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Hawaii had the highest rate of union membership in 2022

February 13, 2023

Hawaii had the highest rate of union membership in 2022, at 21.9 percent, followed by New York at 20.7 percent and Washington at 18.0 percent of employment.  The rate of union membership for the United States was 10.1 percent in 2022, down from 10.3 percent in 2021. 

 Union membership of employed wage and salary workers by state, 2002 to 2022 annual averages
State 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Total US

13.3% 12.9% 12.5% 12.5% 12.0% 12.1% 12.4% 12.3% 11.9% 11.8% 11.3% 11.3% 11.1% 11.1%

Alabama

9.1 8.1 9.7 10.2 8.8 9.5 9.8 10.9 10.1 10.0 9.2 10.7 10.8 10.2

Alaska

24.4 22.3 20.1 22.8 22.2 23.8 23.5 22.3 22.9 22.1 22.4 23.1 22.8 19.6

Arizona

5.5 5.2 6.3 6.1 7.6 8.8 8.8 6.5 6.4 6.0 5.1 5.0 5.3 5.2

Arkansas

5.9 4.8 4.8 4.8 5.1 5.4 5.9 4.2 4.0 4.2 3.2 3.5 4.7 5.1

California

17.5 16.8 16.5 16.5 15.7 16.7 18.4 17.2 17.5 17.1 17.2 16.4 16.3 15.9

Colorado

7.9 7.8 8.4 8.3 7.7 8.7 8.0 7.0 6.6 8.2 7.8 7.6 9.5 8.4

Connecticut

16.8 15.4 15.3 15.9 15.6 15.6 16.9 17.3 16.7 16.8 14.0 13.5 14.8 17.0

Delaware

10.9 11.4 12.4 11.8 10.8 12.0 13.4 11.9 11.4 10.5 10.4 10.3 9.9 9.2

District of Columbia

13.9 14.6 12.7 11.3 10.3 10.3 12.2 10.4 9.0 8.3 8.6 9.3 8.6 10.4

Florida

5.7 6.1 6.0 5.4 5.2 5.9 6.4 5.8 5.6 6.3 5.8 5.4 5.7 6.8

Georgia

6.0 6.7 6.4 5.0 4.4 4.4 3.7 4.6 4.0 3.9 4.4 5.3 4.3 4.0

Hawaii

24.5 23.8 23.7 25.8 24.7 23.4 24.3 23.5 21.8 21.5 21.6 22.1 21.8 20.4

Idaho

6.9 7.0 5.8 5.2 6.0 5.3 7.1 6.3 7.1 5.1 4.8 4.7 5.3 6.8

Illinois

19.6 17.9 16.8 16.9 16.4 14.5 16.6 17.5 15.5 16.2 14.6 15.8 15.1 15.2

Indiana

13.4 11.8 11.4 12.4 12.0 12.0 12.4 10.6 10.9 11.3 9.1 9.3 10.7 10.0

Iowa

11.1 11.5 10.5 11.5 11.3 10.5 10.6 11.1 11.4 11.2 10.4 10.1 10.7 9.6

Kansas

8.2 7.9 8.4 7.0 8.0 7.0 7.0 6.2 6.8 7.6 6.8 7.5 7.4 8.7

Kentucky

10.1 10.4 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.1 8.6 8.6 8.9 8.9 10.0 11.2 11.0 11.0

