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Occupational Employment and Wage Statistics
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Occupational Employment and Wages, May 2021

51-4051 Metal-Refining Furnace Operators and Tenders

Operate or tend furnaces, such as gas, oil, coal, electric-arc or electric induction, open-hearth, or oxygen furnaces, to melt and refine metal before casting or to produce specified types of steel. Excludes “Heat Treating Equipment Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Metal and Plastic” (51-4191).


National estimates for Metal-Refining Furnace Operators and Tenders
Industry profile for Metal-Refining Furnace Operators and Tenders
Geographic profile for Metal-Refining Furnace Operators and Tenders

National estimates for Metal-Refining Furnace Operators and Tenders:

Employment estimate and mean wage estimates for Metal-Refining Furnace Operators and Tenders:

Employment (1) Employment
RSE (3)
Mean hourly
wage
Mean annual
wage (2)
Wage RSE (3)
15,540 2.6 % $ 22.33 $ 46,440 0.6 %

Percentile wage estimates for Metal-Refining Furnace Operators and Tenders:

Percentile 10% 25% 50%
(Median)
75% 90%
Hourly Wage $ 14.45 $ 17.89 $ 22.45 $ 28.00 $ 29.82
Annual Wage (2) $ 30,060 $ 37,200 $ 46,690 $ 58,240 $ 62,020


Industry profile for Metal-Refining Furnace Operators and Tenders:

Industries with the highest published employment and wages for Metal-Refining Furnace Operators and Tenders are provided. For a list of all industries with employment in Metal-Refining Furnace Operators and Tenders, see the Create Customized Tables function.

Industries with the highest levels of employment in Metal-Refining Furnace Operators and Tenders:

Industry Employment (1) Percent of industry employment Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage (2)
Foundries 3,360 3.33 $ 19.88 $ 41,360
Iron and Steel Mills and Ferroalloy Manufacturing 3,210 4.11 $ 24.52 $ 51,000
Nonferrous Metal (except Aluminum) Production and Processing 3,190 5.76 $ 22.56 $ 46,920
Alumina and Aluminum Production and Processing 2,120 3.85 $ 23.20 $ 48,260
Machinery Manufacturing (3331, 3332, 3334, and 3339 only) 580 0.08 $ 24.53 $ 51,020

Industries with the highest concentration of employment in Metal-Refining Furnace Operators and Tenders:

Industry Employment (1) Percent of industry employment Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage (2)
Nonferrous Metal (except Aluminum) Production and Processing 3,190 5.76 $ 22.56 $ 46,920
Iron and Steel Mills and Ferroalloy Manufacturing 3,210 4.11 $ 24.52 $ 51,000
Alumina and Aluminum Production and Processing 2,120 3.85 $ 23.20 $ 48,260
Foundries 3,360 3.33 $ 19.88 $ 41,360
Steel Product Manufacturing from Purchased Steel 290 0.55 $ 22.54 $ 46,890

Top paying industries for Metal-Refining Furnace Operators and Tenders:

Industry Employment (1) Percent of industry employment Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage (2)
Commercial and Service Industry Machinery Manufacturing 40 0.05 $ 30.44 $ 63,320
Machinery Manufacturing (3331, 3332, 3334, and 3339 only) 580 0.08 $ 24.53 $ 51,020
Iron and Steel Mills and Ferroalloy Manufacturing 3,210 4.11 $ 24.52 $ 51,000
Machine Shops; Turned Product; and Screw, Nut, and Bolt Manufacturing 110 0.03 $ 23.29 $ 48,440
Alumina and Aluminum Production and Processing 2,120 3.85 $ 23.20 $ 48,260


Geographic profile for Metal-Refining Furnace Operators and Tenders:

States and areas with the highest published employment, location quotients, and wages for Metal-Refining Furnace Operators and Tenders are provided. For a list of all areas with employment in Metal-Refining Furnace Operators and Tenders, see the Create Customized Tables function.



