, Gilders, Luster Applicators, and Tile Decorators. Exclude professional Artists and Designers and workers concerned with developing, coloring, and retouching photographs.

89914 - Precision Photographic Process Workers

Perform precision work involved in photographic processing, such as retouching photographic negatives and prints to stress specific features or identifying characteristics of subjects. Restore damaged and faded photographs. Color or shade drawings to create photographic likenesses using an airbrush. May also color photographs using oil colors, to produce natural, lifelike appearances according to specifications.

89917 - Precision Optical Goods Workers

Cut, grind, and polish eyeglasses, contact lenses, or other precision optical elements according to prescription or other specifications. Assemble and mount lenses into frames and process other optical elements according to specifications. Work usually involves the use of precision machines and instruments. Include Precision Lens Polishers or Grinders, Centerer-Edgers, and Lens Mounters.

89921 - Precision Dental Laboratory Technicians

Construct and repair full or partial dentures or dental appliances or apparatus, following prescriptions or specifications of Dentists or Orthodontists. May also provide analytical and diagnostic services. Include Dental Ceramists, Crown and Bridge Technicians, and Orthodontic Technicians. Exclude Assistants, Bite-Block Makers, Opaquers, and Denture and Coiler Packers.

89923 - Medical Appliance Makers

Construct, fit, maintain, and repair medical supportive devices, such as braces, artificial limbs, and arch supports, and other surgical and medical appliances, following the prescriptions and specifications of Orthotists, Prosthetists, or Podiatrists. May instruct patients in the use of the device.

89926 - Gem and Diamond Workers

Select, split, saw, cut, shape, polish, or drill gems and diamonds used in jewelry or for tools and industrial purposes. Work involves using measuring instruments, machines, or hand tools. Include Diamond Die Polishers and Gem Cutters.

89999 - All Other Precision Workers

All other precision workers not classified separately above.

1998 Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

1998 National Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

1998 State Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

1998 Metropolitan Area Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

Technical Notes and Survey Method and Reliability Statement for 1998 OES Estimates

Last modified: October 16, 2001