Louisiana

8.4 6.5 7.6 6.4 6.4 5.6 4.6 5.8 4.3 4.5 6.2 4.3 5.2 5.8

Maine

13.0 12.8 11.3 11.9 11.9 11.7 12.3 11.7 11.6 11.3 11.5 11.1 11.0 11.6

Maryland

14.4 14.3 10.9 13.3 13.1 12.9 12.6 12.6 11.6 12.4 10.6 11.6 11.9 10.4

Massachusetts

14.2 14.2 13.5 13.9 14.5 13.2 15.7 16.6 14.5 14.6 14.4 13.7 13.7 12.9

Michigan

21.0 21.9 21.6 20.5 19.6 19.5 18.8 18.8 16.5 17.5 16.6 16.3 14.5 15.2

Minnesota

17.6 17.0 17.5 15.7 16.0 16.3 16.1 15.1 15.6 15.1 14.2 14.3 14.2 14.2

Mississippi

6.7 5.0 4.8 7.1 5.6 6.7 5.3 4.8 4.5 5.0 4.3 3.7 3.7 5.4

Missouri

13.2 13.2 12.4 11.5 10.9 10.7 11.2 9.4 9.9 10.9 8.9 8.6 8.4 8.8

Montana

14.2 14.0 11.7 10.7 12.2 13.5 12.2 13.9 12.7 13.0 13.9 13.0 12.7 12.2

Nebraska

8.1 7.9 8.3 8.3 7.9 7.8 8.3 9.2 9.3 7.9 6.0 7.3 7.3 7.7

Nevada

15.3 14.4 12.5 13.8 14.8 15.4 16.7 15.7 15.0 14.6 14.7 14.6 14.4 14.3

New Hampshire

9.8 9.3 9.9 10.4 10.1 9.7 10.6 10.8 10.2 11.1 10.5 9.6 9.9 9.7

New Jersey

19.6 19.5 19.8 20.5 20.1 19.2 18.3 19.3 17.1 16.1 16.1 16.0 16.5 15.4

New Mexico

6.8 7.6 6.7 8.1 7.8 7.7 7.2 6.7 7.3 6.8 6.5 6.2 5.7 6.2

New York

25.3 24.6 25.3 26.1 24.4 25.2 24.9 25.2 24.2 24.1 23.2 24.4 24.6 24.7

North Carolina

3.4 3.1 2.7 2.9 3.3 3.0 3.5 3.1 3.2 2.9 2.9 3.0 1.9 3.0

North Dakota

8.2 7.3 7.7 7.3 6.8 6.4 6.1 6.8 7.4 6.3 6.1 6.4 5.0 5.4

Ohio

16.8 16.7 15.2 16.0 14.2 14.1 14.2 14.2 13.7 13.4 12.6 12.6 12.4 12.3

Oklahoma

9.0 6.8 6.1 5.4 6.4 7.1 6.6 5.7 5.5 6.4 7.5 7.5 6.0 5.6

Oregon

15.5 15.7 15.2 14.5 13.8 14.3 16.6 17.0 16.2 17.1 15.7 13.9 15.6 14.8

Pennsylvania

15.6 15.1 15.0 13.8 13.6 15.1 15.4 15.0 14.7 14.6 13.5 12.7 12.7 13.3

Rhode Island

17.3 17.0 16.3 15.9 15.3 15.0 16.5 17.9 16.4 17.4 17.8 16.9 15.1 14.2

South Carolina

4.9 4.2 3.0 2.3 3.3 4.1 3.9 4.5 4.6 3.4 3.3 3.7 2.2 2.1

South Dakota

5.6 5.4 6.0 5.9 5.9 6.5 5.0 5.5 5.6 5.1 5.6 4.8 4.9 5.9

Tennessee

9.1 7.5 6.7 5.4 6.0 5.3 5.5 5.1 4.7 4.6 4.8 6.1 5.0 5.4

Texas

5.1 5.6 5.0 5.3 4.9 4.7 4.5 5.1 5.4 5.2 5.7 4.8 4.8 4.5

Utah

6.3 5.2 5.8 4.9 5.4 5.8 5.8 6.9 6.5 5.8 5.2 3.9 3.7 3.9

Vermont

9.6 9.7 9.8 10.8 11.0 10.4 10.4 12.3 11.8 12.0 10.7 10.9 11.1 12.6

Virginia

6.0 6.5 5.3 4.8 4.0 3.7 4.1 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.4 5.0 4.9 5.4

Washington

18.5 19.7 19.3 19.1 19.8 20.2 19.8 20.2 19.4 19.0 18.5 18.9 16.8 16.8

West Virginia

13.3 13.1 14.2 14.4 14.2 13.3 13.8 13.9 14.8 13.8 12.1 12.7 10.6 12.4

Wisconsin

15.6 15.9 16.0 16.1 14.9 14.3 15.0 15.2 14.2 13.3 11.2 12.3 11.7 8.3

Wyoming

7.8 8.0 8.0 7.9 8.3 7.9 7.7 7.7 7.4 7.2 6.7 5.7 6.7 7.1
Union membership of employed wage and salary workers by state, 2012-2022 annual averages
State 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022