Map of employment of metal-refining furnace operators and tenders by state, May 2021


States with the highest employment level in Metal-Refining Furnace Operators and Tenders:

State Employment (1) Employment per thousand jobs Location quotient (9) Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage (2)
Indiana 1,580 0.53 4.80 $ 22.92 $ 47,670
Pennsylvania 1,270 0.23 2.07 $ 23.49 $ 48,850
Alabama 1,210 0.63 5.67 $ 17.43 $ 36,250
Wisconsin 1,040 0.38 3.42 $ 23.37 $ 48,620
Michigan 990 0.24 2.22 $ 19.49 $ 40,540


Map of location quotient of metal-refining furnace operators and tenders by state, May 2021


States with the highest concentration of jobs and location quotients in Metal-Refining Furnace Operators and Tenders:

State Employment (1) Employment per thousand jobs Location quotient (9) Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage (2)
Alabama 1,210 0.63 5.67 $ 17.43 $ 36,250
Indiana 1,580 0.53 4.80 $ 22.92 $ 47,670
West Virginia 320 0.49 4.44 $ 25.30 $ 52,620
Wisconsin 1,040 0.38 3.42 $ 23.37 $ 48,620
Iowa 420 0.28 2.54 $ 24.55 $ 51,060


Map of annual mean wages of metal-refining furnace operators and tenders by state, May 2021


Top paying states for Metal-Refining Furnace Operators and Tenders:

State Employment (1) Employment per thousand jobs Location quotient (9) Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage (2)
South Carolina 280 0.13 1.21 $ 34.97 $ 72,740
Utah 320 0.20 1.85 $ 27.60 $ 57,410
Washington 270 0.08 0.76 $ 27.16 $ 56,500
Minnesota 240 0.09 0.80 $ 26.12 $ 54,320
West Virginia 320 0.49 4.44 $ 25.30 $ 52,620



Map of employment of metal-refining furnace operators and tenders by area, May 2021


Metropolitan areas with the highest employment level in Metal-Refining Furnace Operators and Tenders:

Metropolitan area Employment (1) Employment per thousand jobs Location quotient (9) Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage (2)
Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI 880 0.21 1.89 $ 25.56 $ 53,170
Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI 460 0.25 2.30 $ 20.65 $ 42,950
Birmingham-Hoover, AL 390 0.81 7.33 $ 16.21 $ 33,710
Pittsburgh, PA 340 0.33 3.00 $ 23.68 $ 49,250
Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis, WI 290 0.36 3.31 $ 23.41 $ 48,690
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA 230 0.04 0.36 $ 24.02 $ 49,960
St. Louis, MO-IL 220 0.17 1.55 $ 21.67 $ 45,080
Reading, PA 210 1.31 11.88 $ 27.59 $ 57,380
Youngstown-Warren-Boardman, OH-PA 200 1.02 9.20 $ 18.53 $ 38,550
Cleveland-Elyria, OH 190 0.20 1.83 $ 20.77 $ 43,200


Map of location quotient of metal-refining furnace operators and tenders by area, May 2021


Metropolitan areas with the highest concentration of jobs and location quotients in Metal-Refining Furnace Operators and Tenders:

Metropolitan area Employment (1) Employment per thousand jobs Location quotient (9) Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage (2)
Muskegon, MI 150 2.57 23.31 $ 20.09 $ 41,790
Weirton-Steubenville, WV-OH 60 1.57 14.22 $ 27.24 $ 56,660
Reading, PA 210 1.31 11.88 $ 27.59 $ 57,380
Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville, AL 50 1.23 11.14 $ 16.10 $ 33,490
Columbus, GA-AL 130 1.14 10.32 $ 17.77 $ 36,970
Youngstown-Warren-Boardman, OH-PA 200 1.02 9.20 $ 18.53 $ 38,550
Evansville, IN-KY 130 0.89 8.08 $ 26.40 $ 54,900
Birmingham-Hoover, AL 390 0.81 7.33 $ 16.21 $ 33,710
Canton-Massillon, OH 90 0.58 5.30 $ 22.19 $ 46,160
Green Bay, WI 90 0.56 5.06 $ 25.48 $ 52,990


Map of annual mean wages of metal-refining furnace operators and tenders by area, May 2021


Top paying metropolitan areas for Metal-Refining Furnace Operators and Tenders:

Metropolitan area Employment (1) Employment per thousand jobs Location quotient (9) Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage (2)
Charleston-North Charleston, SC 190 0.55 5.02 $ 35.57 $ 73,990
Salt Lake City, UT 120 0.16 1.42 $ 29.40 $ 61,150
Duluth, MN-WI 40 0.37 3.40 $ 28.27 $ 58,790
Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia, NC-SC 110 0.09 0.80 $ 27.80 $ 57,820
Reading, PA 210 1.31 11.88 $ 27.59 $ 57,380
Weirton-Steubenville, WV-OH 60 1.57 14.22 $ 27.24 $ 56,660
Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro, OR-WA 140 0.13 1.16 $ 26.90 $ 55,950
Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI 150 0.08 0.76 $ 26.80 $ 55,750
Evansville, IN-KY 130 0.89 8.08 $ 26.40 $ 54,900
Syracuse, NY 70 0.24 2.17 $ 25.72 $ 53,500

Nonmetropolitan areas with the highest employment in Metal-Refining Furnace Operators and Tenders:

Nonmetropolitan area Employment (1) Employment per thousand jobs Location quotient (9) Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage (2)
South Central Wisconsin nonmetropolitan area 220 1.10 9.97 $ 23.60 $ 49,090
Southeast Iowa nonmetropolitan area 170 0.83 7.53 $ 22.24 $ 46,250
Northern Indiana nonmetropolitan area 170 0.83 7.54 $ 19.06 $ 39,640
Balance of Lower Peninsula of Michigan nonmetropolitan area 120 0.49 4.46 $ 16.42 $ 34,160
Central Indiana nonmetropolitan area 120 0.82 7.44 $ 19.02 $ 39,560

Nonmetropolitan areas with the highest concentration of jobs and location quotients in Metal-Refining Furnace Operators and Tenders:

Nonmetropolitan area Employment (1) Employment per thousand jobs Location quotient (9) Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage (2)
South Central Wisconsin nonmetropolitan area 220 1.10 9.97 $ 23.60 $ 49,090
Western Pennsylvania nonmetropolitan area 120 0.84 7.66 $ 20.70 $ 43,050
Northern Indiana nonmetropolitan area 170 0.83 7.54 $ 19.06 $ 39,640
Southeast Iowa nonmetropolitan area 170 0.83 7.53 $ 22.24 $ 46,250
Central Indiana nonmetropolitan area 120 0.82 7.44 $ 19.02 $ 39,560

Top paying nonmetropolitan areas for Metal-Refining Furnace Operators and Tenders:

Nonmetropolitan area Employment (1) Employment per thousand jobs Location quotient (9) Hourly mean wage Annual mean wage (2)
Capital/Northern New York nonmetropolitan area 50 0.35 3.14 $ 26.42 $ 54,960
Southern Pennsylvania nonmetropolitan area 60 0.34 3.11 $ 25.64 $ 53,340
South Central Wisconsin nonmetropolitan area 220 1.10 9.97 $ 23.60 $ 49,090
Northern Pennsylvania nonmetropolitan area 90 0.60 5.45 $ 23.33 $ 48,520
Eastern Ohio nonmetropolitan area 80 0.60 5.47 $ 22.49 $ 46,780


About May 2021 National, State, Metropolitan, and Nonmetropolitan Area Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

These estimates are calculated with data collected from employers in all industry sectors, all metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas, and all states and the District of Columbia. The top employment and wage figures are provided above. The complete list is available in the downloadable XLS files.

The percentile wage estimate is the value of a wage below which a certain percent of workers fall. The median wage is the 50th percentile wage estimate—50 percent of workers earn less than the median and 50 percent of workers earn more than the median. More about percentile wages.


(1) Estimates for detailed occupations do not sum to the totals because the totals include occupations not shown separately. Estimates do not include self-employed workers.

(2) Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a "year-round, full-time" hours figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations where there is not an hourly wage published, the annual wage has been directly calculated from the reported survey data.

(3) The relative standard error (RSE) is a measure of the reliability of a survey statistic. The smaller the relative standard error, the more precise the estimate.

(9) The location quotient is the ratio of the area concentration of occupational employment to the national average concentration. A location quotient greater than one indicates the occupation has a higher share of employment than average, and a location quotient less than one indicates the occupation is less prevalent in the area than average.


Other OEWS estimates and related information:

May 2021 National Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

May 2021 State Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

May 2021 Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Area Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

May 2021 National Industry-Specific Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates

May 2021 Occupation Profiles

Technical Notes

 

Last Modified Date: March 31, 2022