Department of Labor Logo United States Department of Labor
Dot gov

The .gov means it's official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you're on a federal government site.

Https

The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Productivity

Productivity Home Page

The Office of Productivity and Technology (OPT) measures how efficiently the U.S. converts inputs into the outputs of goods and services.  Measures of labor productivity compare the growth in output to the growth in hours worked and measures of total factor productivity (TFP), also known as multifactor productivity (MFP), compare growth in output to the growth in a combination of inputs that include labor, capital, energy, materials, and purchased services.

Notices

  • Revised Total Factor Productivity — 2022 Read More »
  • Updated Experimental Measures for Water, Sewage, and Other Systems Read More »
  • New Experimental Labor Composition Measures for Detailed Industries Read More »

Videos

view more »

Graphics

Chart data are included in the linked page below. Bar chart of labor productivity average annual percent changes in the non farm business sector for business cycles since 1947.

Click the graphic to enlarge chart: Long-term labor productivity in the nonfarm business sector since 1947.

State map of labor productivity, 1-year percent change. Chart data are included in the linked table below.

Click the graphic to enlarge chart: Labor Productivity by State, Percent Change.

Stacked bar graph of the contribution of sources that total labor productivity, total factor productivity, labor composition, capital intensity. Average annual percent changem in in private business sector business cycles. Chart data are included in the linked table below.

Click the graphic to enlarge chart: Contributions to Labor Productivity Growth, Private Nonfarm Business Sector, Selected Time Periods.

Chart data are included in the linked table below. Line graph of labor productivity and real hourly compenstation since 1973, commonly referred to as the wage gap. In log index values with base year 1973.

Click the graphic to enlarge chart: Labor Productivity and Real Hourly Compensation, Nonfarm Business Sector since 1973.

Line graph of detailed industries labor productivity indexes of food and beverage store industries: Beer and wine liquor stores (NAICS 4453), Food and beverage stores (NAICS 445), Grocery stores (NAICS 4451), and Specialty food stores (NAICS 4452).  Chart data are included in the linked table below.

Click the graphic to enlarge chart: Detailed Industries Help Tell the Story, Indexes of Productivity Within Food and Beverage Stores.

read more »

Latest Numbers

RSS
NONFARM BUSINESS SECTOR:

Labor productivity (output per hour) +3.2% in 4th Qtr of 2023 Historical Data

Hourly compensation +3.7% in 4th Qtr of 2023 Historical Data

Unit labor costs +0.5% in 4th Qtr of 2023 Historical Data

Real value-added output +3.7% in 4th Qtr of 2023 Historical Data

Hours worked +0.4% in 4th Qtr of 2023 Historical Data

MANUFACTURING SECTOR:

Labor productivity (output per hour) +2.3% in 4th Qtr of 2023 Historical Data

Hourly compensation +6.6% in 4th Qtr of 2023 Historical Data

Unit labor costs +4.2% in 4th Qtr of 2023 Historical Data

Real sectoral output -2.4% in 4th Qtr of 2023 Historical Data

Hours worked -4.6% in 4th Qtr of 2023 Historical Data

read more »

News Releases

Productivity increases 3.2% in Q4 2023; unit labor costs increase 0.5% (annual rates)

02/01/2024

Productivity increased 3.2 percent in the nonfarm business sector in the fourth quarter of 2023; unit labor costs increased 0.5 percent (seasonally adjusted annual rates). In manufacturing, productivity increased 2.3 percent and unit labor costs increased 4.2 percent.
HTML | PDF | RSS | Charts

Productivity falls in 30 of 46 wholesale and retail trade industries in 2022

05/25/2023

Retail trade productivity decreased 0.4 percent in 2022, the first decline since 2008. Wholesale trade productivity fell 1.2 percent with hours worked growing at a higher rate than output. Unit labor costs grew in both retail trade and wholesale trade.
HTML | PDF | RSS | Charts

Productivity increases in 15 of 30 selected service-providing industries in 2022

06/29/2023

Labor productivity rose in 15 of 30 selected service-providing industries in 2022. Output increased in 18 industries while hours worked rose in 22 industries.
HTML | PDF | RSS | Charts

Productivity falls in 37 states and the District of Columbia in 2022

05/25/2023

Labor productivity declined in 37 states and the District of Columbia in 2022. Output increased in 43 states and the District and hours worked increased in 48 states and the District.
HTML | PDF | RSS | Charts

Productivity falls in 69 of 91 manufacturing and mining industries in 2022

04/27/2023

Labor productivity decreased in 66 of the 86 NAICS 4-digit manufacturing industries and in 3 of the 5 mining industries in 2022. Output rose in 48 of the 91 manufacturing and mining industries while hours worked rose in 79 industries. Forty-one industries increased both output and hours worked.
HTML | PDF | RSS | Charts

Total factor productivity decreases 1.2% in 2022, following a 4.0% increase in 2021

03/23/2023

Total factor productivity decreased 1.2 percent in the private nonfarm business sector in 2022 as output increased 2.3 percent and combined inputs increased 3.6 percent.
HTML | PDF | RSS

Total factor productivity increases in 9 out of 21 major industries in 2022

11/21/2023

In 2022, total factor productivity increased in 9 out of 21 major industries, led by service providing industries.
HTML | PDF | RSS | Charts

Total factor productivity up in 78 of 86 4-digit NAICS manufacturing industries in 2021

08/31/2023

Total factor productivity rose in 78 of 86 4-digit NAICS manufacturing industries in 2021, up from 25 industries in 2020. Among the two measured transportation industries, total factor productivity increased in both air transportation and line-haul railroads.
HTML | PDF | RSS

read more »


Next Releases

Productivity and Costs: Fourth Quarter 2023, Revised is scheduled to be released on March 7, 2024 at 8:30 A.M. Eastern Time.
read more »

Publications

The Economics Daily

The Economics Daily article image

Total factor productivity up in 9 out of 21 major industries in 2022

Total factor productivity rose in 9 out of 21 major industries in 2022. Many of the total factor productivity increases in 2022 were driven by strong output growth outpacing increases in the combined inputs of capital, labor, energy, materials, and services. read more »

Monthly Labor Review

Monthly Labor Review article image

An improved estimate of self-employment hours for quarterly labor productivity

This article describes two adjustments to self-employment hours that will improve quarterly measures of labor productivity. read more »

Spotlight on Statistics

Spotlight on Statistics article image

Spotlight on State Productivity Statistics

This Spotlight looks at some short- and long-term state-level trends for labor productivity, output, and hours worked, and labor compensation. read more »

Beyond the Numbers

Beyond the Numbers article image

Checking out productivity in grocery stores

In this Beyond the Numbers article, we review the timeline for the development and implementation of new retail technologies in grocery stores. Then, check out the shifts in products and services offered by grocery stores over time. Using Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) data, the article looks at the trends in employment and hours to show how all of these factors influenced labor productivity in grocery stores. read more »