Total US

10.7% 10.7% 10.5% 10.3% 10.8% 10.3% 10.1%

Alabama

8.1 7.4 9.2 8.5 8.0 5.9 7.2

Alaska

18.5 18.1 18.5 17.1 17.7 15.8 16.0

Arizona

4.5 4.0 5.3 5.7 5.3 5.4 5.5

Arkansas

3.9 5.1 4.8 5.2 4.7 3.9 4.9

California

15.9 15.5 14.7 15.2 16.2 15.9 16.1

Colorado

9.8 9.6 11.0 9.0 7.4 6.5 6.7

Connecticut

17.5 16.9 16.0 14.5 17.1 14.6 14.2

Delaware

11.4 10.7 10.3 8.7 9.7 9.7 8.5

District of Columbia

9.5 9.8 9.9 9.3 8.6 8.9 9.1

Florida

5.6 5.6 5.6 6.2 6.4 5.2 4.5

Georgia

3.9 4.0 4.5 4.1 4.6 4.8 4.4

Hawaii

19.9 21.3 23.1 23.5 23.7 22.4 21.9

Idaho

6.1 4.8 4.7 4.9 5.6 4.7 4.7

Illinois

14.5 15.0 13.8 13.6 14.3 13.9 13.1

Indiana

10.4 8.9 8.8 8.3 8.3 9.0 7.4

Iowa

8.9 7.0 7.7 6.3 6.6 6.5 7.0

Kansas

8.6 7.8 7.0 8.7 8.9 9.2 9.8

Kentucky

11.1 9.6 8.9 8.0 7.5 7.2 7.9

Louisiana

4.2 4.4 5.0 5.3 5.9 4.7 4.2

Maine

11.4 11.4 12.9 11.8 14.7 12.4 9.2

Maryland

11.0 10.8 11.0 11.3 13.1 11.0 11.6

Massachusetts

12.1 12.4 13.7 12.0 12.0 12.6 12.7

Michigan

14.4 15.6 14.5 13.6 15.2 13.3 14.0

Minnesota

14.2 15.2 15.0 13.7 15.8 16.0 14.2

Mississippi

6.6 5.3 5.1 6.3 7.1 5.5 5.6

Missouri

9.7 8.7 9.4 11.1 9.4 9.0 9.6

Montana

11.9 11.9 11.8 10.5 12.0 11.2 11.2

Nebraska

7.4 8.2 6.6 8.4 9.6 6.8 6.5

Nevada

12.1 12.7 13.9 14.6 13.4 12.2 11.3

New Hampshire

9.4 11.3 10.2 10.3 9.8 10.1 10.1

New Jersey

16.1 16.2 14.9 15.7 16.1 16.2 14.9

New Mexico

6.3 6.7 6.8 7.1 7.1 7.5 8.8

New York

23.6 23.8 22.3 21.0 22.0 22.2 20.7

North Carolina

3.0 3.4 2.7 2.3 3.1 2.6 2.8

North Dakota

5.5 5.1 5.2 6.0 6.2 5.4 6.4

Ohio

12.4 12.5 12.6 11.9 13.2 12.0 12.8

Oklahoma

5.4 5.5 5.7 6.2 6.0 5.6 5.5

Oregon

13.5 14.9 13.9 14.4 16.2 17.8 15.5

Pennsylvania

12.1 12.0 12.6 12.0 13.5 12.9 12.7

Rhode Island

15.5 16.1 17.4 17.4 17.8 15.7 16.1

South Carolina

1.6 2.6 2.7 2.2 2.9 1.7 1.7

South Dakota

5.2 5.4 5.6 5.6 4.3 4.0 3.1

Tennessee

5.7 5.7 5.5 4.6 4.4 5.2 5.5

Texas

4.0 4.7 4.3 4.0 4.9 3.8 4.1

Utah

4.7 3.9 4.1 4.4 3.7 3.5 3.9

Vermont

11.5 11.0 10.5 11.2 11.8 12.3 12.1

Virginia

4.3 4.6 4.3 4.0 4.4 4.8 3.7

Washington

17.4 18.8 19.8 18.8 17.4 19.0 18.0

West Virginia

11.8 11.0 10.0 10.2 10.7 9.6 9.2

Wisconsin

8.1 8.3 8.1 8.1 8.7 7.9 7.1

Wyoming

6.3 6.0 6.5 7.3 7.6 5.7 5.6

The states with the lowest rates of union membership in 2022 were South Carolina (1.7 percent), North Carolina (2.8 percent), and South Dakota (3.1 percent). 

Thirty states and the District of Columbia had union membership rates below that of the 2022 U.S. average, 10.1 percent, while 19 states had rates above it and 1 state (New Hampshire) had the same rate.

These data are from the Current Population Survey. To learn more, see “Union Members — 2022.” The union membership rate is calculated by dividing the number of union members by the number of wage and salary workers. Union membership data do not include self-employed workers.

SUGGESTED CITATION

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, The Economics Daily, Hawaii had the highest rate of union membership in 2022 at https://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2023/hawaii-had-the-highest-rate-of-union-membership-in-2022.htm (visited February 23, 2024).

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