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Nonstore Retailers: NAICS 454

About the Nonstore Retailers subsector

The nonstore retailers subsector is part of the retail trade sector.

Industries in the Nonstore Retailers subsector retail merchandise using methods, such as the broadcasting of infomercials, the broadcasting and publishing of direct-response advertising, the publishing of paper and electronic catalogs, door-to-door solicitation, in-home demonstration, selling from portable stalls and distribution through vending machines. Establishments in this subsector include mail-order houses, vending machine operators, home delivery sales, door-to-door sales, party plan sales, electronic shopping, and sales through portable stalls (e.g., street vendors, except food). Establishments engaged in the direct sale (i.e., nonstore) of products, such as home heating oil dealers and newspaper delivery service providers are included in this subsector.

North American Industry Classification System

The nonstore retailers subsector consists of these industry groups:

  • Electronic Shopping and Mail-Order Houses: NAICS 4541
  • Vending Machine Operators: NAICS 4542
  • Direct Selling Establishments: NAICS 4543

Workforce Statistics

This section provides information relating to employment in miscellaneous store retailers. These data are obtained from employer or establishment surveys. The following table presents an overview of the industry including data for occupations common to the industry, and projections of occupational employment change.


For projected (future) employment estimates, see the National Employment Matrix, which includes employment estimates by industry and occupation for nonstore retailers.

(Source: Office of Occupational Statistics and Employment Projections)

Work-related Fatalities, Injuries, and Illnesses

This section presents data for the industry on the number of workplace fatalities and the rates of workplace injuries and illnesses per 100 full-time workers in nonstore retailers. An injury or illness is considered to be work-related if an event or exposure in the work environment either caused or contributed to the resulting condition or significantly aggravated a pre-existing condition.

Data series 2019 2020 2021 2022


Number of fatalities

14 18 16 7

Blank cells indicate no data reported or data that do not meet publication criteria.

Data series 2022

Rate of injury and illness cases per 100 full-time workers

Total recordable cases


Cases involving days away from work, job restriction, or transfer


Cases involving days away from work


Cases involving days of job transfer or restriction


Blank cells indicate no data reported or data that do not meet publication criteria.

(Source: Injuries, Illnesses, and Fatalities)

Workplace Trends

This section presents data on the number of establishments in nonstore retailers. Also included in this section is information on productivity, presented as the rate of change in output per hour of workers in the industry.


Data series Back
1st quarter
2nd quarter
3rd quarter
4th quarter

Number of establishments

Private industry

62,659 64,763 66,871 68,365

Local government

4 4 4 4

State government


Federal government

14 14 14 14

(Source: Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages)


Data series Back
2020 2021 2022 2023

Labor productivity index, output per hour

164.143 174.455 193.514  

Percent change from previous year

32.6 6.3 10.9  

Labor index, total labor hours

100.248 106.206 101.773 99.035

Percent change from previous year

-0.7 5.9 -4.2 -2.7

Output index

164.550 185.282 196.944  

Percent change from previous year

31.7 12.6 6.3  

Unit labor costs index

78.567 81.079 83.166  

Percent change from previous year

-16.9 3.2 2.6  

(Source: Productivity and Costs)


Data extracted on: May 17, 2024