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Bureau of Labor Statistics > Productivity > Publications > Articles and Research

Total Factor Productivity Articles

Articles analyzing changes in output per combined input of labor and capital—a measure of economic performance and efficiency—in broad sectors of the U.S. economy and detailed industries, over business cycles and longer-term periods. For different topics see Articles and Research

The BLS Productivity program replaced the term multifactor productivity (MFP) with total factor productivity (TFP) beginning with the 2020 data release. This was a change in terminology only and does not affect the data or methodology. The use of the term total factor productivity will improve the visibility and accessibility of our data and was accompanied by changes to the BLS website and future productivity news releases.


Business-cycle and productivity-trend

Contributions to productivity growth

  • Industry contributions to productivity growth in U.S. manufacturing: an application of alternative output concepts. September 2023.
  • Contributions of manufacturing industries to private nonfarm business multifactor productivity. April 2019 (PDF)
  • Sources of Growth in Real Output in the Private Business Sector, 1987-2018. March 2019 (PDF)
  • Sources of Growth in Real Output in the Private Nonfarm Business Sector, 1987-2018. March 2019 (PDF)
  • Nonmanufacturing Industry Contributions to Multifactor Productivity, 1987–2006. June 2010. (PDF)
  • Effects of Imported Intermediate Inputs on Productivity. June 2010. (PDF)
  • Sources of Growth in Real Output in the Private Nonfarm Business Sector, 1987-2007. May 2008 (PDF)
  • The Effect of Outsourcing and Offshoring on BLS Productivity Measures. March 2004 (PDF)
  • The Impact of Research and Development on Productivity Growth, BLS Bulletin 2331. 1989. (PDF)
  • Labor Composition and U.S. Productivity Growth, 1948-1990. December 1993 (PDF)



  • Multifactor Productivity Slowdown in U.S. Manufacturing. July 2018. (PDF)
  • Multifactor Productivity Measures for three-digit SIC Manufacturing Industries, 1990-99. January 2002 (PDF)
  • Multifactor Productivity Trends in Manufacturing Industries, 1987–96. June 2001. (PDF)
  • Multifactor Productivity Measures for Three-digit SIC Manufacturing Industries. December 2000 (PDF)
  • Multifactor Productivity: Refrigeration and Heating Equipment Industry. May 1997. (PDF)
  • Measurement of Productivity Growth in U.S. Manufacturing. July 1995. (PDF)
  • Manufacturing multifactor productivity in three countries. July 1995 (PDF)
  • Multifactor Productivity: Cotton and Synthetic Broadwoven Fabrics. July 1995. (PDF)
  • Multifactor Productivity in the Metal Stampings Industry. May 1995. (PDF)
  • Multifactor Productivity in Household Furniture. June 1994. (PDF)
  • Multifactor Productivity in Manufacturing Industries. October 1992. (PDF)
  • Multifactor Productivity in the Farm and Garden Equipment Industry. June 1991. (PDF)

Transportation and Warehousing

  • Multifactor Productivity Change in the Air Transportation Industry. March 2005. (PDF)
  • Multifactor Productivity in Railroad Transportation. August 1992. (PDF)


  • Multifactor Productivity in the Utility Services Industries, 1948–88. May 1993. (PDF)